2Rules & Suggestions TEAM OF 2 TEAMS MAY BRING: MAGNIFYING GLASS 1 PUBLISHED FIELD GUIDE3-RING BINDERMake review sheets: Examples: formulas for all minerals, physical properties of minerals, uses for mineralsREFER TO THE NATIONAL 2013 LISTOfficial 2012 Rocks and Minerals List (PDF)
3TEAM PREPARATION NOTEBOOK Meet once a week, give students a course outline; what you are going to study each week. Give them a short assignment to work on for the next week.Each student composes a notebook. 12X12X3Give a station whenever possible; time practice, and practice using notebooks.NOTEBOOK
4VISITATIONS SEE SPECIMEN VISIT COLLEGES, MINERAL MUSEUMS TO SEE DIFFERENT SPECIMEN.VISIT ROCK AND MINERAL SHOWS WITH STUDENTS; GET THEM HOOKED!SEEK OUT SPECIALISTS, SOME OUR JUST OLD ROCK HOUNDS!GO ON YOUR OWN ROCK & MINERAL HUNT!
5ELEMENTS!! Periodic Table: Occurrence in minerals Elements & Compounds Structure of the Table (metals, nonmetals)Elements & CompoundsFormulas and SymbolsCommon Radicals
6WHAT IS A MINERAL? Inorganic solid Naturally occurring Homogeneous Definite physical propertiesSemi- Definite compositionCrystalline Structure
11Metamorphic Environments Some Minerals only form under great heat and pressure and these minerals can become unstable when conditions change. When stability is affected , existing rocks undergo change and new minerals can form.
12Sedimentary Environments Placer Deposits: Heavy stable minerals remain behind when rocks disintegrate and these remains are carried by moving water. GOLD!
14Hydrothermal Replacement Minerals Hydrothermal water, especially acid water, is effective at removing, changing and replacing minerals in the surrounding country rock.Azurite is a secondary copper mineral and develops in the zone of alteration in hydro thermal replacement deposits, where it commonly occurs with malachite.
23IDENTIFYING MINERALS LUSTER Metallic or Non metallic VitreousAdamantinepearlyresinoussilkywaxygreasydull
24SPECIFIC GRAVITYHow many more times a mineral weighs compared to an equal amount of water.Specific Gravity =Weight of sample in air/ Weight of equalvolume of waterWeight of sample inair / loss of weight inwater
25TENACITY How tough a mineral is, how easily it will break or split * elastic: Can be bent and then resume original shape (mica)* ductile: Pulled to make thin threads.(gold)* malleable: Cut into thin sheets (copper)* Sectile: Can be cut by blade intoshavings ( Gypsum)* Friable: crumbles easily
27OTHER PROPERTIESBIREFRINGENCE : Difference between highest and lowest index of refraction. A high degree causes double refraction.
28Reaction to Acid Ca Co3 + 2H --- Ca + H2O + CO2 Al Carbonate Minerals, Limestones and marble
29Magnetic PropertiesOccurs when there is an imbalance in structural arrangement of the Fe atoms. The Ferrous ion is Fe +2 and the Ferric ion is Fe +3. When the electrons move from the Ferrous to the Ferric ions, a magnetic field is created.
30Fluorescent MineralsThe changing of invisible light or X-ray beams to visible light. If light continues after source is turned off, the mineral is phosphorescence.
31Piezoelectric Properties Temperature or pressure changes cause some minerals to acquire an electric charge when warmed, cooled or pressed.Quartz Tourmaline
42Scientific Classification of Mineral Groups There are eight major classes according to chemical composition1. Elements2. Sulfides3. Oxides and Hydroxides4. Halides5. Nitrates Carbonates Borates6. Sulfates7. Phosphates8. Silicates
43NATIVE ELEMENTS Six in this Group Graphite, silver, gold, copper, sulfur, diamond. Occur in nature in uncombined form.Copper Silver GoldGoldMETALS:Silver Copper
44Non Metals Native Elements Graphite, Diamond & Sulfur
45Sulfide class Metals with sulfur Economically important class of mineralsMajor ores of important metals (Cu, Pb, Ag, Fe, Zn)Most are metallic, opaque, sectile, soft to average hardness, and high densities, and igneous in originThere are five in this groupAll give streaks!
46SULFIDES Copper Iron Sulfides BORNITE CHALCOPYRITE
47SULFIDES PYRITE GALENA SPHALERITE Iron sulfide Lead sulfide Zinc Sulfide
48OXIDE CLASS Five in this group Includes Oxides and Hydroxides45% of Earth’s crust is Oxygen, very diverse groupQuartz (SiO2) could be considered an oxide except for the covalent silicon oxygen bonds.The OH group has a -1, where as the single oxygen has a -2 charge
49OXIDES Corundum Hematite Magnetite Aluminum Oxide Iron Oxide Iron Oxide
50HYDROXIDESBauxite GoethiteAluminum Hydroxide Iron Hydroxide
51HALIDES (Two in this group) Commonly found as a metal and a halogen (the principle anion)Halite (NaCl) Fluorite (CaF2)
52CARBONATESContain one or more metallic elements plus the carbonate radical (CO3)Soft, brittle, transparent, effervesce in HCl, soft with good to perfect cleavageTend to originate in sedimentary and oxidizing environmentsThree major types are calcites, aragonites and dolomites
53Aragonite, a polymorph of calcite Dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2
54Azurite and Malachite: Copper Carbonates Malachite represents a later stage of oxidation an replaces azurite.
55BORATES, More complex than Carbonates Metal Plus Borate Radical Ulexite, Evaporite Deposit
56SULFATE CLASSOne or more metallic elements plus the Sulfate radical, SO4Transparent to translucent, soft, most are heavy and light coloredIncludes Barite, Celestite, and GypsumVariety of environments, Often in oxidation zones and evaporite deposits
57SULFATES Many have economic Importance BARITE BaSO4 CELESTITE, SrSO4
58GYPSUM: several variety names. Selenite Satin Spar Alabastor
59PHOSPHATES One or more metal elements with the phosphate radical, PO4 Apatite in Calcite
60SILICATES SIO440% OF COMMON MINERALS ARE SILICATES!
61SIX CLASSES OF SILICATES Low SG, Harder than most minerals Based on the interactive formations of the tetrahedrons1. Tectosilicates Framework Silicates2. Phyllosilicates Sheer Silicates3. Inosilicates Chain Silicates4. Cyclosilicates Ring Silicates5. Sorosilicates Double Tetrahedral6. Neosilicates Independent Tetrahedral
62TECTOSILICATES SIO2 GREEK FOR FRAMEWORK! Every O atom is bonded to two Si atoms as inCrystal Quartz Opal
63Quartz Family Rose Quartz Agate Amethyst Chalcedony Jasper Milky QuartzCitrine Quartz
64TECTOSILICATES SIO2 + FELDSPARS A negative charge is created, which introduces the positive metals of K, Na or Ca.Sodalite
65PHYLLOSILICATES Clay Group Greek for leaf, sheetsilicates (have onecleavage direction parallel to layers)KAOLINITETALC
67INOSILICATES Inosilicates: the chain structure, double or single. Amphibole Group: Wedge shaped prismatic cleavage planes; longer, slender crystals.Hornblende Tremolite Rhodonite
68INOSILICATES, Pyroxene Group Prismatic cleavage planes give it a square or rectangular cross section. Shorter and more blocky crystals as compared to amphiboles.AUGITE
69CYCLOSILICATES Beryl and Tourmaline Greek for ring, known as the ring Silicates!The symmetry of the rings gives these two minerals the hexagonal shape!
70SOROSILICATESHave two tetrahedrons linked by one oxygen giving it an hour glass shapeEpidote: Metamorphic Environment
71NeosilicatesIsolated Tetrahedron: Garnet, Olivine, Topaz, Staurolite (short, blocky, square crystals)GarnetOlivineTOPAZStauroliteGreek for Island, share no oxygen ions.
72IGNEOUS ROCKS CLASSIFIED BY TEXTURE AND MINERAL COMPOSITION REFERRED TO AS INTRUSIVE(PLUTONIC) OR EXTRUSIVE (VOLCANIC)FORM FROM FELSIC MINERALS (LIGHT COLORED, ACIDIC) OR MAFIC MINERALS (DARK COLORED, BASIC)
76PEGMATITEAbnormally large crystals. Unlike other igneous rocks that develop from the molten state, pegmatites grow from aqueous solutions. Pegmatites can produce large crystals in a short period of time. (geologically)
77Porphyritic TextureTwo distinct crystal sizes produced by different cooling of the liquid rock. The large crystals are called phenocrysts.Porphyritic rhyolite Porphyritic basalt
78SEDIMENTARY ROCKS CLASSIFIED AS CLASTIC OR NONCLASTIC. CLASTIC: SEDIMENTS CEMENTED OR COMPACTED TOGETHERNONCLASTIC: ORGANIC, OR CHEMICALPRECIPITATES.
79Sedimentary Rock Features Graded Bedding and Cross Bedding
84CLASTIC ROCKS Classified by texture or grain size Conglomerate BrecciaGravel size range (over 2mm)Rounded Fragments Angular Fragments
85Clastic Rocks: Sand size Range (1/16 mm to 2mm) Sandstone ArkoseMostly quartz At least 25% feldspar
86Clastic rocks: Clay size particles less than 1/256 mm Shale: laminated layers of quartz and clay minerals
87Coal FormationPeat exposed to heat and pressure from burial beneath other sediments becomes compressed and chemically changes into low grade coals such as this lignite. Lignite typically transforms to bituminous coal as it is compressed further and heated to between 100 and 200°C. This drives much of the water and other volatiles from the coal. Longer exposure to elevated temperature will further drive volatiles from the coal, and drive chemical reactions that produce anthracite.
88The carbon content of the coal rises as it is compressed further and the moisture content falls.
90Organic Origin: Diatomite Diatomaceous earth, the pinkish white outcrop shown above (near Lovelock, Nevada), is a mineral of plant origin. It represents the accumulation of an enormous number of fossil diatoms (single-celled plants Diatomite has several unique characteristics. Because of its lightness, porosity, and its honeycombed structure, it's an ideal filtering medium.
91Chemical Limestones When Minerals fall out of solution Crystalline Oolitic Travertine Dolomitelimestone limestone Rock
92AGENTS OF METAMORPHISM HEAT: Geothermal gradient: due to radioactive decay and intrusions of hot magma.Pressure: Burial Pressure, Tectonic Pressure, or fault zones pressure.Chemical fluids: hydrothermal solutions
93HOW ROCKS CHANGE TEXTURE: Compaction: more dense, less porous * MINERALOGY Recrystallization: Growth of new crystalsfrom Minerals present,often forming foliation.
94METAMORPHIC TEXTURES SCHISTOSITY: large mica flakes Slaty cleavage: alignment of very fine grained micas.Phyllitic structure: alignment of fine grained micas.Gneissic banding: segregation of light and dark minerals into layers.
95METAMORPHIC ROCKS TYPES CONTACT METAMORPHISM: MAGMA FORCES ITS WAY INTO OVERLYING ROCK, CHANGING THE ROCKS THAT COME IN CONTACT WITH IT. CHANGES ARE LESS DRASTIC AND FOLIATION NOT PRESENT.REGIONAL METAMORPHISM: LARGE AREAS OF ROCK UNDERGO INTENSE HEAT AND PRESSURE. (OCCURS DURING MOUNTAING BUILDING PROCESSES) Often foliation!