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Unit 2 Periodic Table, Chemical Formulas, Nomenclature, Simple Reactions, Balancing Reactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Periodic Table, Chemical Formulas, Nomenclature, Simple Reactions, Balancing Reactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2 Periodic Table, Chemical Formulas, Nomenclature, Simple Reactions, Balancing Reactions

2 Periodic Table

3 Nomenclature: Molecular Compounds Most are named by rules of Organic Chemistry Simple Molecular compounds tend to be Binary nonmetallic Use standard prefixes 2 kinds of elements On the Right side of the periodic table

4 Nomenclature: Ionic Compounds (–) ion (+) ion

5 Nomenclature: Simple Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES H H –1 – –3 –

6 Nomenclature: Ionic Compounds Polyatomic ions may be involved… Lets look at those… A list appears in the appendix of your lab manual.

7 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES Cl F Br I

8 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES Cl F Br I –1

9 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES Cl F Br I Per ate - +1 oxygen ate - Most common ite - –1 oxygen Hypo ite - –2 oxygens

10 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES ClO 3 –1 FO 3 –1 BrO 3 –1 IO 3 –1 Per ate - +1 oxygen ate - Most common ite - –1 oxygen Hypo ite - –2 oxygens

11 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES ClO 4 –1 FO 4 –1 BrO 4 –1 IO 4 –1 Per ate - +1 oxygen ate - Most common ite - –1 oxygen Hypo ite - –2 oxygens

12 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES ClO 2 –1 FO 2 –1 BrO 2 –1 IO 2 –1 Per ate - +1 oxygen ate - Most common ite - –1 oxygen Hypo ite - –2 oxygens

13 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES ClO –1 FO –1 BrO –1 IO –1 Per ate - +1 oxygen ate - Most common ite - –1 oxygen Hypo ite - –2 oxygens

14 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES S O Se Te

15 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES S –2 O –2 Se –2 Te –2

16 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES SO 4 –2 O SeO 4 –2 TeO 4 –2 The -ates

17 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES P N As

18 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES P –3 N –3 As –3

19 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES PO 4 –3 NO 3 –1 AsO 4 –3 The -ates

20 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES Si C

21 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES Si –4 C –4

22 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES SiO 3 –2 CO 3 –2 The -ates

23 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES B

24 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES B +3 Yikes!

25 Nomenclature: Polyatomic Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: NOBLE GASES BO 3 –3 The -ates

26 Nomenclature: Ionic Compounds On occasion, ionic compounds may exist as a hydrate. A hydrate is when one or more water molecules (H 2 O) connect to a solid ionic compound. Barium hydroxide octahydrate – ZnCl 2 6 H 2 O – Ba(OH) 2 8 H 2 O Zinc chloride hexahydrate

27 Nomenclature: Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds with transition metal ions – those that have multiple valences.

28 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: This area!

29 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: Notice the patterns Left to right And Right to left

30 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: What goes here?

31 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Find patterns on the periodic table:

32 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Find patterns on the periodic table:

33 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Find patterns on the periodic table: mercury(I) = Hg 2 +2 mercury(II) = Hg +2

34 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Stock system – Use a Roman numeral for the ionic charge (valence)

35 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Traditional system – Use the Latin roots with –ic or –ous endings. mercur- cobalt- cupr- ferr- stann- plumb- aur-

36 Nomenclature: Transition Metal Ions Traditional system – –ic ending Considered the most common charge of the ions –ous ending Considered the second most common charge of the ions Based on the trends shown on the periodic table, the most common charge is the highest charge listed; the second most common charges is the lower charge listed.

37 Nomenclature: Acid Compounds Binary Acids Contain only hydrogen (H + ) and one other element – a nonmetal These are named with hydro ic acid

38 Nomenclature: Acid Compounds Ternary Acids (oxyacids) Contain hydrogen and a polyatomic ion (a oxyradical) that either ends in –ate or –ite. -ate goes to –ic -ite goes to –ous Ponder gum… If you ate it it is icky; but if you bite it, it is delicious.

39 Nomenclature: Practice 1. Decide which of the following are expected to be ionic and which are expected to be molecular: a) KF b) N 2 O 5 c) SiCl 4 2. What is the formula of magnesium nitride? 3. What is the formula of calcium phosphate? ionic covalent Mg 3 N 2 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2

40 Nomenclature: Practice 4. Give the formula of carbon disulfide. 5. Give the formula of dinitrogen tetrafluoride. 6. Calcium chloride hexahydrate is used to melt snow from roads. What is the formula of this compound? CS 2 N2F4N2F4 CaCl 2 6 H 2 O

41 Nomenclature: Practice 7. Name BaO. 8. Name Cr 2 (SO 4 ) Name OF Name S 4 N Bromine has an oxyacid HBrO 2, whose name is bromous acid. What is the name and formula for the corresponding ion? chromium(III) sulfate barium oxide oxygen difluoride tetrasulfur tetranitride BrO 2 –1 = bromite

42 Nomenclature: Practice 12. Name HIO. 13. Name H 3 PO A compound whose common name is green vitriol has the chemical formula FeSO 4 7 H 2 O. What is the chemical name of this compound? hypoiodous acid phosphoric acid iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate

43 General Reactions Synthesis Two elements makes a Binary compound Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 Two oxides makes a Ternary compound Metal oxide + water makes metal hydroxide BaO + H 2 O Ba(OH) 2 Nonmetal oxide + water makes acid N 2 O 5 + H 2 O HNO 3 Metal oxide + Nonmetal oxide makes ternary compound BaO + N 2 O 5 Ba(NO 3 ) 2

44 General Reactions Notice the ions are staying the same!!! Oxygen is O –2 Barium is Ba +2 Hydroxide is OH –1 Nitrate is NO 3 –1 and familiar

45 General Reactions Decomposition (the opposite of synthesis) Binary compound will make two elements Metal hydroxide makes metal oxide and water Ternary acid makes nonmetal oxide and water Ternary compound (many) makes nonmetal oxide and metal oxide. One of the most common is that of a metal carbonate: MgCO 3 MgO + CO 2 Metal chlorate makes metal chloride and oxygen gas Ba(ClO 3 ) 2 BaCl 2 + O 2

46 General Reactions Single Replacement A metallic element + a compound switches the positive ions. MgCO 3 + Li Li 2 CO 3 + Mg A nonmetallic element (usually a halogen) + a compound switches the negative ions. Cl 2 + FeBr 3 FeCl 3 + Br 2

47 General Reactions Double Replacement Positive ions and Negative ions switch positions. Take time to identify these ions. MgCO 3 + Sn(ClO 3 ) 4 Mg +2 CO 3 –2 Sn +4 ClO 3 –1 Sn(CO 3 ) 2 Mg(ClO 3 ) 2 +

48 General Reactions Double Replacement Try another Sb(OH) 3 + Zn 3 P 2 Sb +3 OH –1 Zn +2 P –3 SbP + Zn(OH) 2

49 General Reactions Combustion Typically a hydrocarbon burns in the presence of oxygen to create water and carbon dioxide Hydrocarbons are made of – On occasion, they include oxygen, as well. CH 4 + O 2 C 2 H 5 OH + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O hydrogen + carbon CO 2 + H 2 O

50 General Reactions Acid-Carbonate There must be an acid and a metal carbonate – check for these BEFORE presuming double replacement. These will create water, carbon dioxide, and an ionic salt. Li 2 CO 3 + HNO 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Li +1 CO 3 –2 H +1 NO 2 –1 + LiNO 2

51 Balancing Reactions Based on the Law of Conservation, is present must be preserved. In other words, whatever happens to the reactants must occur to the products. Choose a chemical – insert a coefficient ( multiplier ) in front of it. Never change the subscripts! Treat ions ( radicals ) that appear on both sides as single chunks. ½s can be used for diatomic elements. It is helpful to think of water as HOH, rather than H 2 O.

52 Balancing Reactions Whatever happens to the reactants must occur to the products. Choose a chemical – insert a coefficient ( multiplier ) in front of it. Never change the subscripts! Treat ions ( radicals ) that appear on both sides as single chunks. ½s can be used for diatomic elements. It is helpful to think of water as HOH, rather than H 2 O. MgCO 3 + Sn(ClO 3 ) 4 Mg(ClO 3 ) 2 + Sn(CO 3 )

53 Balancing Reactions Whatever happens to the reactants must occur to the products. Choose a chemical – insert a coefficient ( multiplier ) in front of it. Never change the subscripts! Treat ions ( radicals ) that appear on both sides as single chunks. ½s can be used for diatomic elements. It is helpful to think of water as HOH, rather than H 2 O. C 4 H 8 OH + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 1 23 / 2 8 ? C 4 H 8 OH + 23 O 2 16 CO H 2 O


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