2 Key TermsBioremediation-The use of living organisms (microorganisms, fungi, green plants) or their products (enzymes) to return the environment to its original condition.Immobilization- The action of physically confining or localizing cells in a defined region or space with retention of their catalytic activities or selected portions there of, for repeated and continued useAlgae- A group of plants having no true root, stem, or leaf, and are found in water or damp environments.
3 Problem - Farm Water Runoff Chemical fertilizers enhance and promote plant growthFertilizer runoff results in high concentrations of phosphates and nitrates in natural water ways.
4 Results - Excess Phosphates Phosphate is used by many algaeresulting in overgrowth of algaedepletion of oxygenKilling marine inhabitants
5 Solution –Cell Immobilization Immobilize algae cells in one place so cell can function yet be replaced if necessary.
6 Types of Immobilization Chemical Bonding- Chemically linking enzymes to other molecules, resulting often in damaged enzymes.Absorption- “sticking” enzymes to the surface of materials such as glass, resin beads, carbon particles, ceramic or styrofoam.Entrapment- encase cell inside a porous, gelatin-like substance, allowing reaction to take place within the cell only.
7 Entrapment ProcessStep 1- Using an eyedropper, squeeze six or seven droplets of sodium alginate solution (seawater extraction) into a Container of calcium chloride solution.Container should be a beaker containing one to two ounces of the calcium chloride solution.
8 Step 2Let droplets stand for ten to fifteen minutes for the gel to form through the center.Step 3Remove and rinse the beads from the calcium chloride.
9 Variations in Gel shape Eyedropper- using eyedropper will produce beads or strings depending ion the height held above the container.Pour Method- submerging wire mesh in sodium alginate, then pouring calcium chloride solution on top to create a “sheet” of gelatin than can be shaped according to the projects requirements.