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Matlab Regular Expression 2012.4.09

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Lets begin with * Asterisk * can match all words when we interact with program, e.g. MS office software. *.* is match all files name.

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Regular Expression -- regexp In computing, a regular expression provides a concise and flexible means to "match" (specify and recognize) strings of text, such as particular characters, words, or patterns of characters. -- From Wikipedia

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Matlab Regular Expression regexp: Match regular expression (case sensitive) regexpi: Match regular expression (case insensitive) regexprep: Replace string using regular expression

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Examples str = 'bat cat can car COAT court cut ct CAT-scan'; regexpi(str, 'c[aeiou]+t') ans = 5 17 28 35 [aeiou]: 1 char within [] should be matched; +: matches the preceding pattern element 1+ times; defalut output: starting indices of each match.

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str = 'Madrid, Spain'; s1 = regexp(str, '[A-Z]'); s2 = regexp(str, '\s'); s1 = 1 9 s2 = 8 [A-Z]: a char from A to Z of alphabet should be contained; \s: space characters, matches a whitespace character.

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str = 'regexp helps you relax'; [m s e] = regexp(str, '\w*x\w*', 'match', 'start', 'end') m = 'regexp' 'relax' s = 1 18 e = 6 22 match, start, end: specifies the output format, text, starting and ending indices of matched words; \w: space characters, same as [A-Za-z0-9_] *: matches the preceding pattern element 0+ times.

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Output Arguments Selected OutputsKeyword Required matchstart'start' matchend'end' tokenindices'tokenExtents' matchstring'match' tokenstring'tokens' tokenname'names' splitstring'split'

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str = 'She sells sea shells by the seashore.'; [matchstr splitstr] = regexp(str, '[Ss]h.', 'match', 'split') matchstr = 'She' 'she' 'sho' splitstr = '' ' sells sea ' 'lls by the sea' 're.' split: specifies the output format, find the substrings delimited by the pattern.

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Character Type Operators OperatorUsage.Any single character, including white space [c 1 c 2 c 3 ]Any character contained within the brackets: c 1 or c 2 or c 3 [^c1c2c3][^c1c2c3]Any character not contained within the brackets: anything but c 1 or c 2 or c 3 [c 1 -c 2 ]Any character in the range of c 1 through c 2 \sAny white-space character; equivalent to [ \f\n\r\t\v] \SAny nonwhitespace character; equivalent to [^ \f\n\r\t\v] \wAny alphabetic, numeric, or underscore character. For English character sets, this is equivalent to [a-zA-Z_0-9]. \WAny character that is not alphabetic, numeric, or underscore. For English character sets, this is equivalent to [^a-zA-Z_0-9]. \dAny numeric digit; equivalent to [0-9] \DAny nondigit character; equivalent to [^0-9]

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str = 'The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain.'; expr = '..ain'; matchStr = regexp(str, expr, 'match') matchStr = ' rain' 'Spain' ' main' 'plain [mat idx] = regexp(str, '[rpm]ain', 'match', 'start') mat = 'rain' 'pain' 'main' idx = 5 14 25 [mat ix1 ix2] = regexp(str, '\w*n\s', 'match', 'start', 'end') mat = 'rain ' 'in ' 'Spain ' 'on ' ix1 = 5 10 13 32 ix2 = 9 12 18 34

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Positional Operators OperatorUsage ^exprMatch expr if it occurs at the beginning of the input string. expr$Match expr if it occurs at the end of the input string. \<exprMatch expr when it occurs at the beginning of a word. expr\>Match expr when it occurs at the end of a word. \ Match expr when it represents the entire word.

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Quantifiers OperatorUsage expr{m,n}Must occur at least m times but no more than n times. expr{m,}Must occur at least m times. expr{n}Must match exactly n times. Equivalent to {n,n}. expr?Match the preceding element 0 times or 1 time. Equivalent to {0,1}. expr*Match the preceding element 0 or more times. Equivalent to {0,}. expr+Match the preceding element 1 or more times. Equivalent to {1,}. q_expr+Match as much of the quantified expression as possible, but do not rescan any portions of the string if the initial match fails. The term q_expr represents any of the expressions shown in the top six rows of this table. q_expr?Match only as much of the quantified expression as necessary. The term q_expr represents any of the expressions shown in the top six rows of this table. For an example, see Lazy Quantifiers expr*?.

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Character Representation OperatorUsage \aAlarm (beep) \Backslash \$\$Dollar sign \bBackspace \fForm feed \n\nNew line \r\rCarriage return \t\tHorizontal tab \vVertical tab \oN or \o{N}Character of octal value N \xN or \x{N}Character of hexadecimal value N

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Grouping Operators OperatorUsage (expr)Group regular expressions and capture tokens. (?:expr)Group regular expressions, but do not capture tokens. (?>expr)Group atomically. expr 1 |expr 2 Match expression expr 1 or expression expr 2.

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regexp('B5 A2 6F 63 R6 P4 B2 BC', '(?:[A-Z]\d\s?){2,}', 'match') ans = 'B5 A2 ' 'R6 P4 B2 regexpi(pstr, '(let|tel)\w+', 'match') ans = 'lets' 'telegram'

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Operators Used with Tokens OperatorUsage (expr)Capture in a token all characters matched by the expression within the parentheses. \NMatch the N th token generated by this command. That is, use \1 to match the first token, \2 to match the second, and so on. $NInsert the match for the N th token in the replacement string. Used only by the regexprep function. If N is equal to zero, then insert the entire match in the replacement string. (?(N)s1|s2)If N th token is found, then match s1, else match s2

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String Replacement OperatorUsage Operators from the Character Representation table The character represented by the operator sequence $`That part of the input string that precedes the current match $& or $0That part of the input string that is currently a match $'That part of the input string that follows the current match. In MATLAB, use $'' to represent the character sequence $' $NThe string represented by the token identified by the number N $ The string represented by the token identified by name ${cmd}The string returned when MATLAB executes the command cmd

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Introduction to Using Tokens poestr = ['While I nodded, nearly napping, ' 'suddenly there came a tapping,']; [mat tok ext] = regexp(poestr, '(\S)\1', 'match', 'tokens', 'tokenExtents'); mat = 'dd' 'pp' 'dd' 'pp' The tokens returned in cell array tok are: 'd', 'p', 'd', 'p Starting and ending indices for each token in the input string poestr are: 11 11, 26 26, 35 35, 57 57

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Using Tokens in a Replacement String poestr = ['While I nodded, nearly napping, ' 'suddenly there came a tapping,']; regexp(poestr, '(?.)\k ', 'match') ans = 'dd' 'pp' 'dd' 'pp When referencing a named token within the expression, use the syntax \k instead of the numeric \1, \2, etc.:

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Using Tokens in a Replacement String regexprep('Norma Jean Baker', '(\w+\s\w+)\s(\w+)', '$2, $1') ans = Baker, Norma Jean Cstr = 'Whose woods these are I think I know.' ; s = regexprep(cstr, '(.)\1', '--', 'ignorecase') s = 'Whose w--ds these are I think I know. ss='Hello world. 2 < 5'; b=' '; sr=regexprep(ss,b,'') sr = 'Hello world. 2 < 5'

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Named tokens are denoted by the pattern (?...). The 'names' result structure will have fields corresponding to the named tokens in EXPRESSION str = 'John Davis; Rogers, James'; pat = '(? \w+)\s+(? \w+)|(? \w+),\s+(? \w+)'; n = regexp(str, pat, 'names'); n(1).first = 'John' n(1).last = 'Davis' n(2).first = 'James' n(2).last = 'Rogers'

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When one of STRING or EXPRESSION is a cell array of strings, REGEXP matches the string input with each element of the cell array input str = {'Madrid, Spain' 'Romeo and Juliet' 'MATLAB is great'}; pat = '\s'; regexp(str, pat) ans = {[8]; [6 10]; [7 10]}

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When both STRING and EXPRESSION are cell arrays of strings, REGEXP matches the elements of STRING and EXPRESSION sequentially. The number of elements in STRING and EXPRESSION must be identical str = {'Madrid, Spain' 'Romeo and Juliet' 'MATLAB is great'}; pat = {'\s', '\w+', '[A-Z]'}; regexp(str, pat) ans = {[8]; [1 7 11]; [1 2 3 4 5 6]}

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Nonmatching Operators OperatorUsage (?#comment)Insert a comment into the expression. Comments are ignored in matching.

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Lookaround Operators OperatorUsage (?=expr)Look ahead from current position and test if expr is found. (?!expr)Look ahead from current position and test if expr is not found (?<=expr)Look behind from current position and test if expr is found. (?<!expr)Look behind from current position and test if expr is not found.

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http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/matlab_prog/f0-42649.html http://www.mathworks.com/help/techdoc/ref/regexp.html

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