2Key TermsBioremediation-The use of living organisms (microorganisms, fungi, green plants) or their products (enzymes) to return the environment to its original condition.Immobilization- The action of physically confining or localizing cells in a defined region or space with retention of their catalytic activities or selected portions there of, for repeated and continued useAlgae- A group of plants having no true root, stem, or leaf, and are found in water or damp environments.
3Problem - Farm Water Runoff Chemical fertilizers enhance and promote plant growthFertilizer runoff results in high concentrations of phosphates and nitrates in natural water ways.
4Results - Excess Phosphates Phosphate is used by many algaeresulting in overgrowth of algaedepletion of oxygenKilling marine inhabitants
5Solution –Cell Immobilization Immobilize algae cells in one place so cell can function yet be replaced if necessary.
6Types of Immobilization Chemical Bonding- Chemically linking enzymes to other molecules, resulting often in damaged enzymes.Absorption- “sticking” enzymes to the surface of materials such as glass, resin beads, carbon particles, ceramic or styrofoam.Entrapment- encase cell inside a porous, gelatin-like substance, allowing reaction to take place within the cell only.
7Entrapment ProcessStep 1- Using an eyedropper, squeeze six or seven droplets of sodium alginate solution (seawater extraction) into a Container of calcium chloride solution.Container should be a beaker containing one to two ounces of the calcium chloride solution.
8Step 2Let droplets stand for ten to fifteen minutes for the gel to form through the center.Step 3Remove and rinse the beads from the calcium chloride.
9Variations in Gel shape Eyedropper- using eyedropper will produce beads or strings depending ion the height held above the container.Pour Method- submerging wire mesh in sodium alginate, then pouring calcium chloride solution on top to create a “sheet” of gelatin than can be shaped according to the projects requirements.