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Building Algorithmically Nonstop Fault Tolerant MPI Programs Rui Wang, Erlin Yao, Pavan Balaji, Darius Buntinas, Mingyu Chen, and Guangming Tan Argonne.

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Presentation on theme: "Building Algorithmically Nonstop Fault Tolerant MPI Programs Rui Wang, Erlin Yao, Pavan Balaji, Darius Buntinas, Mingyu Chen, and Guangming Tan Argonne."— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Algorithmically Nonstop Fault Tolerant MPI Programs Rui Wang, Erlin Yao, Pavan Balaji, Darius Buntinas, Mingyu Chen, and Guangming Tan Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, USA ICT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

2 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Hardware Resilience for large-scale systems Resilience is a prominent becoming issue in large-scale supercomputers –Exascale systems that will be available in will have close to a billion processing units –Even if each processing element fails once every 10,000 years, a system will have a fault once every 5 minutes Some of these faults are correctable by hardware, while some are not –E.g., single bit flips are correctable by ECC memory, but double-bit flips are not –Even for cases where hardware corrections are technologically feasible, cost and other power constraints might make then practically infeasible HiPC (12/20/2011)

3 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Software Resilience Software resilience is cheaper with respect to cost investment, but has performance implications –The idea of most researchers working in this area is to understand this performance/resilience tradeoff Classical software resilience technique: system checkpointing –Create a snapshot of the application image at some time interval and roll back to the last checkpoint if a failure occurs –Transparent to the user, but stresses the I/O subsystem SystemsUPerf.Ckpt timeSource RoadRunner1PF~20 min.Panasas LLNL BG/L500 TF>20 min.LLNL Argonne BG/P500 TF~30 min.LLNL Total SGI Altix100 TF~40 min.estimation IDRIS BG/P100 TF30 min.IDRIS [Gibson, ICPP2007] HiPC (12/20/2011)

4 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Algorithm-based Fault Tolerance Recent research efforts in resilience have given birth to a new form of software resilience: Algorithmic-based Fault Tolerance (ABFT) –A.k.a. Algorithmic fault tolerance, application-based fault tolerance Key idea is to utilize mathematical properties in the computation being carried out to reconstruct data on a failure –No disk I/O phase, so the performance is independent of the file- system bandwidth –Not 100% transparent – for most applications that use math libraries for their computation this can be transparent, but for others its not –This work has mostly been done in the context of dense matrix manipulation operations, but the concept is applicable to other contexts too HiPC (12/20/2011)

5 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory ABFT Recovery First proposed in 1987 to detect and correct instant errors at the VLSI layer Improved by Jack Dongarra to deal with node failures Concept: –Add redundant nodes to store encoded checksum of the original data –Re-design algorithm to compute original data and redundancy synchronously –Recover corrupted data upon failure D1D2D3E D2ED1D3 HiPC (12/20/2011)

6 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Deeper Dive into ABFT Recovery ABFT recovery pros: –Completely utilizes in-memory techniques, so no disk I/O is required –Utilizes additional computation to deal with node losses, so the amount of extra nodes required is fairly small (equal to the number of failures expected during the run) Important difference compared to in-memory checkpointing which requires twice the number of nodes ABFT recovery cons: –Failure recovery is non-trivial Requires additional computation – no problem; computation is free Requires all processes to synchronize every time there is a failure – synchronization is not free, especially when dealing with >100,000 processes HiPC (12/20/2011)

7 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory In this paper… This paper improves on ABFT Recovery to propose a new methodology called ABFT hot replacement Idea is to utilize additional mathematical properties to not require synchronization on a failure –Synchronization is eventually required, but can be delayed to a more natural synchronization point (such as the end of the program) We demonstrate ABFT hot replacement with LU factorization in this paper, though the idea is relevant to other dense matrix computations as well –Might also work for sparse matrix computations, but is not as straightforward Also demonstrate LINPACK with our proposed approach HiPC (12/20/2011)

8 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Presentation Layout Introduction and Motivation Requirements from MPI and improvements to MPICH2 ABFT Hot Replacement Experimental Evaluation Concluding Remarks HiPC (12/20/2011)

9 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Fault Tolerance in MPI Minimum set of fault-tolerance features required Node failure will not cause the entire job to abort. Communication operations involving a failed process will not hang and will eventually complete. Communication operations will return an error code when it is affected by a failed process. This is needed to determine whether to re-send or re-receive messages The MPI implementation should provide a mechanism to query for failed processes. – MPICH provides all these features and two forms of fault notification Asynchronous (through the process manager) Synchronous (through the MPI communication operations) HiPC (12/20/2011)

10 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Process Management and Asynchronous Notification P0 MPI Library P1 MPI Library P2 MPI Library Hydra proxy mpiexec Node 0 Node 1 SIGCHLD SIGUSR1 FP List NULL P2 FP List NULL P2 HiPC (12/20/2011)

11 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Synchronous Notification: Point-to-point Communication If a communication operation fails, an MPI_ERR_OTHER is returned to the application –A message is sent to or a receive is posted for a message from a failed process For nonblocking operations, the error can be returned during the subsequent WAIT operation that touches the request Wildcard receives, i.e., using MPI_ANY_SOURCE create a special case, since we dont know who will send the data –In this case, all processes that posted a wildcard receive would get an error HiPC (12/20/2011)

12 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Synchronous Notification: Collective Communication Collective operation does not hang, but some processes may have invalid results MPICH2 internally performs data error management –Mark the messages carrying invalid data by using a different tag value. –The process will continue performing the collective operation if a process receives a message marked as containing invalid data, but will mark any subsequent messages it sends as containing invalid data. From the application perspective: –The collective operation will return an error code or if it had received invalid data at any point during the operation; otherwise, returns MPI_SUCCESS. HiPC (12/20/2011)

13 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Presentation Layout Introduction and Motivation Requirements from MPI and improvements to MPICH2 ABFT Hot Replacement Experimental Evaluation Concluding Remarks HiPC (12/20/2011)

14 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory ABFT Hot-replacement Before the replacement, After the replacement, Assume D=DT D2D1D3E P1 P2P3 P4 ABFT Hot Replacement HiPC (12/20/2011)

15 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory High Performance Linpack (HPL) –benchmark for ranking supercomputers in top500 –solve Ax = b CHECKSUM CHECKSUM … Each process generates its local random matrix A for i = 0, 1, … LU factorization A i = L i U i ; computation Broadcast L i right ; communication Update the trailing sub-matrix U ; computation solve upper-triangular Ux = L -1 b to obtain x ; back substitution phase checksum relationship maintained ABFT Hot Recovery in LINPACK HiPC (12/20/2011)

16 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Hot-Replacement Replace dead process column by redundant process column Background Recovery Recover the factorized data Requires additional computation, but is only local Matrix U is not upper-triangular any more Failure Handling in Computation HiPC (12/20/2011)

17 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Failure Handling in Computation (contd.) Before hot-replacement After hot-replacement The correct solution x This phase requires a global synchronization, but can be done at the end of the application (or some natural synchronization point) HiPC (12/20/2011)

18 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Failure Handling in Communication Broadcast phase : message forwarding Robust broadcast mechanism –None of the processes will block if a failure occurs (MPI provides this) –The error is notified to the application – at least one process will know if an error occurred anywhere (MPI provides this) –Either all non-failed processes receive the message successfully or none of them receive the message (MPI does not provide this yet) Additional communication required to ensure the global view of the broadcast is consistent HiPC (12/20/2011)

19 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Presentation Layout Introduction and Motivation Requirements from MPI and improvements to MPICH2 ABFT Hot Replacement Experimental Evaluation Concluding Remarks HiPC (12/20/2011)

20 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Experimental Testbed Platform1: –17 nodes each with 4 quadcore 2.2 GHz Opteron processors (16-cores per node) –Connected by Gigabit Ethernet Platform II: –8 blades, 10 Intel Xeon X5650 processors per blade –Nodes in the same blade are connected by InfiniBand, while different blades are connected with each other by a single InfiniBand cable MPICH2: –The work done was based on an experimental version of MPICH2 based on 1.3.2p1. The changes have been incorporated into MPICH2 releases as of 1.4 (and some more improvements incorporated into 1.5a1 and the upcoming 1.5a2) HiPC (12/20/2011)

21 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Performance Comparison of LINPACK HiPC (12/20/2011)

22 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Correctness Comparison HiPC (12/20/2011)

23 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Impact of Failure Occurrence HiPC (12/20/2011)

24 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Presentation Layout Introduction and Motivation Requirements from MPI and improvements to MPICH2 ABFT Hot Replacement Experimental Evaluation Concluding Remarks HiPC (12/20/2011)

25 Pavan Balaji, Argonne National Laboratory Concluding Remarks Resilience is an important issue that needs to be addressed –Hardware resilience can only go so far, because of technology, power and price constraints –Software resilience required to augment places where hardware resilience is not sufficient System checkpointing was the classical resilience method, but hard to scale to very large systems ABFT-based methods gaining popularity –Use mathematical properties to recompute data on failure –ABFT Recovery method previously proposed – problem is that it requires synchronization between all processes on failure –We proposed ABFT hot replacement, which deals with this problem HiPC (12/20/2011)

26 Thank You! Web:


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