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8 th Grade Forensic Science. Fingerprint Principles A fingerprint is an individual characteristic; no two people have been found with the exact same.

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Presentation on theme: "8 th Grade Forensic Science. Fingerprint Principles A fingerprint is an individual characteristic; no two people have been found with the exact same."— Presentation transcript:

1 8 th Grade Forensic Science

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3 Fingerprint Principles A fingerprint is an individual characteristic; no two people have been found with the exact same fingerprint pattern. A fingerprint pattern will remain unchanged for the life of an individual; however, the print itself may change due to permanent scars and skin diseases. Fingerprints have general characteristic ridge patterns that allow them to be systematically identified. In fact identical twins can have same DNA, but completely different fingeprints.

4 A visual inspection of friction skin reveals a series of lines corresponding to hills (ridges) and valleys (grooves). The shape and form of the skin ridges are what one sees as the black lines of an inked fingerprint impression.

5 Skin is composed of layers of cells. Those nearest the surface make up the outer portion of the skin known as the epidermis, and the inner skin is known as the dermis. A cross section of skin reveals a boundary of cells separating the epidermis and dermis. The shape of this boundary, made up of dermal papillae, determines the form and pattern of the ridges on the surface of the skin.

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16 Fingerprint Classes There are 3 specific classes for all fingerprints based upon their visual pattern: Arches, Loops, and Whorls. Each group is divided into smaller groups as seen in the lists below. Arch Plain arch Tented arch ……. Arch Plain arch Tented arch ……. Loop Radial Loop Ulnar loop Loop Radial Loop Ulnar loop Whorl Plain whorl Central pocket whorl Double loop whorl ……. Whorl Plain whorl Central pocket whorl Double loop whorl …….

17 Interesting Info Did you know Fingerprint Factoid ?

18 Principle #3: Arches The plain arch is the simplest of all fingerprint patterns. It is formed by ridges entering from one side of the print and exiting on the opposite side. Generally, these ridges tend to rise in the center of the pattern, forming a wavelike pattern. The tented arch is similar to the plain arch except that instead of rising smoothly at the center, there is a sharp upthrust or spike, or the ridges meet at an angle that is less than 90 degrees. Arches do not have type lines, deltas, or cores.

19 Arches Arches are the simplest type of fingerprints that are formed by ridges that enter on one side of the print and exit on the other. No deltas are present. Plain Arch Ridges enter on one side and exit on the other side. Plain Arch Ridges enter on one side and exit on the other side. Tented Arches Similar to the plain arch, but has a spike in the center. Tented Arches Similar to the plain arch, but has a spike in the center. Spike or tent

20 Be practical, cautious and suspicious thinker. Always in search for a concrete proof of ideas. Find security, step by step

21 Loops must have one delta and one or more ridges that enter and leave on the same side. These patterns are named for their positions related to the radius and ulna bones. Delta Ulnar Loop (Right Thumb) Loop opens toward right or the ulna bone. Ulnar Loop (Right Thumb) Loop opens toward right or the ulna bone. Radial Loop (Right Thumb) Loop opens toward the left or the radial bone. Radial Loop (Right Thumb) Loop opens toward the left or the radial bone. NOTE: On the left hand, a loop that opens to the left would be an ulnar loop, while one that opens to the right would be a radial loop.

22 Principle #3: Loops The pattern area of the loop is surrounded by two diverging ridges known as type lines. The ridge point at or nearest the type-line divergence and located at or directly in front of the point of divergence is known as the delta.

23 To many, a fingerprint delta resembles the silt formation that builds up as a river flows in the entrance of a lake - hence the analogy to the geological formation known as a delta. All loops must have one delta. The core, as the name suggests, is the approximate center of the pattern. Principle #3: Loops

24 Willing to be in the flow of life Be adaptable, easy –going and flexible Express yourself according to your feeling Ulnar Loop (Right Thumb) Loop opens toward right or the ulna bone. Delta

25 Radial Loop (Right Thumb) Loop opens toward the left or the radial bone. Has strong innovative ability Use converse thinking, out-of –world methods to manage work Be judgmental characteristics Delta

26 Whorls Whorls have at least one ridge that makes (or tends to make) a complete circuit. They also have at least two deltas. If a print has more than two deltas, it is most likely an accidental. Plain Whorl Central Pocket Whorl Goal – oriented people Be strict task masters Fixed opinions and strong views

27 Whorls have at least one ridge that makes (or tends to make) a complete circuit. They also have at least two deltas. If a print has more than two deltas, it is most likely an accidental. Draw a line between the two deltas in the plain and central pocket whorls. If some of the curved ridges touch the line, it is a plain whorl. If none of the center core touches the line, it is a central pocket whorl. Plain Whorl Central Pocket Whorl Whorls

28 Accidental Whorl Accidental whorls contain two or more patterns (not including the plain arch), or does not clearly fall under any of the other categories. Double Loop Whorl Double loop whorls are made up of any two loops combined into one print. Delta Whorls

29 Identify each fingerprint pattern. Right Hand Left Hand Right Hand

30 Its time to make some prints! Avoid Partial Prints GOOD PRINT Get as much of the top part of your finger as possible!

31 Principle #1 If prints are to match, they must reveal characteristics that not only are identical, but have the same relative location to one another in a print. In a judicial proceeding, a point-by- point comparison must be demonstrated by the expert, using charts.

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