2Learning Outcomes Chapter 10 Describe the relevant cash flows that must be forecast to make informed capital budgeting decisions.Identify the relevant cash flows and perform a capital budgeting analysis for: (a) an expansion project and (b) a replacement projectDescribe how the riskiness of a capital budgeting project is evaluated and how the results are incorporated in capital budgeting decisions.Describe how capital budgeting decisions differ for firms that have foreign operations and for firms that only have domestic operations
3Cash Flow EstimationMost important and most difficult step in the analysis of a capital projectFinancial staff’s role includes:Coordinating other departments’ effortsEnsuring that everyone uses the same set of economic assumptionsMaking sure that no biases are inherent in forecasts
4Relevant Cash Flows Cash Flow Versus Accounting Income Incremental Cash Flows
5Unilate’s Accounting Profits Versus Cash Flows ($ thousands)
7Incremental Cash Flows An Incremental Cash Flow is the change in a firm’s net cash flow attributable to an investment project.
8Problems in Determining Incremental Cash Flows Sunk Cost: A cash outlay that already has been incurred and cannot be recoveredOpportunity Cost: The return on the best alternative use of an assetExternalities: The effect of accepting a project on the cash flows in other parts of the firmShipping and Installation CostsInflation
9Identifying Incremental Cash Flows Initial Investment Outlay: the incremental cash flows associated with a project that will occur only at the start of a project’s lifeIncremental Operating Cash Flow: the changes in day-to-day cash flows that result from the purchase of a capital project and continue until the firm disposes of the assetTerminal Cash Flow: the net cash flows that occur only at the end of a project’s life
11Capital Budgeting Project Evaluation Expansion Project: A project that is intended to increase sales; provides growth to the firmReplacement Analysis: An analysis involving the decision of whether to replace an existing, still productive asset with a new asset
12Expansion Project Analysis of the Cash Flows Initial Investment OutlayCost of new asset $( 9,500)Shipping and installation ( )Increase in net working capital ( 4,000)Initial investment $(14,000)
19Incorporating Risk in Capital Budgeting Analysis Stand-Alone Risk: the risk an asset would have if it were a firm’s only riskMeasured by the variability of the asset’s expected returnsCorporate (Within-Firm) Risk: risk not considering the effects of stockholder’s diversificationMeasured by a project’s effect on the firm’s earnings variabilityBeta (Market) Risk: part of a project’s risk that cannot be eliminated by diversificationMeasured by the project’s beta coefficient
20Techniques for Measuring Stand-Alone Risk Sensitivity Analysis: Key variables are changed and the resulting changes in the NPV and the IRR are observed.Scenario Analysis: “Bad” and “good” sets of financial circumstances are compared with the most likely situation.Monte Carlo Simulation: Probable future events are simulated on a computer.
24Monte Carlo Simulation A risk analysis technique in which probable future events are simulated on a computer, generating a probability distribution that indicates the most likely outcomes.
25Advantages/Disadvantages of Simulation Analysis Reflects probability of each inputShows range of NPVs, expected NPV, σNPV, and CVNPVDisadvantagesDifficult to specify probability distributions and correlationIf inputs are bad, output will be bad: GIGO = Garbage In, Garbage Out!
26Corporate (Within-Firm) Risk Risk that does not take into consideration the effects of stockholders’ diversification, it is measured by a project’s effect on the firm’s earnings variability.
27Beta (or Market) Risk and Required Rate of Return for a Project Security Market Line equation:rS = rRF + (rM - rRF)βSErie Steel is all equity financed, so cost of equity is also its averaged required rate of return, or cost of capital. Erie’s β = 1.1; rRF = 8%; and rM = 12%rS = 8% + (12% - 8%)1.1 = 12.4%= Erie’s cost of equityInvestors should be willing to give Erie money to invest in average-risk projects.
28Required Rate of Return for a Project rproj = the risk-adjusted required rate of return for an individual projectrproj = rRF + (rM - rRF)proj
29Measuring Beta Risk for a Project Pure Play Method:Identify companies whose only business is the project in question.Determine the beta for each company.Average the betas to find an approximation of proposed project’s beta.
30How Project Risk Is Considered in Capital Budgeting Decisions Most firms use: Risk-Adjusted Discount RateDiscount rate that applies to particularly risky stream of incomeIt is equal to the risk-free rate of interest plus a risk premium.
31Multinational Capital Budgeting Repatriation of Earnings: The process of sending cash flows from a foreign subsidiary back to the parent companyExchange Risk Rate: The uncertainty associated with the price at which the currency from one country can be converted into the currency of another countryPolitical Risk: The risk of seizure of a foreign subsidiary’s assets by the host country or unanticipated restrictions on cash flows to the parent company