Presentation on theme: "Chemistry (5/8) Due Today: Stoichiometry Worksheet Gas Laws Graphs"— Presentation transcript:
1Chemistry (5/8) Due Today: Stoichiometry Worksheet Gas Laws Graphs Objectives:Complete Stoichiometry QuizInterpret and discuss the Gas Laws graphs by answering the questions in your packet.
2Chemistry (5/9) Due Today: Stoichiometry Worksheet-late Gas Laws GraphsObjectives:Discuss the Gas Laws you read about from the text and applied to graphs.Discuss Stoichiometry QuizHomework:Study for Stoichiometry Re-Take Quiz
3Gas Laws Assignment Chapter 14.2 in Text Graph each set of data using a line graph.Interpret each graph by answering the questions in the packet.
4Gas Laws Behavior of a gas when two of the following variables change: temperature of a gas (oC or K)pressure of a gas (atm, mmHg, Pa)volume of a gas ( mL, cm3)Illustrate in your notes how a sample of gas in a balloon would be affected by a change in each variable above.
10Gay-Lussac’s Law If volume is held constant, what is the relationship between temperature andpressure?
11Combined Gas LawEstablishes a relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas if the amount of gas is held constant.P1V1/T1= P2V2/T2
12Ideal Gas LawEstablishes a relationship between pressure, volume, temperature, and quantity of a gas.PV=nRT,where P= pressure (atm)V= volume (Liters)n= quantity of gas (moles)R= gas constant: L-atm/mol-KT= temperature (Kelvin)
13Chemistry Introduction: Measurement and Scientific Method
14Measurement and Scientific Method: Precision vs. Accuracy Label each picture as precise, accurate, both, or neither.
19Bohr’s Model of the Atom The electron cloud consists of energy levels.Electrons reside and move around in these energy levels.Electrons can move to other energy levels when absorb photons.19
20Electron Movement Ground state of H Atom (lowest energy level for e-) Ground state of H Atom (lowest energy level for e-)A photon (light particle) is absorbed by H’s electron.Electron becomes excited and jumps to higher energy level.3. E- returns to ground state and emits (releases) the photon.Emitted photon’s wavelength can be detected by scientists.(Infrared region at room temp; Visble region at higher temps.)
29Types of Chemical Reactions 1. Synthesis (A+ B ----> AB)2. Decomposition (AB------> A + B)3. Single Replacement (A+ BC ---> B + AC)4. Double Replacement (AB + CD ---> CB + AD)5. Combustion (CxHx + O > CO2 + H2O)6. Neutralization (Acid + Base--> H2O + Salt)
32Chemical Reactions Rates Reaction Rates = how fast the reactants chemically change into the products.Collision Theory: Reactant particles will form products when reactants collide:at the right position.and exchange the right amount of kinetic energy.
34Nuclear Band of Stability *Big Misconception: Stable nucleus means equal number of protons and neutrons. Fromgraph, students confirmed that most elements with a stable nucleus needs more neutrons to minimize the repulsion force between protons with a similar charge.
46DensityA solution has a mass of 1200 g and a density of 1.2 g/mL. What is the volume?
47DensityWhat is the density of a 50mL sample of water that has a mass of 49.6 g?
48Scientific MethodWhat are the 5 main steps to the scientific method?
49Scientific MethodWhat is the difference between qualitative and quantitative results?
50Scientific MethodWhat is the difference between accuracy and precision?
51Scientific MethodDetermine which of the following sets of data is most precise.2.5, 6.0, 4.02.5, 3.0, 2.02.5, 2.4, 2.3
52Scientific MethodA student wanted to know how temperature affected the rate of a chemical reaction. She observed and recorded the time it took for a chemical reaction to occur at three different temperatures.What is the independent variable?What is the dependent variable?
53Significant FiguresHow many significant figures?g ________
54Significant FiguresHow many signficant figures?2.104_______
55Calculating using Significant Figures How many significant figures are in the answer?1.21 g x 0.50g =
56Calculating using Signficant Figures How many significant figures are in the answer?0.45m m g+ 4g =
75Bell Ringer How many significant figures? 0.040020____ 1.0200_____ 10,840______24.09/ 4.2______= ______
76Isotope C-12 and C-13 are isotopes. What subatomic particle has the same value with each isotope of carbon above?What subatomic particle has different values with each isotope of carbon above?
77Radioisotope What is a radioisotope? What are the three types of radioisotope particles we talked about?
78Nuclear Radiation Radiation charges Radiation Penetration paper wood concrete or lead
79Alpha Particles Alpha rays(α) = Emission of a He nucleus. alpha particles are (+) charged .large mass and charge prevents alpha particles from traveling and penetrating far.1.parent decays α daughter isotopeisotope particle (stable)(unstable) (He nucleus)
80Nuclear Decay with α Particles Mass number decreases by fourAtomic Number decreases by two(Daughter isotope that is more stable)
81Nuclear Decay: Beta Particles Beta Rays (β) = A neutron breaks into a p+ and e-p+ remains in nucleus and e- is emitted.Beta rays have a (-) charge.Beta rays travel and penetrate farther because smaller charge and no mass.81
82Nuclear Decay with β particles Mass number remains the same(proton switches with a neutron)Atomic number increases by one.(proton formed in nucleus; stable daughter isotope).
83Nuclear Decay: Gamma +ϒ Gamma Rays(ϒ) = high energy particle with no mass or charge.Does not have a charge or mass, therefore travels and penetrates the farthest.Most dangerous rays because penetrates skin.Usually emitted with alpha and beta particles.+ϒparent decays α daughter isotope + ϒisotope particle (stable)(unstable) (He nucleus)
84Nuclear Decay with ϒ rays Mass number remains the same(ϒ rays has no mass)Atomic number remains the same(ϒ rays has no mass or charge)
85Periodic TableWho organized the periodic table based on atomic mass?
86Periodic TableWho organized the periodic table based on atomic number?
87Periodic TableHow is the modern periodic tableOrganized?
88Periodic TableWhat is another name for rows on the periodic table?
89Periodic TableWhat is another name for the columns on the periodic table?
90Periodic TableGive me an example of a metal, non-metal, and a metalloid
91Periodic TableWhat is the difference between transitional and representative groups?