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Session 12 & 17 Complex Functional Behavioral Assessment/ Behavior Intervention Planning Heather Peshak George, Ph.D. University of South Florida – Tampa.

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Presentation on theme: "Session 12 & 17 Complex Functional Behavioral Assessment/ Behavior Intervention Planning Heather Peshak George, Ph.D. University of South Florida – Tampa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Session 12 & 17 Complex Functional Behavioral Assessment/ Behavior Intervention Planning Heather Peshak George, Ph.D. University of South Florida – Tampa Bay August 17-18, 2010 WI PBIS Network: Coaches Training – Stevens Point, WI 1

2 Agenda –Overview of Behavior Principles Functional Behavior Assessment –Data Basics –Levels of Positive Behavior Support –ERASE (Liaupsin, Scott, & Nelson) –Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) 2

3 Objectives Participants will: –Describe behavioral principles underlying functional assessment of problem behavior –Identify measures for baseline data gathering and progress monitoring –Compare and contrast secondary and tertiary behavior support models –Identify key factors that impact intervention effectiveness –Apply an individualized PBS model 3

4 What Would You Do If…? Paul: Shouts profanities and throws things Kevin: Refuses to respond and turns away from the teacher Jenny: Stomps out of class without permission 4

5 Traditional Approaches to Dealing With Difficult Behavior Punishment Exclusion Counseling 5

6 The Problem The child IS the problem so fix him/her –P–Punish the child to teach a lesson –W–We hope the problem will go away…Does it? –W–Who benefits the most from this approach? The child HAS a problem so fix it –C–Change the environment –T–Teach new skills –P–Problem less likely to occur 6

7 Comparison of Traditional Behavior Intervention Plans and Positive Behavior Intervention Plans Traditional BIP: –Focuses on the student needing to be changed –Eliminating undesirable behavior is the goal –Uses mostly reactive strategies (consequence- based) –Usually includes punitive interventions Positive BIP: –Focuses on the context/environment –Goal is to replace problem behavior with a functionally equivalent behavior or skill –Uses multi-component interventions Preventative Replacement behavior Responding/Reinforcemen t 7

8 Given 60 seconds, use 4 straight lines to connect all of the dots without lifting your pen 8

9 A box to think outside of: Child 9

10 There are many other boxes to explore 10

11 Principles of Behavior

12 Behavior Anything we say or do Much easier to change things we can observe Think about whether you can see or hear it What about thoughts? Intentions? –Best not to focus on these as becomes more of a guessing game 12

13 How are Behaviors Learned? Stimulus/Antecedent (S d ) BehaviorConsequences/ Reinforcement 13

14 Increasing Behaviors 2 Categories of Reinforcement –Positive Addition of pleasant stimulus after behavior Example: getting a popsicle when you say popsicle School examples: verbal praise, earning points, stickers, stars, access to preferred activities….. –Negative Removal of unpleasant stimulus when target (desired) behavior occurs Examples: Seat-belt buzzer, erasing name from the board, completing work to keep from sitting out of recess, allowing escape from work contingent upon completion of tasks…. 14

15 Decreasing Behaviors Punisher –Addition of an unpleasant stimulus after behavior that decreases the likelihood that behavior will be performed in the future –If the behavior does not decrease as a result of the response, that response is NOT a punisher!!!! (even if it is an unpleasant stimulus) Example: Suspending a student who does not want to be in class or schoolIs suspension a punishment or a reinforcer? 15

16 Use of Punishment Must ensure fit with the function of behavior –If behavior is to escape, then expulsion, suspension, time-out, or send to principal or behavior specialist does NOT fit (and will not be effective in decreasing the students problem behavior) –If behavior is to get attention, do not send them to the counselor, social worker, or behavior specialist if s/he is going to talk to or calm them What happens in the main office, the behavior specialists or counselors office at your school? 16

17 Functional Behavior Assessment Process

18 Function and Context People behave for a reason – this is function Does he/she get something? Tangibles, attention, stimulation, people, etc. Does he/she avoid or escape something? People, activities, embarrassment, tasks, etc. Context Things in the environment (items, persons, actions, events) affect the likelihood of a behavior 18

19 Functional Behavior Assessment Purpose: –Assess behavior in relation to environmental contexts (antecedents and consequences) –To identify the function(s) maintaining problem behavior –To guide the development of an individualized, data-based behavior support plan 19

20 Functional Behavior Assessment More than just paperwork to meet IDEA More than just a step before a diagnosis or placement change is made An ongoing process, not an event Is a tool to: –Change the environment to make behavior less likely –Teach the student new skills –Set the student up for success 20

21 The FBA Process 1. Identify and define problem behavior 2. Identify patterns of problem (and appropriate) behavior-- antecedent and consequent events 3. Identify the function of behavior hypothesis 4. Develop an intervention plan 5. Monitor the effectiveness of the intervention 21

22 Identify Problem Behavior The definition needs to be operationalized –Observable –Measurable –Accurate –Detailed Can you hear it, see it? 22

23 Define Problem Behavior Non-Examples –Tantrum –Hyperactive –Angry –Aggressive Examples –Screams, falls to floor, pounds fists on the floor –Jumps out of chair w/o permission; shouts responses –Throws materials on the floor when asked to do math tasks –Punches peers on their body with his fists 23

24 Identifying Patterns: Methods To Collect FBA Data 24

25 Functional Behavior Assessment/ Gathering Information Indirect –Record Review –InterviewingPTR Assessment –ChecklistsERASE/PTR Assessment Direct –Scatter plots –ABC Data CollectionABC Card Select best ways to gather information about operationalized behavior 25

26 The ABCs of Behavior A = Antecedent B = Behavior C = Consequence 26

27 ABC Analysis Antecedent: What happens immediately before the behavior? Behavior: The actions of the student Consequence: What happens immediately after the behavior? 27

28 ABC Behavior AntecedentConsequence Medical & Physiological Environmental Curricular & Instructional Interactional Personal & Control Issues What a Person Says or Does Social/attention Tangible Escape/avoidance Sensory/intrinsic Under what circumstances does behavior occur? What outcomes are produced? 28

29 Activity As a group, determine the function of behavior for the next two students Answer using your hands (appropriately): –Right hand up: Escape –Left hand up: Attention –Both hands up: Sensory –Both hands down: I am not paying attention 29

30 Activity: ABC Analysis All things that happen just before behavior The students behavior All things that happen just after behavior John fights with his girlfriend before school. The teacher asks him to do an independent writing assignment. John stares at his paper, gets up, kicks the desk, and stomps out of the classroom Teacher tells John to stop and get back to his seat. She writes a referral to the office. John is suspended for 3 days. JOHN LEAVES CLASS WITHOUT PERMISSION – WHY? NAME THAT FUNCTION! Possible Function of Johns Leaving Class Behavior: WHEN JOHN IS ASKED TO DO A NON-PREFERRED INDEPENDENT ASSIGNMENT REQIRING WRITING, HE WILL LEAVE CLASS TO AVOID DOING THE WORK. THE BEHAVIOR IS MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR WHEN HE HAS A FIGHT WITH HIS GIRLFRIEND. 30

31 Activity: ABC Analysis All things that happen just before behavior The students behaviorAll things that happen just after behavior Susan calls Brenda a creep face and laughs at her Brenda punches Susan on the arm Susan stops laughing and walks away BRENDA HITS OTHER STUDENTS - WHY? NAME THAT FUNCTION! Possible Function of Brendas Hitting Behavior: WHEN OTHER STUDENTS CALL HER NAMES AND LAUGH AT HER, BRENDA HITS THEM BECAUSE IT MAKES THEM GO AWAY (ESCAPE) 31

32 Antecedents (Before Behavior) Two types –Slow trigger (setting events) Removed in time from the occurrence of behavior –Fast trigger (immediate antecedent) Events happen immediately before the problem behavior 32

33 Antecedents: Slow Triggers May happen in or out of the classroom Are conditions that increase the likelihood behavior will occur – oversleeping – no breakfast – forgotten medication – conflict with... 33

34 Antecedents: Fast Triggers Examples –Assignment to easy/difficult –Teasing –Teacher attending to another student May be consistent –Anytime someone asks student to open book May only occur when specific event occurs –Only when Ms. Jones asks student to open book 34

35 Consequences of Behavior Responses and/or events occurring after problem behavior –What is the pay-off? –What does the student get? –What does the student avoid? 35

36 36 NAME THAT FUNCTION!

37 Using Data to Develop a Hypothesis: Your Best Guess

38 What is a Hypothesis Statement? A hypothesis statement is: –an informed, assessment-based explanation of the target behavior –an informed best guess about the relation between environmental events or conditions and students target behavior 38

39 Hypothesis Development Formula –When (trigger/antecedent/setting event) occurs…. –the student does (describe behavior)… –to (obtain or escape or avoid)…..(function) 39

40 Hypothesis Statement: Example After Chris visits his brother in jail (setting event/slow trigger) and he is asked to complete a task independently (antecedent/fast trigger), Chris shuts his book and puts his head down (behavior) so that the teacher comes over and talks to him and he gets attention (function). 40

41 Activity Are These Hypotheses Complete? Right hand up : NO! Both hands up : YES! Both hands down : I am not paying attention 41

42 Are These Hypotheses Complete? 1.Lisa becomes aggressive when she is angry. 2.Bob acts out to avoid having to go to work in his supported employment program. 3.Joseph exhibits self-injurious behavior because he has autism. 4.Louis brings his cigarette lighter to school to avoid demand situations. 5.Kristy is more likely to draw on the desk when she is required to participate in independent work for extended periods of time in order to gain teacher attention. 42

43 Using the Data-Based Hypothesis to Develop a Behavior Intervention Plan

44 Behavior Intervention Plan The intervention plan is a plan that: –is developed for a specific student –addresses specific challenging behavior(s) –provides enough detail for anyone to implement The intervention plan is not –a general behavior plan –a list of suggestions 44

45 Selecting Interventions Select interventions that will make problem behavior: –IrrelevantAntecedent or Prevent Interventions Changes to the environment (the triggers) so that problem behavior is not necessary –InefficientReplacement Behaviors or Teach New behavior is easier and results in a faster outcome than the problem behavior –IneffectiveResponding to Behavior or Reinforce Responding so that new behavior has the same outcome as problem behavior but greater than problem behavior 45

46 Replacement Behaviors Replacement behaviors are what we want the student to do instead of the problem behavior Effective replacement behavior must: –Be incompatible with the problem behavior –Serve the same function as the problem REPLACEMENT Behavior FUNCTION Problem Behavior 46

47 Two Types of Replacement Behaviors Functionally equivalent –More appropriate way to get the same outcome –Not the expected or desired behavior –Intermediary behavior that will be faded –Asking for a break, brain break pass, secret signal for attention, work check pass, tardy pass, requesting cool off or calming strategy Desired, prosocial –Behavior expected of the student to get the same or different outcome –Raising hand, asking for item, completing assignment, coming to class on time, transitioning 47

48 Activity: Identify Replacement Behaviors For each behavior listed in the table: 1.Identify one functionally equivalent, intermediary behavior 2.Identify one desired, expected behavior 48

49 Identify Replacement Behaviors Problem Behavior FunctionReplacement Behavior Refusing to transition to next activity in class Delaying/avoiding transition Refusing to answer in front of peers Escape peer attention or embarrassment Leaving class without permission Escape boring (repetitive) tasks Shouting cuss words at adults and peers Get peers attention and respect for being a bad a_ _ 49

50 Identify Replacement Behaviors Problem BehaviorFunctionReplacement Behavior Refusing to transition to next activity in class Delay/avoid transitionR: Request short delay of transition r: Transition to next activity Refusing to answer in front of peers Escape peer attention or embarrassment Leaving class without permission Escape boring (repetitive) tasks Shouting cuss words at adults and peers Get peers attention and respect for being a bad a_ _ 50

51 Identify Replacement Behaviors Problem Behavior FunctionReplacement Behavior Refusing to transition to next activity in class Delaying/avoiding transition Refusing to answer in front of peers Escape peer attention or embarrassment R: Cue/pass to not answer R: Answer question Leaving class without permission Escape boring (repetitive) tasks Shouting cuss words at adults and peers Get peers attention and respect for being a bad a_ _ 51

52 Identify Replacement Behaviors Problem Behavior FunctionReplacement Behavior Refusing to transition to next activity in class Delaying/avoiding transition Refusing to answer in front of peers Escape peer attention or embarrassment Leaving class without permission Escape boring (repetitive) tasks R: Request break r: Stay in class and work on task Shouting cuss words at adults and peers Get peers attention and respect for being a bad a_ _ 52

53 Identify Replacement Behaviors Problem Behavior FunctionReplacement Behavior Refusing to transition to next activity in class Delaying/avoiding transition Refusing to answer in front of peers Escape peer attention or embarrassment Leaving class without permission Escape boring (repetitive) tasks Shouting cuss words at adults and peers Get peers attention and respect for being a bad a_ _ R: Ask for attention r: Get peers attention for completing work 53

54

55 Use the Pathway! Setting Event Triggering Event or Antecedent Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequence THE FUNCTION Get something Get away from Something 55

56 Neutralize/ eliminate setting events Add relevant & remove irrelevant triggers Teach alternative that is more efficient Add effective & & remove ineffective reinforcers BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLANNING 56

57 Sam Kindergarten Aggressive with peers, not participating in activities or following routines, difficulty focusing on any activity ECC program red flagged him due to behavior and lack of academic progress DCFS involved 57

58 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Conflict at home: mornings when not organized for school, not sure who will take Sam to school morning activity when teacher requests that he sit on chair or carpet for structured activity Does not join activity walks around the classroom, poking and pushing kids gives a time out to calm down misses activities Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Coupons, praise Follow routines Summary Statement Walk to a designated area of classroom Replacement Behaviors Function 58

59 Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Teach how to quietly walk to a designated area of the room Teach how to sit and complete tasks for 5minutes up to 10 minutes Walk with responsible 4 th grade cousin to school. CICO modified (new adult and more specific goals) Re-teach expected behavior for all classroom settings Additional rating periods for expectations Individualize d positive greeting by teacher in the morning Points/coupo ns when participates in activities or quietly goes to his area Does not earn points if puts hands on students 59

60 Moving from Brief FBA/BIP to Complex FBA/BIP Team developing plan became more individualized Additional data tool usedEducational Information Tool BIP strategies applied in multiple settings (home and school). 60

61 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Conflict at home: problem behavior at home before school Structured academic tasks Does not complete work, throws things, laughs, disturbing others Teacher walks over, talks to him and helps him get on task Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Coupons, praise Follow routines Summary Statement Ask teacher for help Replacement Behaviors Function 61

62 Setting Event Manipulations Antecedent Manipulations Consequence Manipulations Behavior Manipulations Teach how to ask for help Teach how to work in close proximity to peers --sharing supplies and asking for help from peers Cousin involved in CICO process (more encourageme nt, helping to get DPR home for guardian to see) Guardian uses similar features of CICO at home, teaching, prompting, points More re- teaching for whole class, how to quietly work Higher rates of praise during activities Use timer so all kids could see how much time they had for activity Points earn extra playtime of choice at end of class Planned ignoring of problem behavior Reward at home when earns DPR points 62

63 Self Check for Designing Support Plans Prevention Strategies 1. Does the plan include changes to the antecedents (triggers) so that problem behavior is not needed? 2. Does the plan include steps to decrease the effects of setting events (distant triggers)? 3. Does the plan include modifications to make desired behaviors more likely? 63

64 Self Check for Designing Support Plans Teaching Strategies 1.Do the replacement behavior serve the same function as the problem behavior? 2.Is the replacement behavior more efficient and effective than problem behavior? 3.Is there a plan for teaching the skills to the student? 64

65 Reinforcement Strategies 1.Does the plan include consequence strategies for (a) strengthening the replacement skills and (b) reducing the payoff for problem behavior (think about the function)? 2.Do consequences for replacement behaviors produce outcomes that are more effective & efficient than the problem behavior? 3.If an intermediary replacement behavior is used, is the reinforcer for the desired/expected behavior greater than and more effective than the reinforcer for the replacement behavior? Self Check for Designing Support Plans 65

66 Evaluation: Baseline Data Gathering and Progress Monitoring

67 Baseline Data Must have a method to collect data prior to start of intervention –Must track problem behavior –Should track appropriate behavior or what you want the student to be doing instead Need a minimum of 5 days of data prior to intervention 67

68 Progress Monitoring Continue collecting data daily after intervention implemented Need to use same method of data collection May need to add specific replacement behavior to data collection 68

69 Developing Measurement Plan Identify outcomes most important to the team Keep It Simple--KIS it –Simple, user-friendly forms to monitor outcomes –Rating scales, check sheets Schedule dates for check-ins Use the data!! –Evaluate the effectiveness of the support plan at least weekly 69

70 Data Collection Methods Event recording Rate measures Partial/Whole interval Time sampling Latency Duration Task analytic Perceptual 70

71 The Behavior Rating Scale A rating of the recorders perception of the occurrence of behavior –Extremely effective in getting data –Time efficient –Measure of change in behavior Completed as a whole day measure or during specific times of the day Recorder scores on a scale of 1 to 5 that is defined for each behavior 71

72 Behavior Rating Scale BehaviorDate Hitting8 or more 6-7 times 4-5 times 2-3 times 0-1 times Profanity16 or more times times 8-11 times 4-7 times 0-3 times Requesting Attention/ Assistance 55% or more 40-55% 25-40% 10-25% 0-10%

73 Rate the problem behavior: 0=no problems, 1 = stayed in class and worked on task with one reminder prompt, 2= stood up from desk; sat back down; delayed start of assignment; 3= left class Data Gathering MeasureJack (Leaving Class W/O Permission Week of _____________ MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFriday English Pre-Algebra World History Computer Lab Study Lab Average Score Average Score: 3 Average Score: 2.2 Average Score: 1.4 Average Score: 1.4 Average Score:.8 73

74 MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturday Bens Playtime 4=Laughing, stayed 3=Cooperated, stayed briefly 2=Fussed, took several turns1= Cried, refused to play 74

75 Team-Driven Process

76 Importance of Team-Driven Actions Greater likelihood of teacher buy-in Greater likelihood of intervention implementation Problem-solving process becomes broader Teacher ownership of problem increases Relationship with facilitator and impact on intervention acceptance –Must be collaborative –Cannot come in and tell teacher what to do 76

77 Behavior Support Team A collaborative group of individuals who assess and develop individualized, proactive, continuing supports –Information Gathering –Hypothesis Development –Creation of the Support Plan –Implementation of Interventions 77

78 Membership on Behavior Support Teams People who know the focus student well and have a vested interest People who know supports and resources (and methods of accessing them), as well as potential barriers Members to allocate personnel and fiscal resources 78

79 A Tiered Approach to Meeting Individual Student Needs

80 Individualized PBS (Tertiary) For high-risk students: –History of severe problem behaviors –Demonstrated resistance to intervention –An intensive system of support is needed ~15% ~ 80% of Students ~5% 80

81 Which Students Need PBIS? Address Individual level PBIS if: –One or more students receive many referrals –One or more students exhibits severe or dangerous behavior –School-wide screenings and teacher referrals identify students with problem behavior –School-wide, classroom, or targeted group interventions have not resulted in improved behavior for one or more students –Students in ESE settings with persistent or violent behavior who may not generate office referrals 81

82 Office Discipline Referrals Student 82

83 Why ODRs May Not Be Enough May miss students in ESE settings with persistent or violent behavior who may not generate office referrals May not identify students with severe internalizing behaviors May not identify students with many minors but few majors May not reflect that some teachers write referrals and others do not 83

84 Other Ways to Identify Students Behavior screenings –1-2 times per year teachers nominate and rank students –Teachers complete validated rating scale (CBCL-TRS or SSBD) Teacher referrals –Identify concern –Prioritize within classroom Must have a process to prioritize identified students 84

85 Activity: Student Referral Process What is the process in your school? –What form? Where do you submit it? –When does support occur? –Who is involved? –How are student needs prioritized? –How is your SWPBS process and team involved? Are you working smarter or harder? 85

86 Conceptualizing an Array of PBIS Supports Scott, 2001 Universal/Primary School-Wide Assessment School-Wide Prevention Systems Classroom Interventions Targeted/ Secondary Tertiary (Intensive ) Analyze Student Data Interviews, Questionnaires, etc. Observations and ABC Analysis Multi-Disciplinary Assessment & Analysis Simple Student Interventions (ERASE) Group Interventions Complex Individualized Interventions (PTR) Team-Based Wraparound Interventions Intervention Assessment 86

87 Principles of Practice Levels of support range from simple classroom consultation to intensive wrap- around plans All levels include data collection and functional behavior assessment All levels match interventions to functions of behavior and the schools context 87

88 How to Make PBIS Work Be pragmatic –Effectively and efficiently match your resources to the complexity of the behavior problem Serious/complex behavior problems = additional resources and approaches Less intensive behavior problems = fewer resources 88

89 System Changes to Consider System for submitting a request for assistance –Form, to whom, where, what information is needed? –System for prioritizing students Identify who will facilitate teams System for notifying other team members Identify a set a time period until a baseline data meeting Identify a set time period until intervention meeting 89

90 90

91 91 Purpose of P-T-R To provide schools with a standardized, easy-to-use model with which to apply research-based, behavioral strategies for addressing the most serious problem behaviors of students. –For all students with serious problem behaviors - -- special education, general education. –Intended for pre-K through high school, however research has just been conducted in grades K-8

92 92 PTR Model Research-based Practices –Assessment and Intervention Team-driven decision-making Steps are scripted as much as possible Each step ends with self-evaluation (checklist) Selection of interventions is menu- driven Entire process is manualized

93 93 The PTR 5-Step Process 1)Developing a Team 2)Establishing clear goals (short and long term) 3)Functional Assessment 4)Designing and Implementing a Behavior Intervention Plan 5)Evaluation (ongoing) and Revision (as necessary)

94 Step 1: Overview Team Building Team Development –Include: Teacher who has the child for the majority of the day; Special educator if the child receives part-time services in special education; Behavior specialist who has expertise in functional assessment and behavior analysis; and Others, such as family members, paraprofessionals, special area teachers. Team function –Roles and Responsibilities –Behaviors and Commitment 94

95 Step 1: Team Building Ensuring a Successful Team What information does the team need to address to ensure a successful BIP process? –Teacher/Therapist Work Style Survey –Paraeducator Work Style Survey –Classroom Team Survey A collaborative process –Teacher and facilitator relationship 95

96 Step 1: Team Building Issues to Address Are there others who need to be a part of the team? Identify the roles and responsibilities of each team member Identify a consensus-making process 96

97 Case StudyStep 1: Team Building Mike is a 9-year-old male in a self- contained autism classroom Nonverbaluses signs, Dynamite, and pictures to communicate 1 teacher, 2 aides, and 6 students 97

98 Case StudyStep 1: Team Building Teacher-- Ms. Wonderful Aides –Ms. Needs Help –Ms. Also Needs Help FacilitatorPTR Consultant Results of teaming information indicate a great team that meets regularly to brainstorm 98

99 Step 2: Overview Goal Setting Team engages in a process for identifying problem behavior and possible replacement behaviors to target in 3 areas: –Academic –Social –Behavior Team defines short term goals in operational and measurable terms Team prioritizes short term goals and develops a baseline data collection system 99

100 Step 2: Goal Setting Identifying Behavioral Goals Address school-based events that can be changed within the school year –Problem Behaviors & Replacement Behaviors Leaving class without permission Remaining in class throughout the period and/or requesting a break –Social Deficits & Social Skills Using profanity when mad at peers & adults Expressing frustrations and needs appropriately –Academic Behavior & Pro-Academic Skills Not finishing work/completing work independently Disengaged/Engaged during independent work time 100

101 Step 2: Goal Setting Identifying Behavioral Goals BehaviorSocialAcademic BroadThe broad skill or outcome the student needs to learn (e.g., communicate wants/needs, initiate peer interactions, task engagement) DecreaseWhat the student is doing now that is keeping him/her from meeting the broad goal IncreaseThe more specific behavior the student should engage in to meet the broad goal 101

102 Case StudyStep 2: Goal Setting Decrease Increase Broad Mike will communicate his wants and needs appropriately Mike will interact with peers appropriately Mike will comply with nonpreferred activities and requests Mike will decrease screaming, hitting, and getting out of his seat Mike will decrease hitting, screaming at, and bossing his peers Mike will decrease screaming and hitting Mike will ask for a break or for attention when needed Mike will initiate peer interactions using his Dynamite Mike will engage in nonpreferred activities and communicate his frustration using his Dynamite or an appropriate tone Behavior Social Academic 102

103 Step 2: Identify Baseline Data Collection System Baseline data gathering –Identify no more than 3 problem behaviors of concern and the skills to replace (increase) –Operationally define all targeted behaviors –Identify how and when data will be collected –Need at least 5 days of baseline data 103

104 Case Study: Operational Definitions of Problem and Replacement Behaviors Screamingloud, high pitched noise heard outside the classroom Hittinganytime Mike touches peers or adults with an open hand, fist, foot, or object while screaming or protesting Expressing Frustrationusing Dynamite, pictures, or signs to ask for a break or attention Transition to nonpreferred activitiesmoving to nonpreferred activity and engaging with appropriate verbal expression (screaming level) 104

105 Case Study: Behavior Rating Scale With Anchors BehaviorDate Screaming9+ times 7-8 times 5-6 times 3-4 times 0-2 times Hitting8+ times 6-7 times 4-5 times 2-3 times 0-1 times Expressing Frustration 40% % 20-30% 10-20% 0-10% Transition to Nonpreferred Whimper or squeal Louder than indoor voice Outdoor play voice Louder than outdoor play Ear penetrating

106 Using the Behavior Rating Scale (BRS) Perceptual rating Behavior recorded at least once daily –May be specific to a setting, activity, time of day –May be whole day –May be combination of both Use anchors on a scale of

107 Determining the Anchors on the BRS Behavior can be measured using –Frequency (times per day) –Duration (hours, minutes, seconds) –Intensity (how hard, how loud, bruise, etc.) –Percent of day –Percent of occurrence –Percent of opportunity 107

108 Questions to Guide the BRS What is the behavior like on a typical day? What is the goal you would like to reach within the next 3 months, school year, etc? What is more important to you: –how loud it is or how long? –how hard it is or how often? Is the number of times the skill can be used the same each day? 108

109 Step 3: Overview PTR Assessment (FBA) PTR Assessment (FBA) –Each team member independently answers a series of questions related to: Observed antecedents/triggers of problem behaviors Functions of the problem behaviors Consequences ordinarily associated with the problem behaviors –Synthesized input leads logically to development of three intervention components (prevent, teach, reinforce) 109

110 Step 3: PTR Assessment The Assessment Summary Table All responders answers reflected on summary table Group/organize responses into similar categories –Prevent Specific subjects, information about curriculum Transitions (within and to/from classroom) Unstructured times (e.g., centers, recess, free play) Setting events/slow triggers (e.g., temperature, meds, sleep, illness) –TeachFunctions Attention seeking Escape Access to items/people –Reinforce Consequences resulting in attention, access, and/or avoidance Identify questions that need answers 110

111 Case StudyStep 3: PTR Assessment Problem Behavior Prevention DataTeach DataReinforce Data Non-preferred task Reading, Math Transition Preferred to non-preferred Change in schedule Denied item, told no, or to fix something Other students upset/mad Teacher attending to others Gain attention Peers, adults Delay Access to items Redirected Reprimanded Calm/soothe Personal space Later must complete task Loses/delays reinforcers Screaming, Hitting 111

112 Case StudyStep 3: PTR Assessment Appropriate Behavior Prevention DataTeach DataReinforce Data Independent work One-on-one attention Specials Peer interaction Getting attention Raising hand Sharing attention Conversation skills Taking turns Waiting Self-management Asking for break Expressing emotions Treasure box Movie Attention Helping teacher Going to media center Going outside Walk Food Prosocial 112

113 Step 3: PTR Assessment Developing the Hypothesis When….Student will…. As a result… Inappropriate Behavior Appropriate Behavior Prevention data = antecedents or triggers Teach data = replacement behavior and possible function Reinforce data = function and reinforcers

114 Case StudyStep 3: PTR Assessment Possible Hypotheses When….Student will….As a result… Mike is asked to complete non- preferred task (Reading, Math), stop preferred activity or transition to nonpreferred activity, fix an error, or when teacher attending to other students scream and hitMike is able to gain attention and delay the transition/activity Mike is asked to complete non- preferred task (Reading, Math), stop preferred activity or transition to non-preferred activity, fix an error, or when teacher attending to other students express his frustrations appropriately complete the assigned task Mike is able to delay the transition/activity Mike is able to gain attention Inappropriate Appropriate 114

115 Step 4: Overview of PTR Intervention Team identifies appropriate interventions for each component (prevent-teach-reinforce) from a menu of options Behavior intervention plan developed Consultant provides training and on-site assistance for final interventions agreed upon Fidelity of implementation is tracked 115

116 Step 4: PTR Interventions List of Activities to Address Review Intervention Checklist Discuss interventions selected –Do they match the function? –Can they be done in the classroom? –Do they match the context of the classroom? Describe how interventions will look in teachers classroom (develop the BIP) Discuss training Discuss in-class coaching/technical assistance Discuss fidelity 116

117 117

118 Step 4: PTR Intervention Using the Intervention Checklist Record each team members rank on the checklist Develop a list of preferred interventions –Mean of ratings –Interventions rank ordered #1 –Number of people selecting specific intervention –*Be sure to make note of interventions ranked highest/selected by teacher 118

119 Step 4: PTR Intervention Developing the Intervention Plan Guide the team to identify interventions –Use Intervention Checklist –Provide examples –Ask them questions How might this strategy look for student? Are you going to always be available? Is this doable? –Ensure fit with the classroom –Ensure fit with the function 119

120 Case Study: Tips on Linking Interventions to Hypothesis Prevention strategies must address: –Getting Mike attention more often –Changing non-preferred task Particular student How it is done (format) –Changing what happens when he makes a mistake Do part of it (rather than all of it) over Allow him to find what is wrong Provide social story –Signaling end of preferred activity Teach strategies must address: –How to get attention/assistance –How to get break/delay appropriately Reinforce strategies must address: –Giving Mike attention/help –Giving Mike break/delay 120

121 Step 4: PTR Intervention Writing the Intervention Plan Task analyze each step of the plan –NOT give student choices –YES at start of reading, tell student we have 2 worksheets today (show worksheets). Which worksheet would you like to do first? If teachers do not know how to do it, they will not implement the strategy Make it easy for teachers to do!! 121

122 Prevent Strategies Specific Strategy steps Environmental Support A wait card will be placed on Mikes desk to assist him in remembering to wait his turn. 1. Prior to group work, tell Mike, Remember, when it is someone elses turn, you sit quietly and wait, while pointing to his card. 2. If Mike calls out, point to his visual to remind him what to do. 3. Use a verbal prompt if the point prompt does not work. Environmental Support Mikes visual schedule will be modified to detail the number of and type of activities he is to complete during non-preferred activities. For example, if math involves listening to a lesson, doing a hands-on activity, and completing a worksheet, his visual schedule will list each activity under math using either a picture of the type of activity or using numbers that correspond to a number on the worksheet. 1. Prior to the start of the activity, Mike should review the visual schedule. 2. As Mike completes an activity, he should X off the activity. Case StudyStep 4: PTR Intervention 122

123 Prevent Strategies Specific Strategy steps Curricular Modification Mike will be given an easy, independent activity, such as a worksheet, to complete upon transitioning to a non-preferred activity or an activity that requires him to wait, such as group activities 123

124 Teach Strategies Specific Strategy Steps Replacement Behavior Mike will be taught to use his Dynamite to express his need to calm down. 1. Mikes device will be programmed to say I need to calm down. 2. Prior to transitioning to a non-preferred activity or at the end of a preferred activity, remind Mike that if you start to get mad, you can choose to calm down. 3. As soon as Mike starts to get upset, prompt him to use his device. 4. Once Mike communicates I need to calm down, present him with the choice board of calming strategies and ask him, What do you want? 5. As soon as he is calm, praise him. 6. Allow Mike to engage in his choice until he is calm for 1-minute. 7. If Mike does not return to his area, then start having a fun time in that area with those students present 124

125 Teach Strategies Specific Strategy Steps Self- Management Mike will be taught to independently use his calming strategies. 1. A tracking sheet with smiley faces and sad faces will be given to Mike at the start of each day. 2. Role-play with Mike about when he needs to make the choice to calm down. 3. Practice completing the tracking sheet. 4. Set and review the daily goal for using the calming strategies. 5. Prompt Mike to complete the tracking sheet if needed 125

126 Reinforce Strategies Specific Strategy Steps Replacement Behavior Anytime Mike says I need to calm down, his choice board should be given. 1. Praise Mike for communicating (thank you for telling me.) 2. Provide his choice board. 3. Allow him to calm for 1 minute 4. Praise him as soon as he is quiet 5. Praise him for returning to the group Self- Management Anytime Mike scores his behavior, attention should be given. 1. When Mike marks his tracking sheet, praise him for doing so. 2. At the end of the day, review the sheet with Mike. 3. Talk about the sad faces. 4. Provide his reward if his goal is met. WaitingMike will earn a skittle paired with attention if he waits. This will be faded to an intermittent schedule. 126

127 Reinforce Strategies Specific Strategy Steps TransitionMike will earn stars during Reading Centers if he transitions and completes his work without screaming. 1. A social story will be reviewed prior to Reading Centers to remind Mike that he can earn a star if he comes to centers and works. 2. At the end of each reading center, an adult will review Mikes behavior with him and ask him if he earned his stars. 3. Provide his stars if earned. 4. During the teachers group, Mike can earn 2 stars: 1 for transitioning to the group and 1 for working during group. 5. Allow Mike to participate in his chosen activity if he earned his stars. 127

128 Step 4: PTR Intervention Teacher Training on BIP Provide training to practice the plan without student Ask the team questions to ensure understanding Have team role-play steps Obtain 80% accuracy on each step prior to teacher implementing plan with student –Coaching Checklist is task analysis of plan 128

129 Case Study: Training 129

130 Step 4: PTR Intervention In-Class Coaching Provide X hours in the classroom –Model the plan –Work with other students –Provide feedback –Suggest modifications as needed Quality of time rather than quantity 130

131 Step 4: PTR Intervention Fidelity Must measure teacher implementation Adherencedid they do it? –What is the most important part of intervention to be implemented to ensure effect? Qualitydid they do it correctly? –What are all the parts that need to be implemented to obtain optimum effect? 131

132 Step 4: PTR Intervention Fidelity Example: Staying in Class Task analysis of steps of intervention to make leaving class without permission irrelevant –Prevent interventionCurricular Modification –Hypothesized functionescape –Antecedents identifiedDifficult tasks, boring & repetitive tasks, independent seat-work (pencil/paper) 1. Modify assignment so that it is (a) motivatingembeds student preferences; (b) at appropriate difficult level; (c) has meaningful outcomes 2. Present modified assignment to student (and others in class if appropriate) 3. Review assignment, provide examples of completed work 4. Remind student of reinforcement for completing assignment 132

133 Step 4: PTR Intervention Fidelity Example: Staying in Class Adherence--What is the minimal step the teacher needs to do? –Prepare and present modified assignment to student Quality--What are all of the steps the teacher needs to do? –Ensure modification embeds preferences, is at appropriate difficulty level –Reviews assignment and reinforcement 133

134 Case Study: Fidelity 134

135 Step 5: Evaluation Is it working? –Daily ratings of behavior –Continuous progress monitoring BRS Other data collection forms Is it being implemented consistently and accurately? –Fidelity ratings Is more data needed? Does the plan need to be modified or expanded? 135

136 Step 5: Evaluation Case Study: Data

137 Step 5: Evaluation 1 is a lot of screaming, 5 is no screaming 137

138 Step 5: Evaluation 1 is a lot of hitting, 5 is no hitting 138

139 Step 5: Evaluation 1 is a little appropriate expression, 5 is a lot of appropriate expression 139

140 Step 5: Evaluation 1 is inappropriate transition, 5 is super appropriate transition 140

141 Review PTR Process Five-step team-based process Meetings last minutes Training of teacher in BIP In-class coaching provided Intervention process averages 3 months 141

142 Review of PTR Process: Adapt Process as Needed Combine steps –Steps 1 and 2 (teaming and goal setting) Smaller team or team with no history of problems –Steps 2 and 3 (goal setting and assessment) Complete step 2 and 3 activities prior to meeting Complete step 3 activity (PTR assessment) during the meeting –Steps 3 and 4(assessment and intervention) Complete assessment in meeting and go right into intervention development 142

143 Administrative Responsibilities: Tier 3 Identify Tier 3 resources and training as needed –Ensure infrastructure in place w/quality reviews –Collaborative consultation (MDT & knowledge) Identification and prioritizing of students in need Data system w/meaningful data & data-based decision-making time Time for planning, implementation & progress monitoring Willingness to try out of the box, evidence- based interventions Recognize the workhorses on your team 143

144 Final Thoughts: System Changes Process may require more time up front but less time overall Teams more likely to implement the plan –Ownership –Fits the class and the student –Continued contact 144

145 145 Absolute Essentials of PTR A functional team –Collaborative, respectful, committed PTR assessment conducted with precision – the more precise and the more confident the team is with assessment results, the more effective the intervention will be 3 components in intervention (at least) – linked to assessment, implemented with fidelity Sensible data collection, and periodic review, revision, celebration, etc.

146 146 Potential Reasons Need additional help to address behavior –Identification of function Direct observation of behavior –Consistency of intervention Not a complete team –Additional interventions – not a complete plan Complexity of behavior Need for Wraparound Model or other additional supports

147 Questions? 147

148 Resources FLPBS:RtI:B Project –Phone: (813) –Fax: (813) – –Website: OSEP TA Center on PBIS –Website: Association on PBS –Website: 148


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