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Chemistry (5/8) Due Today: Stoichiometry Worksheet Gas Laws Graphs Objectives: Complete Stoichiometry Quiz Interpret and discuss the Gas Laws graphs by answering the questions in your packet.
Chemistry (5/9) Due Today: Stoichiometry Worksheet-late Gas Laws Graphs Objectives: Discuss the Gas Laws you read about from the text and applied to graphs. Discuss Stoichiometry Quiz Homework: Study for Stoichiometry Re-Take Quiz
Gas Laws Assignment Chapter 14.2 in Text Graph each set of data using a line graph. Interpret each graph by answering the questions in the packet.
Gas Laws Behavior of a gas when two of the following variables change: temperature of a gas ( o C or K) pressure of a gas (atm, mmHg, Pa) volume of a gas ( mL, cm 3 ) Illustrate in your notes how a sample of gas in a balloon would be affected by a change in each variable above.
Gas Laws 1. Volume vs. Pressure Graph
Boyles Law If temperature is held constant, what is the relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas? blog.cencophysics.com
Gas Laws 2. Temperature vs. Volume Graph
Charles Law If pressure is held constant, what is the relationship between temperature and volume of a gas? www.kchemistry.com
Gas Laws 3. Temperature vs. Pressure of a Gas
Gay-Lussacs Law If volume is held constant, what is the relationship between temperature and pressure? www.northcampus.net
Combined Gas Law Establishes a relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas if the amount of gas is held constant. P 1 V 1 /T 1 = P 2 V 2 /T 2
Ideal Gas Law Establishes a relationship between pressure, volume, temperature, and quantity of a gas. PV=nRT,where P= pressure (atm) V= volume (Liters) n= quantity of gas (moles) R= gas constant: 0.0821 L-atm/mol-K T= temperature (Kelvin)
Chemistry Introduction: Measurement and Scientific Method
Measurement and Scientific Method: Precision vs. Accuracy Label each picture as precise, accurate, both, or neither.
Matter and Change
Phase Changes and Kinetic Energy
Bohrs Model of the Atom The electron cloud consists of energy levels. Electrons reside and move around in these energy levels. Electrons can move to other energy levels when absorb photons.
Electron Movement 1.Ground state of H Atom (lowest energy level for e-) 2.A photon (light particle) is absorbed by Hs electron. Electron becomes excited and jumps to higher energy level. 3. E- returns to ground state and emits (releases) the photon. Emitted photons wavelength can be detected by scientists. (Infrared region at room temp; Visble region at higher temps.) 1. 2. 3.
Electron Properties and Arrangement
Periodic Table: Atomic Radius
Periodic Table: Ionization Energy
Types of Chemical Reactions 1. Synthesis (A+ B ----> AB) 2. Decomposition (AB------> A + B) 3. Single Replacement (A+ BC ---> B + AC) 4. Double Replacement (AB + CD ---> CB + AD) 5. Combustion (C x H x + O 2 ----> CO 2 + H 2 O) 6. Neutralization (Acid + Base--> H 2 O + Salt)
Chemical Reaction Energy Diagram: Exothermic
Chemical Reaction Energy Diagram Endothermic
Chemical Reactions Rates Reaction Rates = how fast the reactants chemically change into the products. Collision Theory: Reactant particles will form products when reactants collide: -at the right position. - and exchange the right amount of kinetic energy.
Nuclear Band of Stability http://www.hasdeu.bz.edu.ro/softuri/fizica/mariana/Atomica/Table/lessons/11nuclear/n uclear.htm *Big Misconception: Stable nucleus means equal number of protons and neutrons. From graph, students confirmed that most elements with a stable nucleus needs more neutrons to minimize the repulsion force between protons with a similar charge.
Nuclear Chemistry: Radioactive Decay
Chemistry Final What does Chemistry study?
Scientific Notation 1.Convert to scientific notation: 2,350,921
Scientific Notation Convert to scientific notation. 0.0000258
Metric and English Conversions How many seconds is in 10.26hrs?
Metric and English Conversions Sara ran 2 miles in 16 minutes. How far did she run in kilometers? (1mi= 1600m)
Density What is the equation for density?
Density A solution has a mass of 1200 g and a density of 1.2 g/mL. What is the volume?
Density What is the density of a 50mL sample of water that has a mass of 49.6 g?
Scientific Method What are the 5 main steps to the scientific method?
Scientific Method What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative results?
Scientific Method What is the difference between accuracy and precision?
Scientific Method Determine which of the following sets of data is most precise. a.2.5, 6.0, 4.0 b.2.5, 3.0, 2.0 c.2.5, 2.4, 2.3
Scientific Method A student wanted to know how temperature affected the rate of a chemical reaction. She observed and recorded the time it took for a chemical reaction to occur at three different temperatures. What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable?
Significant Figures How many significant figures? 0.01020g ________
Significant Figures How many signficant figures? 2.104_______
Calculating using Significant Figures How many significant figures are in the answer? 1.21 g x 0.50g =
Calculating using Signficant Figures How many significant figures are in the answer? 0.45m + 2.140m + 1.3g+ 4g =
Matter What are the two broad classes of matter?
Classification of Matter
Matter What is the big difference between substances and mixtures?
Mixtures Determine if the following mixtures are heterogenous or homogenous mixtures. a.Saltwater b. Vegetable soup
Compounds True or False: Compounds composition is always varied. True or False: A compounds properties are similar to the elements making up the compound.
Physical Properties Give me example of physical properties.
Chemical properties Give me example of chemical properties.
Physical or Chemical Change Determine if the following are chemical or physical changes a.Boiling water b. Digesting food c.Burning fire wood d. Dissolving sugar in water
Mixture or Compound? air Na(OH) lead Na(OH)solution
Atomic Theory Who believed matter consisted of air, wind, fire, and earth? Who was the first to propose that matter is composed of atoms?
Atomic Theory Who was the first person to confirm using the scientific method that matter was composed of atoms?
Daltons Atomic Theory Identify important concepts of Daltons Atomic Theory.
The Atom What are the two subatomic particles that have charge?
The Atom What are the two subatomic particles that contribute mass to an atom?
The Atom What is the difference between mass number and atomic mass?
Atomic Subparticles Nitrogen is a neutral atom. It has 7neutrons and 7 electrons. What is Nitrogens number of protons? What is Nitrogens atomic number? What is Nitrogens mass number?
Atomic Subparticles Ca 2+ has a mass number of 40 and an atomic number of 20. How may protons does Ca 2+ have? How many electrons does Ca 2+ have? How many neutrons does Ca 2+ have?
The Atom What is an isotope?
Bell Ringer How many significant figures? a.0.040020____ b.1.0200_____ c.10,840______ d.24.09/ 4.2______ e.4.25 + 4.0 = ______
Isotope C-12 and C-13 are isotopes. What subatomic particle has the same value with each isotope of carbon above? What subatomic particle has different values with each isotope of carbon above?
Radioisotope What is a radioisotope? What are the three types of radioisotope particles we talked about?
Nuclear Radiation paper wood concrete or lead Radiation charges Radiation Penetration
Alpha Particles Alpha rays(α) = Emission of a He nucleus. alpha particles are (+) charged. large mass and charge prevents alpha particles from traveling and penetrating far. 1. parent decays α + daughter isotope isotope particle (stable) (unstable) (He nucleus)
Nuclear Decay with α Particles Mass number decreases by four Atomic Number decreases by two (Daughter isotope that is more stable)
Nuclear Decay: Beta Particles Beta Rays (β) = A neutron breaks into a p+ and e- p+ remains in nucleus and e- is emitted. Beta rays have a (-) charge. Beta rays travel and penetrate farther because smaller charge and no mass.
Nuclear Decay with β particles Mass number remains the same (proton switches with a neutron) Atomic number increases by one. (proton formed in nucleus; stable daughter isotope).
Nuclear Decay: Gamma Gamma Rays( ϒ ) = high energy particle with no mass or charge. Does not have a charge or mass, therefore travels and penetrates the farthest. Most dangerous rays because penetrates skin. Usually emitted with alpha and beta particles. parent decays α + daughter isotope + ϒ isotope particle (stable) (unstable) (He nucleus) +ϒ+ϒ
Nuclear Decay with ϒ rays Mass number remains the same ( ϒ rays has no mass) Atomic number remains the same ( ϒ rays has no mass or charge)
Periodic Table Who organized the periodic table based on atomic mass?
Periodic Table Who organized the periodic table based on atomic number?
Periodic Table How is the modern periodic table Organized?
Periodic Table What is another name for rows on the periodic table?
Periodic Table What is another name for the columns on the periodic table?
Periodic Table Give me an example of a metal, non- metal, and a metalloid
Periodic Table What is the difference between transitional and representative groups?