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Student Health and Safety Information The body cools itself largely through evaporation of sweat. Sweating is a good thing! Heat exhaustionThe body overheats.

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Presentation on theme: "Student Health and Safety Information The body cools itself largely through evaporation of sweat. Sweating is a good thing! Heat exhaustionThe body overheats."— Presentation transcript:


2 Student Health and Safety Information

3 The body cools itself largely through evaporation of sweat. Sweating is a good thing! Heat exhaustionThe body overheats when body fluids are lost through sweating. Body temperature remains below 104F. Heat strokelife-threatening. The persons cooling system which is controlled by the brain stops working and the internal body temperature rises to the point where brain damage or damage to other organs may result (temperature may reach 105+F).

4 When it is very humid, the bodys cooling mechanism isnt very effective. The body loses a combination of fluids and salts (electrolytes) When this is accompanied by an inadequate replacement of fluids, disturbances in the circulation may result that are similar to a mild form of shock.

5 Often pale with cool, moist skin Sweating profusely Muscle cramps or pains Feels faint or dizzy May complain of headache, weakness, thirst, and nausea Core temp elevatedusually more than 100°F (but less than 104°F) with increased pulse rate

6 Unconscious or has abnormal mental status (dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, or coma) Flushed, hot, and dry skin (although it may be moist initially from previous sweating or from attempts to the cool the person with water). Your body isnt sweating anymore (cooling mechanism has failed). May be hyperventilating Core temperature of 105° or more

7 Rest in a cool, shaded area Give cool fluids such as water or sports drinks Loosen or remove excessive clothing Apply cool water to skin (behind the neck and under the arms are good places) Do not use an alcohol rub or alcohol period Do not give any beverages containing alcohol or caffeine

8 CALL 911 immediately! Until EMS arrives, here are a few things you can do: 1. Move the person to a cooler environment 2. Moisten the skin with lukewarm water and use a fan to blow cool air across the skin 3. Give cool beverages by mouth only if the person has a normal mental state and can tolerate it

9 Drink before, during and after practices and games Drink 17-20 oz of water/sports drinks with 6 to 8%Carbohydrate concentrations 2-3 hours before exercise Drink another 7-10 oz of water/sports drink 10-20 minutes before exercise Drink earlyby the time you are thirsty, you are already dehydrated Within 2 hours, drink enough to replace any wt loss from exercise

10 Carbohydrate concentrations greater than 8% have a slower gastric emptying rate and contribute to dehydration Salt should never be added to drinks and salt tablets should be avoided Cool beverages at temperatures between 50-59 degrees F are recommended for best results with fluid replacement

11 Drinks with Carbohydrate (CHO) concentrations of greater than 8% should be avoided Fruit juices, CHO gels, sodas, and sports drinks that have a CHO greater than 6-8% are not recommended during exercise as sole beverages Beverages containing caffeine, alcohol, and carbonation are not be used because of the high risk of dehydration associated with excess urine production, or decreased voluntary fluid intake. Monster, Red Bull and similar drinks are extremely dangerous and should be avoided all together!


13 Concussion: a jarring injury to the brain Brain Contusion: a bruise of the brain. This means there is some bleeding in the brain, causing swelling Skull Fracture: when the skull cracks. Sometimes the edges of broken skull bones cut into the brain and cause bleeding or other injury Hematoma: bleeding in the brain that collects and clots, forming a bump. A hematoma may not be apparent for a day or even as long as several weeks. Be watchful for headaches, listlessness, balance problems or vomiting.

14 Its usual for someone with a head injury to have a headache, nausea, and to feel dizzy right after a head injury. Other symptoms may include ringing in the ears, neck pain, and feeling anxious, upset, irritable, depressed or tired. One may also have problems concentrating, remembering things, putting thoughts together or doing more than one thing at a time. Its common for someone whos had a head injury to forget the events right before, during and right after the accident. Following recovery, the ability to learn and remember new things almost always returns.

15 Symptoms may be sudden or delayed (even by days) Any symptom that is worsening such as headaches, nausea or sleepiness Nausea that doesnt go away Changes in behavior such as irritability or confusion Dilated pupils or pupils of different sizes Trouble walking or speaking Drainage of bloody or clear fluids from ears or nose Vomiting Seizures Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs

16 A burner, also called a stinger, is an injury to one or more nerves between your neck and shoulder. Its not a serious neck injury. Burners are not uncommon with football players.

17 Your shoulder is pushed down at the same time that your head is forced to the opposite side. This stretches nerves between your neck and shoulder Your head is quickly moved to one side, pinching nerves on that side The area above your collarbone is hit directly, bruising nerves

18 Dont just assume it is a burner. If you have burning, stinging, numbness or tingling in your arms or legs, stop what you are doing until your coach or trainer can assess you. Burners happen in only one arm at a time. If both of your arms or one arm and a leg are hurt, you may have a serious neck injury, not a burner.

19 Rule changes that eliminated the head as the initial contact point in blocking and tackling have significantly reduced head and neck injuries. Remember 1. Keep the head up. 2. Keep the head out of contact. 3. Helmet must fit properly.


21 This occurs when an athlete who has already sustained A head injury, sustains a second head injury before symptoms have cleared from the first injury. A 2 nd blow to the head, even if it a minor one, can result in a loss of auto regulation of the brains blood supply. This leads to brain swelling and increased intracranial pressure. The average time from second impact to brainstem failure is quite rapid, taking 2-5 minutes.

22 Occurrence is rare First of all, avoid returning until symptoms from 1 st injury resolves. Within seconds or minutes of the 2 nd impact, the athlete who is conscious yet stunned may: 1. Collapse to the ground 2. Become semicomatosed with rapidly dilating pupils 3. Have loss of eye movement 4. Respiratory failure


24 Anabolic steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone. They are used illegally by athletes and others to increase muscle mass and To reduce body fat. Steroid actions: 1.Increase in wt gain and lean body mass 2.Enhanced endurance 3.Decrease in the recovery time after injury Psychological effects: 1.Euphoria 2.Increased motivation BUT: HIGHER LEVELS OF AGGRESSION VIOLENT OUTBURSTS EXTREME MOOD SWINGS

25 Can cause irreversible liver damage and cancer Cardiovascular system can be damaged Reproductive system can be damaged Cholesterol levels often increase Blood pressure is most often elevated Increases heart attack and stroke chances Decreases fertility Increases ligament and tendon ruptures Growth is affected resulting in decreased height

26 It is produced naturally by the body each of us has varying levels stored in our muscles depending on our diets, activity levels and genetics.

27 Creatine in the body aids in the regeneration of ATP, the energy source that gives muscles the ability to contract It helps muscles recuperate quickly in athletes who specialize in sprints and quick bursts of activity It is not been proven to be beneficial to endurance athletes

28 There is a link to the increase in muscle strains and pulls in athletes using creatine Creatine draws fluid into the muscles taking it away from the vital organs which results in rapid dehydration The combination of creatine supplementation, high heat, and high humidity could be deadly! Not regulated by the FDA therefore the manufacturers are not required to list all of the contents of the package

29 Evidence that it causes: 1. Muscle cramps 2. Stomach discomfort 3. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE 4. AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS ARE UNKNOWN Is not recommended for anyone younger than the age of 18 or are still developing. A recent survey of the Association of Professional Team Physicians indicated 85% would not recommend creatine until more research was completed.

30 Andro is a nutritional supplement that can be purchased OTC by anyone of any age. In the body it is converted to testosterone and estrogen. It has no muscle building effects of its own but it can allow athletes to train harder and recover from exercise more quickly. Side effects are similar to steroids Banned by the NCAA, NFL and International Olympic Committee

31 GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid) GBL (gamma butryolactone) BD (butanedoil) It is illegal to manufacture and distribute these products. They are used to make floor stripper, paint thinner, and other industrial products. These ingredients can cause breathing problems, coma, vomiting, seizures and sometimes death. More than 122 serious illnesses and 3 deaths have been attributed to these products. These ingredients can be found in numerous dietary supplements for bodybuilding, weight loss, and sleep aids.

32 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Staph are very common bacteria that can be found on the skin and in the noses of everyone. Most staph species never cause an infection; but when skin is broken or punctured, staph bacteria can enter into the wound and cause infection. MRSA is a form of staph that has become resistant to certain antibiotics.

33 Through the air On contaminated surfaces Person to persondirty hands and fingernails Can also be transmitted from person to person by Carriers(according to the CDC, 20-30% of adults and children in the U.S. are colonized with staph. This means that the bacteria are present but do not cause illness).


35 WASH YOUR HANDS!!!!! Keep your hands away from your nose and groin Do not share towels, soap, lotion, razors, or deodorant Shower with soap and water asap after direct contact sports Use alcohol-based hand sanitizers to wash hands immediately when hand washing is unavailable Wash hands after sneezing, blowing, or touching your nose; before and after close contact; and after using the toilet.

36 Always finish your antibiotic and follow your course of treatment exactly as your Physician explained to you. Never insist on antibiotics for a viral infection like a cold or the flu. Discard any unused pills from old illnesses and dont store any leftover antibiotics in your medicine cabinet. Dont share antibiotics! Dont go to Mexico for antibiotics that you think may helpdrugs are very specific to the type of bacteria it kills.

37 We dont take all of our antibiotic because we start feeling better. It kills the weak ones first and leaves the super-bug behind. We take antibiotics when we dont need to. The bacteria works up a resistance and gets stronger. Antibiotics do not work on virusesthey are only effective on bacteria. Vets give antibiotics to calves for stress and are given to other animals to make them fatter quicker. In time the bacteria in these animals develop resistance to these drugs and that resistance is passed on to humans.

38 TELL YOUR COACH IMMEDIATELY!!!!!!!!! If you are embarrassed and dont want to tell them, it only delays your treatment and you may be infecting others. You can still play, it just has to be covered. If you follow school protocol, there is no need for you to be sidelined.

39 Take all your prescribed medication, even after the infection seems to have healed. Keep wound covered at all times. Take special care when removing and disposing of bandages with drainage Towels and linens should be changed out daily Call your Physician if: 1. The infection is no better after 3-4 days 2. The infection keeps getting worse 3. You develop a fever or your fever worsens

40 UIL requires each athlete to be assessed by a Physician and cleared for physical activity prior to participation. It is the law!

41 An abrupt occurrence where the heart ceases to function and results in death within minutes It is not a heart attack It is usually due to a malfunction of the hearts electrical system. Sudden cardiac death in athletes is usually caused by a previously unsuspected heart disease or disorder.

42 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathyhereditary condition in which the left ventricle thickens. Most common cause for sudden cardiac death in U.S. athletes. Coronary Artery Abnormalitiespresent from birth but can be silent for years until vigorous exercise. Commotio Cordisconcussion of the heart muscle when struck suddenly by such things as a baseball. This is actually a rare occurrence. Marfan Syndrome: hereditary abnormality of the ligaments and tendons of the heart. The wall of the aorta can become weak and rupture. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndromeextra conduction fiber that can allow for rapid heartbeat and ventricular fibrillation. Long QT Syndromehereditary abnormality of the hearts electrical system. Rapid heartbeat can lead to v-fib. Recreational Drug Useeven someone with a completely normal heart can develop v-fib and die suddenly due to drug use.

43 Palpitationfeeling fast or skipped heart beats Dizzinessfeeling lightheaded Chest Pain or chest tightness with exercise Shortness of Breath Syncopefainting or passing out SB 82 Requires Schools in the State of Texas to have any athlete who loses consciousness to be assessed by a Physician (and cleared) prior to their return to physical activity.

44 A disease that affects the way A person breathes.

45 During an attack, the muscles surrounding the airway Tighten. This causes the inside of the airways to constrict and become clogged with mucus. Both constriction and inflammation make breathing difficult and labored.

46 Wheezing Chronic cough (especially at night) Labored breathing Difficulty breathing with exercise Rapid breathing Gasping or sighing Chest tightness

47 Allergens (molds, animal dander or hair) Exercise Irritants (cigarette smoke, wood smoke, strong odors, cleaning agents, air pollution) Weather Certain Medications Strong displays of emotion (anxiety, crying, yelling, even laughing hard)

48 1. Preventative Medicationskeep the airways open by relaxing the muscles surrounding them to prevent airway constriction from occurring in the first place 2. Rescue Medications (rescue inhalers, puffers)work quickly to open the airways during an attack. They relax the airway by relaxing airway muscles but do not provide long-term asthma control or help prevent future attacks.

49 Take Care of Your Cobra Heart

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