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Chemistry 120 Chapter 8: Chemical Reactions Chapter 9: Chemical Change Outline I.Chemical Reactions A.Evidence B.Balancing II.Electrolytes III.Types of.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry 120 Chapter 8: Chemical Reactions Chapter 9: Chemical Change Outline I.Chemical Reactions A.Evidence B.Balancing II.Electrolytes III.Types of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry 120 Chapter 8: Chemical Reactions Chapter 9: Chemical Change Outline I.Chemical Reactions A.Evidence B.Balancing II.Electrolytes III.Types of Chemical Equations A.Conventional B.Total Ionic C.Net Ionic IV.Types of Reactions A.Combination/Synthesis i.Combustion B.Decomposition C.Single Replacement D.Double Replacement

2 Chemical Equations Must be balanced to satisfy Law of conservation of mass State Designations –(g) gas –(l) liquid –(s) solid –(aq) aqueous

3 p218 Particulate level interpretation and Molar-level interpretation spark

4 p219 Grouping-unit level interpretation spark

5 What information is shown in a balanced chemical equation? Zn (s) +2 HCl (aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) +H 2 (g) 1 atom Zn2 molecules HCl1 formula unit ZnCl 2 1 molecule H 2 1 atom Zn2 atoms H 2 atoms Cl 1 atom Zn 2 atoms Cl 2 atoms H 1 mole2 moles1 mole g2(36.46 g) g2.02 g g=

6 How do we know a reaction is taking place?

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9 Figure 12-2 p353 Is this an exothermic or endothermic reaction?

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11 Figure 9-1 p242 When does the light bulb light up?

12 Are ionic compounds conductive? A strong electrolyte in an aqueous solution completely dissociates into ions. The weak electrolyte in an aqueous solution forms mostly molecules and a few ions.

13 What is different about these solutions?

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15 Are covalent compounds conductive? A nonelectrolyte in an aqueous solution produces only molecules.

16 When does the light bulb light up? Fig. 9-2, p. 237

17 Figure 12-6 p355 Why does a molten liquid conduct electricity?

18 Common Strong Acids and Bases Common Strong Acids Hydrochloric acidHCl (aq) Hydrobromic acidHBr (aq) Hydroiodic acidHI (aq) Perchloric acidHClO 4 (aq) Chloric acidHClO 3 (aq) Nitric acidHNO 3 (aq) Sulfuric acidH 2 SO 4 (aq) Common Strong Bases Lithium hydroxideLiOH (aq) Sodium hydroxideNaOH (aq) Potassium hydroxideKOH (aq) Strontium hydroxideSr(OH) 2 (aq) Barium hydroxideBa(OH) 2 (aq) Calcium hydroxideCa(OH) 2 (aq)

19 What is the difference between these two solutions? Fig. 9-6, p. 241

20 Figure 9-3 p243

21 Example – Conventional, Total Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Zinc metal reacts with aqueous copper(II) chloride to produce copper solid and aqueous zinc chloride. What is the net ionic equation? A.Zn (s) + CuCl 2 (aq) Cu (s) + ZnCl 2 (aq) B.Zn (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) Cu (s) + Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) C.Zn (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Cu (s) + Zn 2+ (aq) D.Zn (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) Cu (s) + ZnCl 2 (aq) E.All spectator ions

22 Example – Conventional, Total Ionic and Net Ionic Equations When cadmium bromide reacts with potassium arsenate the products are: A.CdK 2 and AsO 4 Br 3 B.Cd 2 (AsO 4 ) 3 and K 3 Br 2 C.Cd 3 (AsO 4 ) 2 and K 3 Br 2 D.Cd 3 (AsO 4 ) 2 and KBr E.KCd and BrAsO 4

23 Example – Conventional, Total Ionic and Net Ionic Equations What are the spectator ions in the total ionic equation? A.Cd 2+, Br -, K +, AsO 4 3- B.Br -, K + C.Cd 2+, AsO 4 3- D.Cd 2+, Br -, K +, As 3-, O 2- E.No spectator ions

24 Example – Conventional, Total Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Aqueous ammonium nitrate reacts with aqueous sodium hydroxide to produce aqueous sodium nitrate and ammonia gas and water. What is the total ionic equation? A.NH 4 NO 3 (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaNO 3 (aq) + NH 3 (g) + H 2 O (l) B.NH 4 + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + Na + (aq) + OH- (aq) Na + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + NH 3 (g) + H 2 O (l) C.NH 4 + (aq) + OH- (aq) NH 3 (g) + H 2 O (l) D.All spectator ions

25 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do

26 Classifying Reactions by Type of Chemistry

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29 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do Combination/Synthesis A + Z AZ

30 What does a combustion reaction looks like?

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32 Potassium metal and bromine liquid are combined, what is the product(s)?

33 Example – Redox Reactions Synthesis/Combination Reactions Lead filings are heated with phosphorus powder to yield lead(IV) phosphide solid.

34 Example – Redox Reactions Synthesis/Combination Reactions Lithium metal is heated in the presence of oxygen gas.

35 Example – Redox reactions Synthesis/Combination Reactions What is the coefficient of oxygen gas, when methane, CH 4, gas undergoes combustion with oxygen gas to produce carbon dioxide gas and water vapor?

36 Example – Synthesis Reactions Sodium oxide and water are mixed. What is the balanced chemical equation? A.Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O (l) 2 NaOH (aq) B.Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O (l) NaH 2 O (aq) C.2 Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O (l) 2 NaH (aq) + O 2 (g) D.Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O (l) NaOH (aq) E.No reaction

37 Example – Synthesis Reactions Calcium oxide and water are mixed. What is the product(s)? A.CaO (s) B.Ca 2 OH (s) C.CaOH 2 (aq) D.Ca(OH) 2 (s) E.No reaction

38 Example – Synthesis Reactions Sulfur trioxide and water are mixed, what is the sum of the coefficients?

39 Example – Synthesis Reactions Dinitrogen pentaoxide and water are mixed. What is the coefficient of the product?

40 Example – Redox Reactions Synthesis/Combination Reactions Chromium metal is heated with nitrogen gas to give solid chromium(III) nitride. What is the coefficient of the chromium metal?

41 Example – Redox Reactions Synthesis/Combination Reactions Solid magnesium oxide combines with carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate powder. What is the coefficient of the product?

42 Example – Redox Reactions Combustion Reactions Chlorine gas and oxygen gas react to produce dichlorine trioxide gas. What is the coefficient in front of oxygen gas?

43 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do Decomposition AZ A + Z

44 What does a decomposition look like?

45 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Hydrogen peroxide decomposes into oxygen gas and water. Write the balanced reaction.

46 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Water decomposes into its elements using electricity. Write the balanced reaction.

47 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Stannous chlorate decomposes upon heating to yield stannous chloride and oxygen gas. What is the balanced chemical equation? A.Sn(ClO 3 ) 2 (s) SnCl 2 (s) + 3 O 2 (g) B.Sn(ClO 2 ) 2 (s) SnCl 2 (s) + 4 O 2 (g) C.Sn(ClO 2 ) 2 (s) no rxn D.SnCl 2 (s) + 3 O 2 (g) Sn(ClO 3 ) 2 (s)

48 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Silver bicarbonate decomposes by heating to silver carbonate powder, water, and carbon dioxide gas. What is the sum of the coefficients?

49 Example – Redox Reactions Decomposition Reactions Silver carbonate further decomposes upon heating to silver oxide and carbon dioxide. What is the sum of the coefficients now?

50 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do Single Displacement A + BZ AZ + B

51 What does a single replacement look like?

52 Activity Series Metals Li most reactive K activeBaWill replace H 2 from metalsSr liquid water, steam or Ca acid Na Mg Al MnWill replace H 2 from Zn steam or acid Cr Fe Cd Co NiWill replace H 2 from Sn acid Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Will not replace H 2 Pd from liquid water, Pt steam or acid Hg Au least reactive Nonmetals: Halogens F most reactive Cl Br I least reactive

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55 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Aluminum wire is placed in a cupric nitrate solution. What is the sum of the coefficients? Activity Series of Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

56 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Copper wire is placed in a solution of magnesium nitrate. What is the net ionic equation? A.Cu (s) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Mg (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) B.Cu (s) + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) MgCu (s) + NO 2 (g) C.Cu (s) + Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) Mg (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 NO 3 - (aq) D.Cu (s) + Mg 2+ (aq) Mg (s) + Cu 2+ (aq) E.No reaction Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

57 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Magnesium ribbon is placed in a hydrochloric acid solution. What is the balanced chemical equation? A.Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) B.Mg (s) + 2 HCl (aq) MgCl 2 (aq) + 2 H (g) C.Mg (s) + 2 H + (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) + H 2 (g) D.Mg (s) + 2 H + (aq) Mg 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) E.No reaction Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

58 Example – Redox Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Sodium metal is put in water. What gas is formed? Metals Li K Ba Sr Ca Na Mg Al Mn Zn Cr Fe Cd Co Ni Sn Pb (H) Sb Cu Ag Pd Pt Hg Au

59 Classifying Reactions by what Atoms Do Double displacement AX + BZ AZ + BX Precipitation (solubility rules) Gas formation (H 2 S, CO 2, NH 3, SO 2 ) Slightly ionizable substance (weak acid/weak base) Neutralization (special type of double displacement reaction) HX (aq) +BOH (aq) BX +H 2 O (l)

60 What does a double displacement look like?

61 Predicting Reactions Double Displacement

62 Solubility Rules 1.All common compounds of Group 1 and ammonium ions (NH 4 + ) are soluble. 2.All nitrates (NO 3 - ), acetates (C 2 H 3 O 2 - ), and chlorates (ClO 3 - ) are soluble. Except acetates of aluminum (Al 3+ ), and silver (Ag + ). 3.All binary compounds of the halogens (other than F) with metals are soluble, except those of silver (Ag + ), mercury(I) (Hg 2 2+ ), and lead(II) (Pb 2+ ) (lead halides are soluble in hot water). 4. Compounds containing fluoride ions (F - ) are soluble except for calcium (Ca 2+ ), barium (Ba 2+ ), strontium (Sr 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), and lead(II) (Pb 2+ ). 5.All sulfates (SO 4 2- ) are soluble, except those of barium (Ba 2+ ), strontium (Sr 2+ ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), lead(II) (Pb 2+ ), silver (Ag + ), and mercury (I) (Hg 2 2+ ), which are insoluble. The latter three are slightly soluble. 6. Except for rule 1, carbonates (CO 3 2- ), hydroxides (OH - ), oxides (O 2- ), silicates (SiO 4 2- ), and phosphates (PO 4 3- ) are insoluble. 7.Sulfides (S 2- ) are insoluble except when paired with calcium (Ca 2+ ), barium (Ba 2+ ), strontium (Sr 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), and ammonium (NH 4 + ).

63 Fig. 9-13, p. 256

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65 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions What is the precipitate when lead(II) nitrate reacts with lithium chloride?

66 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions What gas is formed when sodium sulfite reacts with hydrobromic acid?

67 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions When aqueous solutions of sodium sulfite and potassium bromide are mixed the products are: A.NaBr and K 2 SO 3 B.K 2 SO 3 and Na 2 Br C.NaK and SO 3 Br D.No reaction

68 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions Aqueous sodium acetate is mixed with hydrochloric acid. What is formed? A.Precipitate B.Gas C.Slightly ionizable substance D.No reaction

69 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions Sulfuric acid and lithium hydroxide react. Write the balanced chemical equation.

70 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions Sodium iodide and nitric acid are mixed. What is the sum of the coefficient of the product(s)?

71 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions Potassium sulfide and perchloric acid are mixed. What gas is formed?

72 Example – Ion Exchange Reactions Potassium hydroxide and ammonium bromide are mixed. How many products are formed?

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