6Pastoralism Ranching and nomadic herding Growing animals on land that is unsuitable for crops.
7Traditional Intensive Agriculture Agriculture that uses high levels of muscle power, whether from humans or animals, manure, and labor-intensive methods of tilling and pest control; also plants monocultures.Compare to traditional subsistence agriculture
8Shifting subsistence Agriculture Also called Slash and burnand Horticulture.For bigger plants and extended growth periods
9Plantation Agriculture Large monocultures of cash crops in tropical settings intended for export.Bananas, coffee, tea, dates.
10Industrial Agriculture Agriculture using machines and high inputs of fossil fuels, fertilizers, and pesticides—also large monoculture fields.
12The First Green Revolution The first green revolution involved the replacement of intensive traditional agriculture in the industrialized world with industrialized agriculture.replacement of animal power with machine power.replacement of manure and compost with synthetic fertilizer.replacement of labor-intensive pest control with pesticides.breeding of special strains of crops adapted for high inputs of fertilizer and high outputs of crops.
17Second Green Revolution Second green revolution involved the breeding of special varieties of crops that would increase the yields of intensive traditional agriculture in Asia.Also involved adding application of synthetic fertilizers as part of intensive agriculture.Production of multiple crops in one year (multicropping).
18Components of Green Revolution Infrastructure Specially bred crops.Fossil fuels and machinery.Fertilizers and pesticides.Food distribution systemAmerica Revealed: Food OutletsAmerica Revealed: Pizza Delivery
19Pros and Cons of Industrial Agriculture Pros—increased production, more efficiency, more income, more people off farm and into industry.Cons--high uses of fossil fuels, lots of toxins, lots of waste, and surprising amounts of pollution; also, unintended effects of monoculture.High throughput agriculture
22Environmental Problems from Agriculture Soil ErosionDesertification
23Causes of Desertification Desertification is the conversion of grassland to desert. Causes include:climate change.overgrazing.inappropriate planting of cropssalinization (salt contamination) of farmland from irrigation.
27PestsA pest is any organism that competes with humans for food, destroys shelter, invades lawns and gardens, spreads disease, invades ecosystems, or is simply a nuisance is a pest.crop pests include: -- insects. -- nematodes (roundworms). -- fungus (blights, rusts, smuts). -- viruses. -- birds. -- weeds. -- mites.
34DDTBroad-spectrum insecticides used to kill all kinds of insect pests after World War II— DDT the most notorious.
35The Case for Pesticides Save lives.Increase food supplies.Increase profits for farmers.Used properly, they pose minimal health risks compared to benefits.Modern pesticides safer and more effective than older chemicals.
39Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and DDT Michigan State University video: On Earth Day, take time to celebrate Silent Spring's 50th anniversary
40Pesticides travel, kill other organisms besides pests, and threaten humans and wildlife Example: Brown Pelicans on Anacapa Island
41The Ideal Pesticide Kills only the target pest. Does not cause resistance in the target pest.Disappears or breaks down into harmless chemicals after doing its job.Is more cost-effective than doing nothing.
46When giant, imported African snails threatened the fragile ecosystem of Hawaii, Tahiti and other pacific islands, the rosy wolf snail was deliberately imported and released against all better judgment as natural pest control Unfortunately - and to many biologists, predictably - these ravenous cannibals had a bigger appetite for the defenseless native tree snails. Within a decade or two, the colorful tree snails of Hawaii and Tahiti were reduced from over a hundred species to only a dozen, most of which are nearing extinction themselves...and the African snails? Still at large.
57Poverty and Conflict are a self-reinforcing cycle—positive feedback
58Increasing Food Production Add more land—not all land is suitable and doing so decreases biodiversity.Increase productivity—leads to pollution and higher energy demand; also requires GMOs.Aquaculture—marine environment not as productive as terrestrial environment and techniques not as refined.Make agriculture local and sustainable—not all places are suitable for agriculture and the culture will have to change.Book is still most positive about that last choice, which includes urban farming.
60The Promise and Perils of Urban Agriculture Michigan State University video: MetroFoodPlus Innovation Cluster Look for the People, Planet, Profit sustainability diagram and note that this is an integrated approach that considers food, energy, and water.WXYZ video: Oak Park vegetable garden controversy The struggles of Julie Bass to keep her front yard vegetable garden in the face of opposition from the city of Oak Park.
61Human-Dominated vs. Natural Ecosystems Human-dominated ecosystems are:Much “flatter” (fewer trophic levels)Less diverse.Have most of primary productivity directed to human consumption.Regularly disturbed (plowing, construction, etc.)