2National Standards for Chapter 9 UCP.3 – Change, constancy, and measurementUCP.5 – Form and functionA.1 –Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiryA.2 – Understandings about scientific inquiryB-2 – Structure and properties of matterB-3 – Chemical reactionsB-6 – Interactions of energy and matter
3Vocabulary/Study Guide Define each term using the GlossaryEither write on the handout, or use your own paperThis is due on Test Day (tentatively, Thursday, March 6)
4Section 1: Reactions and Equations National Standards:UCP.3 – Change, constancy, and measurementUCP.5 – Form and functionA.1 –Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiryB-2 – Structure and properties of matterB-3 – Chemical reactionsB-6 – Interactions of energy and matter
5Objectives – Section 1 Recognize evidence of chemical change. Represent chemical reactions with equations.Balance chemical equations.REVIEW VOCABULARY:chemical change: a process involving one or more substances changing into a new substance
6New Vocabularychemical reaction reactant product chemical equation coefficient Chemical reactions are represented by balanced chemical equations.
7Launch LabTitle: How do you know when a chemical change has occurred? (page 280)
9Chemical ReactionsThe process by which one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances is called a chemical reaction.
10Chemical ReactionsEvidence that a chemical reaction may have occurred:Change in temperatureChange in colorOdorGas bubblesAppearance of a solid (precipitate)
11Representing Chemical Reactions Chemists use statements called equations to represent chemical reactions.Reactants are the starting substances.Products are the substances formed in the reaction.This table summarizes the symbols used in chemical equations.
12Representing Chemical Reactions In word equations, aluminum(s) + bromine(l) → aluminum bromide(s) reads as “aluminum and bromine react to produce aluminum bromide”.Skeleton equations use symbols and formulas to represent the reactants and products. Al(s) + Br(l) → AlBr3(s)Both word and skeleton equations lack information about how many atoms are involved in the reaction.
13Representing Chemical Reactions A chemical equation is a statement that uses chemical formulas to show the identities and relative amounts of the substances involved in a chemical reaction.
14Representing Chemical Reactions Practice Problems #1-3, page 284
15Balancing Chemical Equations This figure shows the balanced equation for the reaction between aluminum and bromine.
16Balancing Chemical Equations A coefficient in a chemical equation is the number written in front of a reactant or product, describing the lowest whole-number ratio of the amounts of all the reactants and products.
26Section 2: Classifying Chemical Reactions National Standards:UCP.3 – Change, constancy, and measurementUCP.5 – Form and functionA.1 –Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiryB-2 – Structure and properties of matterB-3 – Chemical reactions
27Objectives – Section 2 Classify chemical reactions. Identify the characteristics of different classes of chemical reactions.Review Vocabulary:metal: an element that is a solid at room temperature, a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is generally shiny
28New Vocabularysynthesis reaction combustion reaction decomposition reaction single-replacement reaction double-replacement reaction precipitate There are four types of chemical reactions: synthesis, combustion, decomposition, and replacement reactions.
29Types of Chemical Reactions Chemists classify reactions in order to organize the many types.
30Synthesis ReactionsA synthesis reaction is a reaction in which two or more substances react to produce a single product.When two elements react, the reaction is always a synthesis reaction.
31Combustion ReactionsIn a combustion reaction, oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of heat and light.Heated hydrogen reacts with oxygen to produce heat and water in a combustion reaction. This is also a synthesis reaction.
33Decomposition Reactions A decomposition reaction is one in which a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds.Decomposition reactions often require an energy source, such as heat, light, or electricity, to occur.
34Decomposition Reactions Practice Problems #18-20, page 292
35Replacement Reactions A reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound is called a single replacement reaction.A + BX → AX + B
36Replacement Reactions A metal will not always replace a metal in a compound dissolved in water because of differing reactivities.An activity series can be used to predict if reactions will occur.
37Replacement Reactions Halogens frequently replace other halogens in replacement reactions.Halogens also have different reactivities and do not always replace each other.
51Section 3: Reactions in Aqueous Solutions National Standards:UCP.3 – Change, constancy, and measurementUCP.5 – Form and functionA.1 –Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiryA.2 – Understandings about scientific inquiryB-2 – Structure and properties of matterB-3 – Chemical reactionsB-6 – Interactions of energy and matter
52Objectives – Section 3 Describe aqueous solutions. Write complete ionic and net ionic equations for chemical reactions in aqueous solutions.Predict whether reactions in aqueous solutions will produce a precipitate, water, or a gas.Review Vocabulary:solution: a uniform mixture that might contain solids, liquids, or gases
53New Vocabularyaqueous solution solute solvent complete ionic equation spectator ion net ionic equation Double-replacement reactions occur between substances in aqueous solutions and produce precipitates, water, or gases.
54Aqueous SolutionsAn aqueous solution contains one or more dissolved substances (called solutes) in water.The solvent is the most plentiful substance in a solution.
55Aqueous Solutions Water is always the solvent in an aqueous solution. There are many possible solutes—sugar and alcohol are molecular compounds that exist as molecules in aqueous solutions.Compounds that produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions are acids.
56Aqueous SolutionsIonic compounds can also be solutes in aqueous solutions.When ionic compounds dissolve in water, their ions separate in a process called dissociation.
57Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions When two solutions that contain ions as solutes are combined, the ions might react.If they react, it is always a double replacement reaction.Three products can form: precipitates, water, or gases.
58Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Title: Observe a Precipitate-Forming Reaction, page 301
59Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and copper(II) chloride react to form the precipitate copper(II) hydroxide.2NaOH(aq) + CuCl2(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s)Ionic equations that show all of the particles in a solution as they actually exist are called complete ionic equations.2Na+(aq) + 2OH–(aq) + Cu2+ (aq)+ 2Cl–(aq) → 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl–(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s)
60Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Ions that do not participate in a reaction are called spectator ions and are not usually written in ionic equations.Formulas that include only the particles that participate in reactions are called net ionic equations.2OH–(aq) + Cu2+(aq) → Cu(OH)2(s)
61Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Practice Problems #35-39, page 302
62Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Some reactions produce more water molecules.No evidence of a chemical reaction is observable.HBr(aq) + NaOH(aq) → H2O(l) + NaBr(aq)Without spectator ions H+(aq) + OH–(aq) → H2O(l).
63Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Practice Problems #40-44, page 304
64Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Gases that are commonly produced are carbon dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, and hydrogen sulfide.2HI(aq) + Li2S(aq) → H2S(g) + 2LiI(aq)
65Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Another example is mixing vinegar and baking soda, which produces carbon dioxide gas.HCl(aq) + NaHCO3(aq) → H2CO3(aq) + NaCl(aq)H2CO3(aq) decomposes immediately.H2CO3(aq) → H2O(l) + CO2(g)
66Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Practice Problems #45-49, page 306
67Type of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Two reactions can be combined and represented by a single chemical reaction.
72Reactions and Equations SECTION9.1Reactions and EquationsStudy GuideKey ConceptsSome physical changes are evidence that indicate a chemical reaction has occurred.Word equations and skeleton equations provide important information about a chemical reaction.A chemical equation gives the identities and relative amounts of the reactants and products that are involved in a chemical reaction.Balancing an equation involves adjusting the coefficients until the number of atoms of each element is equal on both sides of the equation.
73Classifying Chemical Reactions SECTION9.2Classifying Chemical ReactionsStudy GuideKey ConceptsClassifying chemical reactions makes them easier to understand, remember, and recognize.Activity series of metals and halogens can be used to predict if single-replacement reactions will occur.
74Reactions in Aqueous Solutions SECTION9.3Reactions in Aqueous SolutionsStudy GuideKey ConceptsIn aqueous solutions, the solvent is always water. There are many possible solutes.Many molecular compounds form ions when they dissolve in water. When some ionic compounds dissolve in water, their ions separate.When two aqueous solutions that contain ions as solutes are combined, the ions might react with one another. The solvent molecules do not usually react.Reactions that occur in aqueous solutions are double-replacement reactions.