3Fingerprint Principles A fingerprint is an individual characteristic; no two people have been found with the exact same fingerprint pattern.A fingerprint pattern will remain unchanged for the life of an individual; however, the print itself may change due to permanent scars and skin diseases.Fingerprints have general characteristic ridge patterns that allow them to be systematically identified.In fact identical twins can have same DNA, but completely different fingeprints.
4A visual inspection of friction skin reveals a series of lines corresponding to hills (ridges) and valleys (grooves). The shape and form of the skin ridges are what one sees as the black lines of an inked fingerprint impression.
5Skin is composed of layers of cells Skin is composed of layers of cells. Those nearest the surface make up the outer portion of the skin known as the epidermis, and the inner skin is known as the dermis. A cross section of skin reveals a boundary of cells separating the epidermis and dermis. The shape of this boundary, made up of dermal papillae, determines the form and pattern of the ridges on the surface of the skin.Once dermal papillae develop in the human fetus, the ridge patterns remain unchanged throughout life except to enlarge during growth.
16Fingerprint ClassesThere are 3 specific classes for all fingerprints based upon their visual pattern: Arches, Loops, and Whorls.Each group is divided into smaller groups as seen in the lists below.ArchPlain archTented arch…….LoopRadial LoopUlnar loopWhorlPlain whorlCentral pocket whorlDouble loop whorl
17Did you know Fingerprint Factoid ? Interesting InfoDid you know Fingerprint Factoid ?
18Principle #3: ArchesThe plain arch is the simplest of all fingerprint patterns. It is formed by ridges entering from one side of the print and exiting on the opposite side. Generally, these ridges tend to rise in the center of the pattern, forming a wavelike pattern.The tented arch is similar to the plain arch except that instead of rising smoothly at the center, there is a sharp upthrust or spike, or the ridges meet at an angle that is less than 90 degrees.Arches do not have type lines, deltas, or cores.
19ArchesArches are the simplest type of fingerprints that are formed by ridges that enter on one side of the print and exit on the other. No deltas are present.Tented ArchesSimilar to the plain arch,but has a spike in the center.Spike or “tent”Plain ArchRidges enter on one side andexit on the other side.
20Character Always in search for a concrete proof of ideas. Be practical, cautious and suspicious thinker.Always in search for a concrete proof of ideas.Find security, step by step
21LOOPLoops must have one delta and one or more ridges that enter and leave on the same side. These patterns are named for their positions related to the radius and ulna bones.Ulnar Loop (Right Thumb)Loop opens toward right or the ulna bone.Radial Loop (Right Thumb)Loop opens toward the left or the radial bone.DeltaNOTE: On the left hand, a loop that opens to the left would be an ulnar loop, while one that opens to the right would be a radial loop.
22Principle #3: LoopsThe pattern area of the loop is surrounded by two diverging ridges known as type lines. The ridge point at or nearest the type-line divergence and located at or directly in front of the point of divergence is known as the delta.
23Principle #3: LoopsTo many, a fingerprint delta resembles the silt formation that builds up as a river flows in the entrance of a lake - hence the analogy to the geological formation known as a delta. All loops must have one delta. The core, as the name suggests, is the approximate center of the pattern.
24CHARACTER Ulnar Loop (Right Thumb) Loop opens toward right or the ulna bone.DeltaWilling to be in the flow of lifeBe adaptable, easy –going and flexibleExpress yourself according to your feeling
25LOOP Use converse thinking, out-of –world methods to manage work Radial Loop (Right Thumb)Loop opens toward the left or the radial bone.DeltaHas strong innovative abilityUse converse thinking, out-of –world methods to manage workBe judgmental characteristics
26Fixed opinions and strong views WhorlsWhorls have at least one ridge that makes (or tends to make) a complete circuit. They also have at least two deltas. If a print has more than two deltas, it is most likely an accidental.Central Pocket WhorlPlain WhorlGoal –oriented peopleBe strict task mastersFixed opinions and strong views
27Whorls Plain Whorl Central Pocket Whorl Whorls have at least one ridge that makes (or tends to make) a complete circuit. They also have at least two deltas. If a print has more than two deltas, it is most likely an accidental.Central Pocket WhorlPlain WhorlDraw a line between the two deltas in the plain and central pocket whorls. If some of the curved ridges touch the line, it is a plain whorl. If none of the center core touches the line, it is a central pocket whorl.
28Whorls Accidental Whorl Double Loop Whorl Accidental whorls contain two or more patterns (not including the plain arch), or does not clearly fall under any of the other categories.Double Loop WhorlDouble loop whorls are made up of any two loops combined into one print.Delta
29Identify each fingerprint pattern. ?ABLeft HandRight HandCRight HandDERight HandLeft Hand
30It’s time to make some prints! Avoid Partial PrintsGOOD PRINT Get as much of the top part of your finger as possible!
31Principle #1If prints are to match, they must reveal characteristics that not only are identical, but have the same relative location to one another in a print. In a judicial proceeding, a point-by-point comparison must be demonstrated by the expert, using charts.
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