2 Insulin (from Latin insula, "island", as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. Apart from being the primary agent in carbohydrate homeostasis, it has effects on fat metabolism and it changes the liver's activity in storing or releasing glucose and in processing blood lipids, and in other tissues such as fat and muscle. The amount of insulin in circulation has extremely widespread effects throughout the body.
3 The actions of insulin on the global human metabolism level include: Control of cellular intake of certain substances, most prominently glucose in muscle and adipose tissue (about ⅔ of body cells).Increase of DNA replication and protein synthesis via control of amino acid uptake.Modification of the activity of numerous enzymes (allosteric effect).The actions of insulin on cells include:Increased glycogen synthesis - insulin forces storage of glucose in liver (and muscle) cells in the form of glycogen; lowered levels of insulin cause liver cells to convert glycogen to glucose and excrete it into the blood. This is the clinical action of insulin which is directly useful in reducing high blood glucose levels as in diabetes.Increased fatty acid synthesis - insulin forces fat cells to take in blood lipids which are converted to triglycerides; lack of insulin causes the reverse.
4 Increased esterification of fatty acids - forces adipose tissue to make fats (ie, triglycerides) from fatty acid esters; lack of insulin causes the reverse.Decreased proteinolysis - forces reduction of protein degradation; lack of insulin increases protein degradation.Decreased lipolysis - forces reduction in conversion of fat cell lipid stores into blood fatty acids; lack of insulin causes the reverse.Decreased gluconeogenesis - decreases production of glucose from various substrates in liver; lack of insulin causes glucose production from assorted substrates in the liver and elsewhere.Increased amino acid uptake - forces cells to absorb circulating amino acids; lack of insulin inhibits absorption.Increased potassium uptake - forces cells to absorb serum potassium; lack of insulin inhibits absorption.Arterial muscle tone - forces arterial wall muscle to relax, increasing blood flow, especially in micro arteries; lack of insulin reduces flow by allowing these muscles to contract.
5 Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1) which in turn starts many protein activation cascades (2). These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5) and fatty acid synthesis (6).
6 TYPES OF INSULINQuick-acting, such as the insulin analog lispro -- begins to work within 5 to 15 minutes and is active for 3 to 4 hours.Short-acting, such as regular insulin -- starts working within 30 minutes and is active about 5 to 8 hours.Intermediate-acting, such as NPH, or lente insulin -- starts working in 1 to 3 hours and is active 16 to 24 hours.Long-acting, such as ultralente insulin -- starts working in 4 to 6 hours, and is active 24 to 28 hours.Insulin glargine and Insulin detemir -- both insulin analogs which start working within 1 to 2 hours and continue to be active, without peaks or dips, for about 24 hours.A mixture of NPH and regular insulin -- starts working in 30 minutes and is active 16 to 24 hours. There are several variations with different proportions of the mixed insulins.
9 Diabetic ketoacidosis consists of a biochemical triad of- Diabetic ketoacidosis consists of a biochemical triad of- a) hyperglycemiab) ketonemiac) acidemia
10 EMPERICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DKA MILDMODERATESEVEREPlasma glucose>250Arterial Ph<7.0Serum Bicarb15-1810-15<10Anion gap>10>12SensoriumalertAlert/drowsyStupor/coma
11 SYMPTOMS Excessive thirst or urination Weakness and fatigue Deep, slow breathingNausea, vomiting and stomach painDecreased appetite and weight lossFruity-scented breath (caused by high ketone levels
13 PATHOGENESISThe basic underlying mechanism for DKA is insulin deficiency, either relative or absolute, along with elevation pf counter regulatory hormones such as glucagon, catecholamines,cortisol and growth hormones.
14 LAB INVESTIGATIONS CBC RBS ABG Renal function tests Sr electrolytes Urine Analysis and ketonesX ray chest, ECG
15 FORMULAE Anion gap [Na]-[Cl+HCO3] nomal- 7-9mEq/L SERUM OSMOLALITY 2*[Na]+(glucose in mg/dl)/18 + BUN in mg/dl/2.8Normal –Na HcCO3 Deficit Calculation.6*soda bicarb deficit * body weight/2
16 MANAGEMENT Replace fluid losses Correction of hyperglucemia Replacement of electrolyte lossesDetection and treatment of the causePrevent recurrence
17 Fluid replacement Initially 1 L of NS @15-20ml/hr hydration corrected corrected serum Na ValueHigh/ normal Low.45%NS %NaCl@4-14 ml/kg/hr @4-14ml/kg/hrWhen the plasma glucose reaches add dextrose + insulin+ KCL to drip, maintain plasma
18 POTASSIUM CORRECTION SERUM POTTASIUM IV FLUID POT (mEq/l) <3 40-60 3-430-404-520-30
19 INSULIN THEARPY REGULAR INSULIN IV ROUTE SC/IM ROUTE 0.15U/kg as iv bolus .4U/kg ½ as iv,1/2SC.1U/kg/hr as IV infusion .1U/kg/hr SC/IMIf plasma glucose does not fall by 50-70m/dl in the first hour thenDouble rate of infusion till it does give IV 10U bolus/hrwhen plasma glucose reaches 250 start tapering insulin infusion at the same time start SC insulin. Pump not to be stopped suddenly. And start glucose insulin pot drip
20 GENERALMonitor plasma glucose, urine ketones and sugars every hour till plasma glucose reaches 250Look for precipating factor such as UTI and treat