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Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene

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Presentation on theme: "Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene"— Presentation transcript:

1 Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene
29 CFR

2 Chemical Identification
Gaseous monomer: CH2=CH-CH=CH2 Stored as liquid under pressure Stabilizer added to prevent formation of polymer during storage

3 Production and Use ethylene co-product process) Used in manufacture of
US production, 1991: 3 billion pounds (almost all by ethylene co-product process) Used in manufacture of Rubber (about 60% of total) Precursors of Nylon Rocket propellants Lubricating oil additives Agricultural fungicides Latexes Resins Industrial solvents Anthroquinone dyes

4 Health Effects CNS effects (e.g., headaches, nausea, blurred vision) from very high acute exposures Eye, nose, and throat irritation Irritation and frostbite from contact with liquefied butadiene Leukemia and other lymphohematopoietic cancers and possible reproductive effects from chronic exposures

5 Benefits of Standard 7600 US workers exposed to significant concentrations of butadiene, as high as 10 ppm New standard estimated to prevent at least 59 cancer deaths over a 45-year working lifetime

6 History of Butadiene (BD) Rulemaking
OSHA adopted original standard for BD: ppm (TWA) Source: ACGIH TLVs NTP determined BD causes cancer in rodents; OSHA and EPA published RFI

7 History (cont’d) EPA published ANPR under TSCA; various unions petitioned OSHA for ETS; petitions denied EPA completed risk assessment and referred BD to OSHA OSHA published ANPR OSHA published PR with 2 ppm TWA and 10 ppm STEL

8 History (cont’d) IARC designated BD as probable human carcinogen Joint labor/industry group submitted voluntary agreement outlining recommendations for final rule; OSHA requested comments on recommenda- tions; final rule published November 4, 1996: PELs of 1 ppm TWA, 10 ppm STEL, and AL of 0.5 ppm

9 Unique Features of Standard
Respirators - Short replacement intervals specified for air-purifying cartridges/canisters because of rapid breakthrough and migration of BD through filter elements Medical Surveillance - Periodic review of aggregated information from medical screening program to determine whether employees adversely affected by BD

10 Unique Features (cont’d)
Written Exposure Goal Program Required where exposures > AL Includes the following unless employer can show they are not feasible, effective, or necessary: Leak detection and prevention Local exhaust ventilation maintenance Pump exposure control technology Gauging devices to limit exposure Unloading devices to limit exposure Engineering controls in control rooms

11 (a) Scope and Application
All occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD) Exceptions Objective data Liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less BD by volume BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or sealed transportation pipelines

12 (b) Definitions “Business day” - any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays “Complete Blood Count (CBC)” White blood cell count (WBC) Hematocrit (Hct) Hemoglobin (Hgb) Differential count of white blood cells Red blood cell morphology Red blood cell indices Platelet count

13 (b) Definitions (cont’d)
“Day” - any part of a calendar day “Emergency situation” - any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD

14 (c) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)
8-Hour TWA: 1 ppm STEL: 5 ppm There is also an Action Level (AL) of 0.5 ppm established by the standard.

15 (d) Exposure Monitoring
Representative; breathing zone samples Initial monitoring unless Objective data exist Equivalent monitoring within previous two years Periodic monitoring Where results at or above AL but at or below both PELs Where either PEL exceeded

16 (d) Exposure Monitoring (cont’d)
Termination of monitoring Additional monitoring Accuracy of monitoring Employee notification of results Observation of monitoring

17 (e) Regulated Areas Wherever exposures exceed or can be expected to exceed either PEL Limited access Demarcation of area Communication with other employers

18 (f) Methods of Compliance
Engineering controls and work practices Respirators as supplemental protection Written compliance plan Employee rotation as a method of compliance prohibited

19 (g) Exposure Goal Program
Written plan Required where exposure exceeds AL Updated as necessary Respirator use not required

20 (g) Exposure Goal Program (cont’d)
Includes the following (unless not feasible, not effective, or not necessary to reduce exposures below AL) Leak detection and prevention program Local exhaust ventilation maintenance Pump exposure control technology Gauging devices to limit exposure Unloading devices to limit exposure Engineering controls in control rooms

21 (h) Respiratory Protection
Allowable during time to implement engineering and work practice controls and as supplement where such are not adequate to achieve PELs; for non-routine, infrequent, and limited-duration operations; in emergencies Respirator program in accordance with 29 CFR (b) - (d) [except (d)(1)(iii), (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1), and (2)] and (f) - (m) Selection governed by Table 1; NIOSH-approved under 42 CFR Part 84 PAPRs or supplied air respirators provided for employees who cannot use negative pressure respirators

22 (h) Respiratory Protection (cont’d)
Replacement intervals for cartridges/ canisters governed by Table 1 or 90% of expiration-of-service life or NIOSH-approved end-of-service-life indicator (when available) Replacement mandatory any time an employee can smell BD

23 (i) Protective Clothing and Equipment
To prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure Eye and face protection governed by 29 CFR

24 (j) Emergency Situations
Written plan for applicable elements of 29 CFR , “Employee Emergency Plans and Fire Prevention Plans” 29 CFR , “Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response”

25 (k) Medical Screening and Surveillance
Coverage Currently exposed employees Previously exposed employees Administration by physician or other licensed health care professional Frequency Health questionnaire and complete blood count annually Physical examinations initially, every 3 years or more frequently at discretion of licensed health care professional, and at termination if 12 or more months have elapsed Within 48 hours following an emergency

26 (k) Medical Screening and Surveillance (cont’d)
Content For anticipated exposure For emergency exposure Written medical opinion to employer and employee within 15 business days Periodic review of aggregated medical screening data to determine whether employee population adversely affected by exposure; employees informed of any information learned

27 (l) Communication of BD Hazards to Employees
Communication of hazards as required by Hazard Communication Standard Training program for employees potentially exposed at or above the AL or STEL to be repeated annually Contents of training program beyond the Hazard Communication Standard Medical screening and surveillance Contents of standard and appendices Rights to employee medical and exposure records

28 (m) Recordkeeping Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring - maintain for duration of reliance on data Exposure measurements - maintain for 30 years Respirator fit test records - maintain until next fit test Medical screening and surveillance - maintain for duration of employment plus 30 years

29 (n) Dates Effective date: February 2, 1997 Start-up dates:
Initial monitoring within 60 days of effective date Engineering controls within 2 years of effective date Exposure goal program within 3 years of effective date Other requirements, including feasible work practice controls, within 180 days of effective date

30 (o) Appendices Informational Reserved - Appendix E
A - Substance Safety Data Sheet for 1,3-Butadiene B - Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene C - Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene D - Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene F - Medical Questionnaires Reserved - Appendix E

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