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Virtual Memory 1 Computer Organization II © McQuain Virtual Memory Use main memory as a cache for secondary (disk) storage – Managed jointly by CPU hardware and the operating system (OS) Programs share main memory – Each gets a private virtual address space holding its frequently used code and data – Protected from other programs CPU and OS translate virtual addresses to physical addresses – VM block is called a page – VM translation miss is called a page fault
Virtual Memory 2 Computer Organization II © McQuain Address Translation Fixed-size pages (e.g., 4KB)
Virtual Memory 3 Computer Organization II © McQuain Page Fault Penalty On page fault, the page must be fetched from disk – Takes millions of clock cycles – Handled by OS code Try to minimize page fault rate – Fully associative placement – Smart replacement algorithms How bad is that? Assume a 3 GHz clock rate. Then 1 million clock cycles would take 1/3000 seconds or 1/3 ms. Subjectively, a single page fault would not be noticed… but page faults can add up. We must try to minimize the number of page faults.
Virtual Memory 4 Computer Organization II © McQuain Page Tables Stores placement information – Array of page table entries, indexed by virtual page number – Page table register in CPU points to page table in physical memory If page is present in memory – PTE stores the physical page number – Plus other status bits (referenced, dirty, …) If page is not present – PTE can refer to location in swap space on disk
Virtual Memory 5 Computer Organization II © McQuain Translation Using a Page Table
Virtual Memory 6 Computer Organization II © McQuain Mapping Pages to Storage
Virtual Memory 7 Computer Organization II © McQuain Replacement and Writes To reduce page fault rate, prefer least-recently used (LRU) replacement (or approximation) – Reference bit (aka use bit) in PTE set to 1 on access to page – Periodically cleared to 0 by OS – A page with reference bit = 0 has not been used recently Disk writes take millions of cycles – Block at once, not individual locations – Write through is impractical – Use write-back – Dirty bit in PTE set when page is written
Virtual Memory 8 Computer Organization II © McQuain Fast Translation Using a TLB Address translation would appear to require extra memory references – One to access the PTE – Then the actual memory access Can't afford to keep them all at the processor level. But access to page tables has good locality – So use a fast cache of PTEs within the CPU – Called a Translation Look-aside Buffer (TLB) – Typical: 16–512 PTEs, 0.5–1 cycle for hit, 10–100 cycles for miss, 0.01%–1% miss rate – Misses could be handled by hardware or software
Virtual Memory 9 Computer Organization II © McQuain Fast Translation Using a TLB
Virtual Memory 10 Computer Organization II © McQuain TLB Misses If page is in memory – Load the PTE from memory and retry – Could be handled in hardware n Can get complex for more complicated page table structures – Or in software n Raise a special exception, with optimized handler If page is not in memory (page fault) – OS handles fetching the page and updating the page table – Then restart the faulting instruction
Virtual Memory 11 Computer Organization II © McQuain TLB Miss Handler TLB miss indicates whether – Page present, but PTE not in TLB – Page not present Must recognize TLB miss before destination register overwritten – Raise exception Handler copies PTE from memory to TLB – Then restarts instruction – If page not present, page fault will occur
Virtual Memory 12 Computer Organization II © McQuain Page Fault Handler Use faulting virtual address to find PTE Choose page to replace – If dirty, write to disk first Locate page on disk Read page into memory and update page table Make process runnable again – Restart from faulting instruction
Virtual Memory 13 Computer Organization II © McQuain TLB and Cache Interaction If cache tag uses physical address – Need to translate before cache lookup Alternative: use virtual address tag – Complications due to aliasing n Different virtual addresses for shared physical address
Virtual Memory 14 Computer Organization II © McQuain Memory Protection Different tasks can share parts of their virtual address spaces – But need to protect against errant access – Requires OS assistance Hardware support for OS protection – Privileged supervisor mode (aka kernel mode) – Privileged instructions – Page tables and other state information only accessible in supervisor mode – System call exception (e.g., syscall in MIPS)
Virtual Memory 15 Computer Organization II © McQuain The Memory Hierarchy Common principles apply at all levels of the memory hierarchy – Based on notions of caching At each level in the hierarchy – Block placement – Finding a block – Replacement on a miss – Write policy
Virtual Memory 16 Computer Organization II © McQuain Block Placement Determined by associativity – Direct mapped (1-way associative) n One choice for placement – n-way set associative n n choices within a set – Fully associative n Any location Higher associativity reduces miss rate – Increases complexity, cost, and access time
Virtual Memory 17 Computer Organization II © McQuain Finding a Block Hardware caches – Reduce comparisons to reduce cost Virtual memory – Full table lookup makes full associativity feasible – Benefit in reduced miss rate AssociativityLocation methodTag comparisons Direct mappedIndex1 n-way set associativeSet index, then search entries within the set n Fully associativeSearch all entries#entries Full lookup table0
Virtual Memory 18 Computer Organization II © McQuain Replacement Choice of entry to replace on a miss – Least recently used (LRU) n Complex and costly hardware for high associativity – Random n Close to LRU, easier to implement Virtual memory – LRU approximation with hardware support
Virtual Memory 19 Computer Organization II © McQuain Write Policy Write-through – Update both upper and lower levels – Simplifies replacement, but may require write buffer Write-back – Update upper level only – Update lower level when block is replaced – Need to keep more state Virtual memory – Only write-back is feasible, given disk write latency
Virtual Memory 20 Computer Organization II © McQuain Sources of Misses Compulsory misses (aka cold start misses) – First access to a block Capacity misses – Due to finite cache size – A replaced block is later accessed again Conflict misses (aka collision misses) – In a non-fully associative cache – Due to competition for entries in a set – Would not occur in a fully associative cache of the same total size
Virtual Memory 21 Computer Organization II © McQuain Cache Design Trade-offs Design changeEffect on miss rateNegative performance effect Increase cache sizeDecrease capacity missesMay increase access time Increase associativityDecrease conflict missesMay increase access time Increase block sizeDecrease compulsory missesIncreases miss penalty. For very large block size, may increase miss rate due to pollution.
Virtual Memory 22 Computer Organization II © McQuain Multilevel On-Chip Caches Per core: 32KB L1 I-cache, 32KB L1 D-cache, 512KB L2 cache Intel Nehalem 4-core processor
Virtual Memory 23 Computer Organization II © McQuain 2-Level TLB Organization Intel NehalemAMD Opteron X4 Virtual addr48 bits Physical addr44 bits48 bits Page size4KB, 2/4MB L1 TLB (per core) L1 I-TLB: 128 entries for small pages, 7 per thread (2×) for large pages L1 D-TLB: 64 entries for small pages, 32 for large pages Both 4-way, LRU replacement L1 I-TLB: 48 entries L1 D-TLB: 48 entries Both fully associative, LRU replacement L2 TLB (per core) Single L2 TLB: 512 entries 4-way, LRU replacement L2 I-TLB: 512 entries L2 D-TLB: 512 entries Both 4-way, round-robin LRU TLB missesHandled in hardware
Virtual Memory 24 Computer Organization II © McQuain 3-Level Cache Organization Intel NehalemAMD Opteron X4 L1 caches (per core) L1 I-cache: 32KB, 64-byte blocks, 4-way, approx LRU replacement, hit time n/a L1 D-cache: 32KB, 64-byte blocks, 8-way, approx LRU replacement, write- back/allocate, hit time n/a L1 I-cache: 32KB, 64-byte blocks, 2-way, LRU replacement, hit time 3 cycles L1 D-cache: 32KB, 64-byte blocks, 2-way, LRU replacement, write-back/allocate, hit time 9 cycles L2 unified cache (per core) 256KB, 64-byte blocks, 8-way, approx LRU replacement, write-back/allocate, hit time n/a 512KB, 64-byte blocks, 16-way, approx LRU replacement, write-back/allocate, hit time n/a L3 unified cache (shared) 8MB, 64-byte blocks, 16-way, replacement n/a, write-back/allocate, hit time n/a 2MB, 64-byte blocks, 32-way, replace block shared by fewest cores, write-back/allocate, hit time 32 cycles n/a: data not available
Virtual Memory 25 Computer Organization II © McQuain Nehalem Overview
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