Presentation on theme: "PLL #2- The Hip: Anatomy, Disease, Injury, and Repair By:"— Presentation transcript:
1 PLL #2- The Hip: Anatomy, Disease, Injury, and Repair By: Phil Kemp, Andrew Thistle, Tim Hersey, Brian Wilson, John BocchinoBNG 345Professor Currey
2 Learning ObjectivesTo be able to label the parts associated with the hip joint on both the femoral and pelvic sidesTo be able to explain how the muscles and ligaments in the hip allow for movementTo deduce and identify common diseases and injuries of the hipTo compare the methods of repairing common hip diseases and injuries, both biologically and surgically
4 Bones That Make up the Hip Ball and Socket joint composed of:IliumIshciumPubisFemur
5 Acetabulum Formed by the Ilium, ischium, and pubis. Deep Socket on the outer edge of the pelvisThe depth of the acetabulum is further increased by a fibrocartilagenous labrum attached to the acetabulum.
6 FemurThe large round head of the femur rotates and glides within the acetabulum.The neck of the femur connects the femoral head with the shaft of the femur.The neck ends at the greater and lesser trochanter prominences.
7 Trochanters Greater Trochanter Bump on the femur and easy to feel on outside of your thighSite for tendons of several muscles to attach.The lesser trochanter is also a the site for tendon attachment.
8 BiomechanicsAs the joint bears more weight, the contact of the surface areas increases as does joint stability.When standing, the body’s center of gravity passes through the center of the acetabulum.
9 Muscles of the Hip Quadriceps Hamstrings Gluteal Group Adductor Group Illiopsoas GroupLateral Rotator Group
10 QuadricepsThe quads make up about 70% of the thigh’s muscle mass. The purpose of the quads is flexion (bending) of the hip and extension (straightening) of the knee.
11 HamstringsHas a large moment aiding in hip extension.
12 Gluteal GroupGluteus maximus – main hip extensor and keeps the head of the femur from sliding forward in the hip socketGluteus medius – helps keep the pelvis level when walking and helps to abduct the thighGluteus minimus – Works with medius to help abduct the thigh
13 Adductor GroupMade up of: adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, pectineus, and the gracilis muscles.Originate on the pubis and insert on the medial, posterior surface of the femur.Muscles aid in adduction, hence “adductor group.”
14 Iliopsoas Group Comprised of the iliacus and psoas major. The strongest of the hip flexors.Important in standing, walking, and running.
15 Lateral Rotator GroupMade up of the externus and internus obturators, the piriformis, the superior and inferior gemelli, and the quadratus femoris.Originate at or below the acetabulum of the ilium and insert on or near the greater trochantor.Aid lateral rotation of the hip.
17 IT Band (Tendon) IT Band (Iliotibial Band) Runs along femur from hip to kneeHip Anatomy,Iliotibial Band
18 Ligaments Connect bones to bones Joint Capsule Provides Stability Pubo-femoralIliofemoralIschiofemoralProvides Stabilityligamentum teres- connects femoral head to acetabulum & supplies femoral head with blood
19 Ligaments 2LabrumFacilitate keeping femoral head in the acetabulum
20 NervesSciatic nervelarge, travels under the gluteus maximus down the back of the leg and further onto the foot.
21 BursaeSacs of liquid that allow for lubrication between bones, muscles and tendons
38 Osteoarthritis (OA) Most common form of hip arthritis Chronic condition characterized by the breakdown of cartilage that cushions the ends of the bones where they meet to form joints“Wear and Tear” ArthritisResults in pain, stiffness, loss of movement, and potential formation of bone spurs
39 Rheumatoid ArthritisChronic Inflammatory Disease affecting 1.3 million AmericansCauses: Unknown, but genetics, environmental factors, and hormones have been speculated as potential causesResults in pain, redness, inflammation, and potentially loss of function and disability
44 Hip Dysplasia-Methods of Repair Treatment depends on age of diagnosisInfants: brace6 months to 10 years: full body braceOlder children & adults: Surgical bone remodeling and/or total joint replacement
45 Avascular NecrosisProposed causes: chemotherapy, alcoholism, excessive steroid use, and many othersMost commonly affects the ends of long bones, thus the hip joint is commonly affected by ANUsually affects people between 30 and 50; about thousand people develop AN at the head of the femur each year