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Agriculture and the Food Supply. Top 20 agricultural commodities Rank Commodity Production (Int $1000) Production (MT) 1 Cow milk, whole, fresh 144976500.

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Presentation on theme: "Agriculture and the Food Supply. Top 20 agricultural commodities Rank Commodity Production (Int $1000) Production (MT) 1 Cow milk, whole, fresh 144976500."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agriculture and the Food Supply

2 Top 20 agricultural commodities Rank Commodity Production (Int $1000) Production (MT) 1 Cow milk, whole, fresh Rice, paddy Wheat Hen eggs, in shell Soybeans Buffalo milk, whole, fresh Vegetables fresh Maize Cotton lint Potatoes Sugar cane Grapes Tomatoes Apples Groundnuts, with shell Cassava Rapeseed Garlic Onions, dry Bananas

3 Top 16 Food Crops by Mass Rank Commodity Production (Int $1000) Production (MT) 1 Sugar cane Maize Rice, paddy Wheat Potatoes Vegetables fresh Cassava Soybeans Tomatoes Bananas Onions, dry Apples Grapes Rapeseed Groundnuts, with shell Garlic

4 Worlds Top 9 Agricultural commodities by mass

5 U.S. Commodities by Mass

6 Pastoralism Ranching and nomadic herding Growing animals on land that is unsuitable for crops.

7 Traditional Intensive Agriculture Agriculture that uses high levels of muscle power, whether from humans or animals, manure, and labor-intensive methods of tilling and pest control; also plants monocultures.

8 Shifting subsistence Agriculture Also called Slash and burn and Horticulture. For bigger plants and extended growth periods

9 Plantation Agriculture Large monocultures of cash crops in tropical settings intended for export. Bananas, coffee, tea, dates.

10 Industrial Agriculture Agriculture using machines and high inputs of fossil fuels, fertilizers, and pesticidesalso large monoculture fields.

11 A Flow Chart of Industrial Agriculture

12 The First Green Revolution The first green revolution involved the replacement of intensive traditional agriculture in the industrialized world with industrialized agriculture. replacement of animal power with machine power. replacement of manure and compost with synthetic fertilizer. replacement of labor-intensive pest control with pesticides. breeding of special strains of crops adapted for high inputs of fertilizer and high outputs of crops.

13 Replacement of animal power with machine power

14 Replacement of compost and manure with synthetic fertilizers.

15 Synthetic Pesticides

16 Specially Bred Crops (biotech.)

17 Second Green Revolution Second green revolution involved the breeding of special varieties of crops that would increase the yields of intensive traditional agriculture in Asia. Also involved adding application of synthetic fertilizers as part of intensive agriculture. Production of multiple crops in one year (multicropping).

18 Components of Green Revolution Infrastructure Specially bred crops. Fossil fuels and machinery. Fertilizers and pesticides. Food distribution system America Revealed: Food Outlets America Revealed: Pizza Delivery

19 Pros and Cons of Industrial Agriculture Prosincreased production, more efficiency, more income, more people off farm and into industry. Cons--high uses of fossil fuels, lots of toxins, lots of waste, and surprising amounts of pollution; also, unintended effects of monoculture.

20 Pros of the Green Revolution

21 Cons of the Green Revolution

22 Environmental Problems from Agriculture Soil Erosion Desertification

23 Causes of Desertification Desertification is the conversion of grassland to desert. Causes include: climate change. overgrazing. inappropriate planting of crops salinization (salt contamination) of farmland from irrigation.

24 Water Pollution Manure lagoons Overflow

25 Eutrophication and Dead Zones

26 Rural Air Pollution Dust, smoke, and odors

27 Pests A pest is any organism that competes with humans for food, destroys shelter, invades lawns and gardens, spreads disease, invades ecosystems, or is simply a nuisance is a pest. crop pests include: -- insects. -- nematodes (roundworms). -- fungus (blights, rusts, smuts). -- viruses. -- birds. -- weeds. -- mites.

28 Insects and Mites

29 Nematodes in corn

30 Diseases of Plants Fungal Viral

31 Weeds Weeds are the number one crop pest in terms of lost production.

32 History of Pesticides

33 Natural Pesticides

34 DDT Broad-spectrum insecticides used to kill all kinds of insect pests after World War II DDT the most notorious.

35 The Case for Pesticides Save lives. Increase food supplies. Increase profits for farmers. Used properly, they pose minimal health risks compared to benefits. Modern pesticides safer and more effective than older chemicals.

36 Why Pesticides?

37 The Case Against Pesticides Resistance University of Georgia video on parasite resistance

38 DDT and Biomagnification

39 Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and DDT Michigan State University video: On Earth Day, take time to celebrate Silent Spring's 50th anniversary Michigan State University video: On Earth Day, take time to celebrate Silent Spring's 50th anniversary

40 Pesticides travel, kill other organisms besides pests, and threaten humans and wildlife Example: Brown Pelicans on Anacapa Island

41 The Ideal Pesticide Kills only the target pest. Does not cause resistance in the target pest. Disappears or breaks down into harmless chemicals after doing its job. Is more cost-effective than doing nothing.

42 Biological controls

43 Mongoose introduced to control Black Rat in Hawaii in 1883

44 Extinct Birds the Result

45 History Repeats with Snails

46 When giant, imported African snails threatened the fragile ecosystem of Hawaii, Tahiti and other pacific islands, the rosy wolf snail was deliberately imported and released against all better judgment as natural pest control. Unfortunately - and to many biologists, predictably - these ravenous cannibals had a bigger appetite for the defenseless native tree snails. Within a decade or two, the colorful tree snails of Hawaii and Tahiti were reduced from over a hundred species to only a dozen, most of which are nearing extinction themselves...and the African snails? Still at large. native tree snails

47 Integrated Pest Management

48 Contour Plowing and Strip Cropping

49

50 No till farming combats climate change

51 Pheromone Traps

52 Screw worm fly eradication

53 Transportation, food cost, poverty, and conflict all contribute to current food shortages

54 All World Transportation

55 High Food Prices

56 Poverty and Conflict

57 Poverty and Conflict are a self- reinforcing cyclepositive feedback

58 Increasing Food Production Add more landnot all land is suitable and doing so decreases biodiversity. Increase productivityleads to pollution and higher energy demand; also requires GMOs. Aquaculturemarine environment not as productive as terrestrial environment and techniques not as refined. Make agriculture local and sustainablenot all places are suitable for agriculture and the culture will have to change. Book is still most positive about that last choice, which includes urban farming.

59 The Increasing importance of Aquaculture

60 The Promise and Perils of Urban Agriculture Michigan State University video: MetroFoodPlus Innovation Cluster Look for the People, Planet, Profit sustainability diagram and note that this is an integrated approach that considers food, energy, and water. Michigan State University video: MetroFoodPlus Innovation Cluster WXYZ video: Oak Park vegetable garden controversy The struggles of Julie Bass to keep her front yard vegetable garden in the face of opposition from the city of Oak Park. WXYZ video: Oak Park vegetable garden controversy

61 Human-Dominated vs. Natural Ecosystems Human-dominated ecosystems are: Much flatter (fewer trophic levels) Less diverse. Have most of primary productivity directed to human consumption. Regularly disturbed (plowing, construction, etc.)

62

63 Screw worm fly eradication


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