Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology Bioremediation. Key Terms Bioremediation-The use of living organisms (microorganisms, fungi, green plants) or their products (enzymes) to."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms Bioremediation-The use of living organisms (microorganisms, fungi, green plants) or their products (enzymes) to return the environment to its original condition. Immobilization- The action of physically confining or localizing cells in a defined region or space with retention of their catalytic activities or selected portions there of, for repeated and continued use Algae- A group of plants having no true root, stem, or leaf, and are found in water or damp environments.
Problem - Farm Water Runoff Chemical fertilizers enhance and promote plant growth Fertilizer runoff results in high concentrations of phosphates and nitrates in natural water ways.
Results - Excess Phosphates Phosphate is used by many algae –resulting in overgrowth of algae –depletion of oxygen –Killing marine inhabitants
Solution –Cell Immobilization Immobilize algae cells in one place so cell can function yet be replaced if necessary.
Types of Immobilization Chemical Bonding- Chemically linking enzymes to other molecules, resulting often in damaged enzymes. Absorption- sticking enzymes to the surface of materials such as glass, resin beads, carbon particles, ceramic or styrofoam. Entrapment- encase cell inside a porous, gelatin-like substance, allowing reaction to take place within the cell only.
Entrapment Process Step 1- Using an eyedropper, squeeze six or seven droplets of sodium alginate solution (seawater extraction) into a Container of calcium chloride solution. Container should be a beaker containing one to two ounces of the calcium chloride solution.
Step 2 –Let droplets stand for ten to fifteen minutes for the gel to form through the center. Step 3 –Remove and rinse the beads from the calcium chloride.
Variations in Gel shape Eyedropper- using eyedropper will produce beads or strings depending ion the height held above the container. Pour Method- submerging wire mesh in sodium alginate, then pouring calcium chloride solution on top to create a sheet of gelatin than can be shaped according to the projects requirements.
Algae Lifespan Algae metabolize or eat the phosphates in the water. Algae eventually reach lifespan, resulting in the need to remove and replace algae. Indicator Mechanism needed
Indicator Mechanism Visual inspection of system to see when replacement needed. Electronic sensors monitoring clarity Inspection of water Ph level.
Replacement of Algae Replacement many be simply manually replacing them Replacement using sensors and robotics to accomplish replacement.
Disposal of used microalgae Spent algae can reprocessed for use as fertilizers once again because of their high phosphate concentration.