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Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Allen Anaya Application Consultant WM Carroll, LLC Ph: 505-268-6776 Cell: 505-385-7338 Fax: 505-255-1329.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Allen Anaya Application Consultant WM Carroll, LLC Ph: 505-268-6776 Cell: 505-385-7338 Fax: 505-255-1329."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Allen Anaya Application Consultant WM Carroll, LLC Ph: 505-268-6776 Cell: 505-385-7338 Fax: 505-255-1329 E-Mail: Allen@wmcarroll.com 11/16/20101 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems

2 Agenda NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 11/16/20102

3 3 V R F What is VRF? Variable Refrigerant Flow Also referred to as VRV ® – Variable Refrigerant Volume VRV is a registered trademark 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems

4 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 4 1973 – Global oil crises 1979 – New energy efficiency laws passes in Japan 1980 – Chiller design engineers challenged with making a higher efficiency chiller 1982 – The worlds first VRF System is launched VRF History

5 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 5 VRF world firsts VRF Global History 1990 1982 Worlds first VRF system is developed 2007 1987 VRF is launched globally 2003 Worlds first R410A VRF 2008 1991 1998 First globally available heat recovery VRF Worlds first R407C VRF system is developed Worlds inverter driven VRF 2005 First water cooled VRF system is launch in the USA Worlds first CO 2 VRF system is developed Industry changing piping and defrost technology

6 6 Development of VRF Market Japan Buildings under 70,000ft2 By 1996 VRF had established itself as a proven technology with 34% market share With increased market acceptance as a replacement to traditional applied central systems VRF achieved 47% market share by 2001 – 9% share was taken from the chiller/central plant market – The 4% taken from the split and package section was through replacing VAV projects and allowing customer to afford the chiller they originally wanted 1996 2001

7 7 Development of VRF Market Japan Buildings over 70,000ft2 Further evidence of acceptance can be seen by the increase in VRF market share in the larger applications – 12% share taken from the chiller/central plant market This trend was common in Europe, Australia and now North America 1996 2001

8 VRF Concept Pump Cooling tower Water piping AHU FCU For cooling For heating 2 heat sources Managed by engineer Complicated Inefficient part load operation Outdoor unit indoor unit Refrigerant piping Space-conscious design Simple system Energy efficient Individual control Remote controller Simple Operation Chiller 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems VRF 8

9 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 9 VRF Concept Top floor Building floors Space-conscious designSimple system Individual controlSimple InstallationSimple Maintenance Remote controllers Simple Operation One Point Of Contact For Technical Support One Manufacturer

10 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 10 VRF Concept Think of a VRF system as a chiller that circulates refrigerant to each zone instead of water A heat pump system is equivalent to a 2 pipe chiller – Major benefit is smaller heat/cool changeover zones due to the modular build up A heat recovery system is equivalent to a 4 pipe chiller system Cooling Heating Heat PumpHeat Recovery 12 Ton 6 Ton Cooling Heating

11 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems VRF Concept HEAT RECOVERY VRF 11

12 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems VRF Concept Advanced Zoning Capabilities Total comfort for occupants – Office buildings – Hospitals – Assisted living facilities – Schools – Hotels – Retail space Reduced operating costs – Shut down zones that are not in use Variable capacity design enables maximization of diversity – Each zone is individually controlled 12

13 VRF Concept Where does a VRF system position? VRF has the following attributes:- – Energy Efficient – Tight Temperature Control – Quiet Operation – The Ability To Have Many Zones – Large Capacity (Modular Build Up) – Centralized Plant (long piping) – Advanced BAS Control – Premium Specification & Priced Product Special Advantage of Modular Design: If you loose 1 condenser, you only loose a small part of the building; NOT the entire building. Modular design only requires installation of a zone as required; entire cooling and heating system does not have to be piped during initial construction VRF competes most naturally as a chiller. (this doesnt mean it can only compete with chillers) 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 13

14 Agenda NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 11/16/201014

15 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems HEAT TRANSFER MEDIA Water 8.98 Btuh/lb 88.2 Btuh/lb Refrigerant Air 0.46 Btuh/lb VAVVWVVRF 15 How does VRF Operate?

16 Inverter Drive System T(sec) +V -V Frequency (Hz) T(sec) +V -V Frequency (Hz) Inverter Box The inverter control adjusts the supply frequency The inverter control adjusts the supply frequency Thus the rotational speed of the compressor is controlled Thus the rotational speed of the compressor is controlled Exactly the right amount of refrigerant gas is pumped to meet the cooling requirements Exactly the right amount of refrigerant gas is pumped to meet the cooling requirements 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems How does VRF Operate? 16

17 Inverter = Energy Efficiency Capacity is regulated when outdoor temperature changes Startup time is reduced by 1/3 The start/stop cycle is repeated less frequently – reducing energy loss at startup As room temperature nears set point capacity is automatically throttled down 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems How does VRF Operate? 17

18 Other Inverter Benefits Very low startup amperage No locked rotor amps No stress on windings or compressor frame No light flicker Lubrication of bearings increases before speed increases System pressures increase gradually reducing noise and stress on piping Quiet compressor startup 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems How does VRF Operate?

19 Other Inverter Benefits Longer Run Periods at Lower Capacities – Better Dehumidification – Fewer compressor starts mean less wear and tear on the compressor = longer life! – Lower compressor speeds = higher system efficiency since the condenser coil surface remains large in relation to reduced capacity – Higher efficiency = Lower electric bills! 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 19 How does VRF Operate?

20 Inlet Outlet PID Control Signal Valve Mechanism Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV) Control EEVs receive PID control feedback to adjust refrigerant volume – Up to 2000 steps of control Continual management of flow rate controls super heat and coil capacity for optimum performance and energy efficiency 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems How does VRF Operate? 20

21 Proportional, Integral & Derivative (PID) Electronic expansion valve using PID – Continuously adjusts the refrigerant volume in response to load variations – Comfortable room temperature is maintained without the wide temperature swings of a conventional system T4 T2 T1 Controller (T SET ) CPU (PID Control) LEGEND T1: Refrigerant Liquid Line Temp. T2: Refrigerant Suction Line Temp. T3: Return Air / Remote Sensor Temp. T4: Controller Temperature Sensor T SET : Controller Set Point Temp. 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 21 How does VRF Operate?

22 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 22 System Capacity Control 1 23 4 EACH INDOOR CONTROLS ITS CAPACITY VIA PID CONTROL AND AN E.E.V. CONDENSING UNIT ADJUST THE INVERTER COMPRESSOR TO PROVIDE THE REQUIRED CAPACITY (Large or Small) T3 T4 T2 T1 Controller (T SET ) CPU (PID Control) LEGEND T1: Refrigerant Liquid Line Temp. T2: Refrigerant Suction Line Temp. T3: Return Air / Remote Sensor Temp. T4: Controller Temperature Sensor T SET : Controller Set Point Temp. How does VRF Operate?

23 Efficiency improved in all areas compared to conventional AC motors, especially at low speeds DC Fan Motor Efficiency Magnet DC Fan Motor AC Fan Motor 70 80 90 100 102030405060708090100110 Revolutions [rps] Motor Efficiency [%] DC Motor AC Motor Approx. 40% increase Approx. 20% increase 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems How does VRF Operate? 23

24 Agenda What is VRF? – History – Concept How does VRF Operate? – Refrigerant – Compressor – Fan Coil Important Standards Important Standards – ASHRAE Standard 15 – AHRI-1230-2010 VRF Benefits – Installation & Design Flexibility – User Comfort The Future of VRF in North America NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 11/16/201024

25 Overview of ASHRAE Std 15 Specifies minimum safety requirements in the event of a refrigerant leak into an occupied space. Safety Issues: 1.Flammable refrigerants causing injury or death by fire. 2.Toxic refrigerants possibly causing injury or death by poisoning. 3.Non flammable and non toxic refrigerants causing injury or death by asphyxiation from oxygen displacement. 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 25 Important Standards / Code Information

26 Scope of Standard 15 Scope 2.1 This standard establishes safeguards for life, limb, health, and property and prescribes safety requirements. 2.2 This standard applies a.To the design, construction, test, installation, operation, and inspection of mechanical and absorption refrigeration systems, including heat pump systems used in stationary applications, b.To modifications including replacement of parts or components if they are not identical in function and capacity, and c.To substitutions of refrigerant having a different designation. 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 26 Important Standards / Code Information

27 Basic Steps Determine volume of smallest occupied space (cu.ft.) Determine refrigerant qty potential of the smallest occupied space (lbs) Check that refrigerant qty potential doesnt exceed the allowable Refrigerant Concentration Limit (RCL) per 1000cuft. Check routing of piping (must be non obstructive) in corridors, lobbies and versus the RCL requirements 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 27 Important Standards / Code Information

28 Compliance Responsibilities Specifies application, not manufacturing requirements. Impossible for a unit to comply, only an application can comply. Design engineer is responsible for assessment and compliance. –ASHRAE Std 15 has an easy to follow Users Handbook that can be purchased by the Engineer / Contractor. All units should comply with mandatory U.S. manufacturing standards. ASHRAE Std 15 equivalent standards exist in Europe and Asia and are just as stringent. Direct systems such as VRF are the most common solution in these regions and are applied successfully to meet these standards 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems Important Standards / Code Information 28

29 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 29 Current Situation All VRF Equipment is currently sold under a waiver from the DOE – No available testing and rating standard This means that only full load EER and COP can be published Advantage can not be taken of the true VRV system benefits:- – Part load performance – Low ambient heating capabilities Important Standards / Code Information

30 30 AHRI 1230 The industry has been working on the VRF testing and rating standard for the last 5 years – Now, the hard work has paid off! We are proud to announce that the VRF testing and rating standard, AHRI 1230, will be launched and the efficiency levels will be in ASHRAE 90.1 by January 2011 Important Standards / Code Information

31 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 31 AHRI-1230 Explanation of the Ratings All efficiency values will be based on the total system performance including:- – Outdoor unit power input – Power input of indoor units – Piping loss correction factors to reflect real life building performance With this; We can now promote efficiency levels for Ducted, Ductless and Mixed combinations Important Standards / Code Information

32 Agenda What is VRF? – History – Concept How does VRF Operate? – Refrigerant – Compressor – Fan Coil Important Standards – ASHRAE Standard 15 – AHRI-1230-2010 VRF Benefits VRF Benefits – Installation & Design Flexibility – User Comfort The Future of VRF in North America NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 11/16/201032

33 VRF/VRV Benefits Outdoor Unit Indoor Units Main features Energy Saving Individual control Long refrigerant Piping Wide range of units Low Noise Level 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 33

34 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 34 Users Comfort Accurate Temperature Control 30 25 20 15 10203040506070 Cooling mode with VRF System: Min.. Conventional A/C VRF system Room Temperature Down to 1 F VRF/VRV Benefits

35 35 Ductless operating sound levels as low as 28dB(A) Ducted operating sound Levels as low as 35dB(A) User Comfort Low Operating Sound 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems VRF/VRV Benefits

36 Lightweight, Small & Flexible Indoor units are lightweight and compact – Fit into nearly any ceiling space Outdoor units dont require special cranes or lifting devices – Can be hauled using a hand-lift and the building elevator Installation by floor – If necessary, installation can be done by floor No need to wait until the full system is installed to test the system sections Conventional System VRV System 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 36 VRF/VRV Benefits

37 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 37 Refrigerant R-410A Air Water Ø 1-1/8 Ø 1/2Ø 2 Ø 25 ½ 49 16 24 or Always two ducts needed or Reduced Intallation Space For 10 Tons capacity VRF/VRV Benefits

38 11/16/2010 Advanced Controls Solutions Fire alarmSecurity Ethernet Power supply facility BMS ~ ~ (for use in Lon Works networks) HRV 38 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems VRF/VRV Benefits

39 Agenda What is VRF? – History – Concept How does VRF Operate? – Refrigerant – Compressor – Fan Coil Important Standards – ASHRAE Standard 15 – AHRI-1230-2010 VRF Benefits – Installation & Design Flexibility – User Comfort The Future of VRF in North America The Future of VRF in North America NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 11/16/201039

40 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 40 Worlds First CO2 VRF This year; the worlds first CO 2 based VRF System was released for sale in Europe – One of the most environmentally friendly refrigerants with a GWP of 1 New Technologies – New optimized swing compressor to handle the higher pressures and reduce leakage – Dual stage intercooler to help control the refrigerant and reduce pipe dimensions – New 3 row heat exchanger and pass pattern for optimum heat transfer The Future of VRF in North America

41 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 41 Whats Next: Domestic and Hot Water Heating The Future of VRF in North America

42 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 42 Conclusion VRF provides and alternative, realistic choice to traditional central systems. It captures many of the features of chilled water systems, while incorporating the simplicity of DX systems. Allows for the correct equipment selection with both air cooled and water cooled equipment It brings some of the latest technology to the market and provides a higher degree of reliability, comfort and energy efficiency that is expected from today's consumer.

43 Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Allen Anaya Application Consultant WM Carroll, LLC Ph: 505-268-6776 Cell: 505-385-7338 Fax: 505-255-1329 E-Mail: Allen@wmcarroll.com Thank You! 11/16/2010 NM ASHRAE – Introduction to Variable Refrigerant Systems 43


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