Presentation on theme: "Hemodiafiltration and Hemofiltration"— Presentation transcript:
1Hemodiafiltration and Hemofiltration By Dr TamaddondarHormozgan university of medical science
2V of solution used is 5fold higher than replacement in hemofiltration DiffusionV of solution used is 5fold higher than replacement in hemofiltrationConvection+/-DiffusionHDF 8 – 15 LHF L replacement solution
3A. Review of diffusion versus convection-based clearances B. Hemodiafiltration versus hemofiltrationC. Clearance due to diffusion (dialysis) versus filtration in HDFD. Predilution versus postdilution modeE. Technical issuesF.Risk and benefitsIntermittent HDF versus slow continuous HDF (C-HDF)
7Hemodiafiltration permits β2-microglobulin removal and high Kt/V, and is probably the best way to treat chronic renal failure (CRF).Why bother with hemodiafiltration? Simply because clearance is a function of the total volume of â€œcleansingâ€ solution used, which includes both dialysis solution and replacement solution. With hemodialysis, although removal of solutes is less efficient, the volume of solution used is fivefold higher than the amount of replacement solution used with hemofiltration. As a result, with hemodiafiltration, adding the dialysis component markedly increases the amount of small molecule removal. The increased solute removal with hemodiafiltration versus hemofiltration occurs only because a larger total volume of a-cleansing- solution is used. On a liter for liter basis, hemofiltration is the most efficient way to remove solutes from the blood.
8Clearance due to diffusion (dialysis) versus filtration in HDF Ktotal = KDiffusive + F/2 (if UF<100ml/min)(Gupta and Jaffrin, 1984), where Ktotal = total clearance, KDiffusive = diffusive clearance, and F = ultrafiltration rate.This equation tells us that adding 50 mL per minute of postdilution replacement fluid to dialysis will increase overall clearance by 25 mL per minute. The equation remains valid for values of F (ultrafiltration rate) up to 100 mL per minute with various molecular size substances.
9Predilution versus postdilution mode The administration may take place either before (predilution) or after (postdilution) the hemofilter.Infusing replacement solution in predilution mode in HDF reduces significantly the effect on clearance due to a dilution of the blood entering the dialyzer.This loss of clearance affects both small and large molecular weight substances. Accordingly, it is necessary to increase substantially the ultrafiltration/infusion rate when using predilution mode
10Technical issues Water Fluid paths(HF/HDF) Online preparation of replacement solution and dialysis solutionVascular accessMembrane
11Water ultrapure water (virtually sterile and nonpyrogenic water) Current AAMI recommendations <200(CFU)/mL of bacteria<2.0 endotoxin units (EU)/mL of endotoxinultrapure dialysis solution<0.1 CFU/mL and <0.03 EU/mL endotoxinThe ultrafilters are replaced periodically to prevent supersaturation and release of endotoxins.Basic technical options required to produce ultrapure water consists of a pretreatment system (microfiltration, softeners, activated carbon, downstream microfiltration) and then followed by two reverse-osmosis modules in series. Ultrapurified water is then delivered to dialysis machines via a distribution loop (with or without microfiltration technique), ensuring a continuous recirculation of water.
16Online preparation of replacement solution and dialysis solution Bicarbonate-based dialysate solution is universally used as the starting point. The production of sterile and nonpyrogenic dialysis fluid (ultrapure dialysate) is achieved by “cold sterilization” of the freshly prepared dialysate using an ultrafilter.The treatment options available on the dialysis machine in dialysis mode, such as ultrafiltration and sodium profiling, ionic dialysance measurement, and blood volume monitoring, can also be used in the HDF configuration.
18balancing chamber flow-metric equalizer Infusion module0-250 mL/minFig. 1. Gambro 3-filter hemodialysis system. Online HDF-related components andsimplified flow scheme for Gambro AK 200 S Ultra. Components not required for onlineHDF are not shown. Redrawn from HCEN9291: AK 200 Ultra S Service Manual, with kindpermission of Gambro Corporate R&D, Lund, Sweden.Incoming process water is fi ltered through an ultrafilter (type U8000S, surfacearea 2.1 m2, membrane material polyamide S). The water fi lter is operated incross-fl ow mode, in which a small amount of fl uid is continuously drained off toprevent accumulation of possible contaminants on the inlet side of the fi lter.operated only during the cleaning and disinfection cycle of the machineU8000S polyamide SGambro 3-filter hemodialysis system
19Diasafe® plus, Polysulfone® Fig. 2. FME 2-filter hemodialysis system. Online HDF-related components and simplified flow scheme for FME Online plus systems. Redrawn from Fresenius Medical CareOnline plus 7/07.03 (OP), Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, GermanyFME 2-filter hemodialysis system
20Vascular accessPatients treated with HF/HDF require an access capable of delivering an extracorporeal blood flow of at least 350 mL per minute, and preferably higher.
21Membrane Flux Measure of ultrafiltration capacity Low and high flux are based on the ultrafiltration coefficient (Kuf)Low flux: Kuf <10 mL/h/mm HgHigh flux: Kuf >20 mL/h/mm HgPermeabilityMeasure of the clearance of the middle molecular weight molecule (eg, β2-microglobulin)General correlation between flux and permeabilityLow permeability: β 2-microglobulin clearance <10 mL/minHigh permeability: β 2-microglobulin clearance >20 mL/minEfficiencyMeasure of urea clearanceLow and high efficiency are based on the urea KoA valueLow efficiency: KoA <500 mL/minHigh efficiency: KoA >600 mL/minKo—mass transfer coefficient; A—surface area.
22MembraneThe membrane should have a high hydraulic permeability (KUF ≥50 mL / hour / mm Hg), high solute permeability (K0A urea >600) and beta2-microglobulin clearance >60 mL/ min), and large surface of exchange ( m2).
23Typical prescriptions and substitution fluid infusion rates The conventional HDF/HF treatment schedule is based on three dialysis sessions per week of 4 hours (12 hours per week).
24the substitution volume HF postdilution= Kt/v*55% body weightpredilution= 2*Kt/v*55% body weightKt/v=1BW=60KGPre=60cc/minPost=30cc/minAs a simple rule to prescribe the substitution volume in HF, the target Kt/V per session has to be multiplied by the patient's water volume (55% of body weight) or urea distribution volume in postdilution HF mode and by double the water volume in predilution HF mode. Total ultrafiltrate volume represents the sum of infusate volume and weight loss.Kt/v=1BW=60KGPre=60cc/minPost=30cc/min
25the substitution volume HDF QB=500ml/minQD= ml/minTypical replacement fluid infusion flow rates= 100 mL/min (24 L for a 4-hour session) in postdilution HDF and 200 mL/min(48 L for a 40-hour session) in predilution HDF modesimple rule of thumbPre=1/3*QBPost=1/2*QBThe blood pump speed should be able to achieve high flow rates up to 500 mL per minute. Dialysate fluid production conventionally set at 500 mL per minute may be increased up to 1,000 mL per minute in high flowâ€“proportioning dialysis machines. Typical replacement fluid infusion flow rates are 100 mL per minute (24 L for a 4-hour session) in postdilution HDF and 200 mL per minute (48 L for a 40-hour session) in predilution HDF mode.for prescribing replacement fluid flow rate is to set this at one third of the inlet blood flow rate in postdilution HDF and at half of the inlet blood flow rate in predilution HDF.To prevent transmembrane pressure alarms, it is recommended to set the infusion rate according to the effective blood flow to reduce the filtration fraction
26Anticoagulation 1-increased sheer forces( activate blood platelets) 2-significant loss or clearance of heparinThe large loss of the initial bolus (>50% for unfractionated heparin (12,000-15,000 daltons) and >80% for low molecular weight heparin (3,000-6,000 daltonsHF and HDF result in higher blood procoagulatory activity when compared to standard hemodialysis due to
27Sample protocol using LMWH Lovenox 0.5 mg/kg body weight or 50 IU/kg body weight ,Allow to systemically circulate 3-4 minutes before starting treatmentNo additional LMWH required unless treatment exceeds 4 hours If >4 hours inject 400 IU at mid point of treatment via venous injection port
28unfractionated heparin Initial bolus IU/kg body weightInject bolus systemically via venous needle allowing 3-5 minutes for circulation of heparin systemicallyContinuous infusion of heparin via pump at IU/kg per hr
29Potential risks and hazards 1-Related to dialysate/water contaminantsAcute reactions- fever, hypotension, tachycardia, breathlessness, cyanosis, and general malaise LeukopeniaChronic reactions- asymptomatic,chronic microinflammation2- Protein loss(albumin,β2-microglobulin)3- Deficiency syndromes/Soluble vitamins, trace elements, small peptides, and proteins (vit c 500mg/weekly)
30Potential clinical benefits 1-Overall survival/hospitalization benefit 2- Other potential benefits
31Overall survival/hospitalization benefit Canaud B, et al. Mortality risk for patients receiving hemodiafiltration versus hemodialysis: European results from the DOPPS. Kidney Int 2006a;69:( 35% lower mortality than those treated with low-flux hemodialysis)Locatelli F, et al. Comparison of mortality in ESRD patients on convective and diffusive extracorporeal treatments. The Registro Lombardo Dialisi E Trapianto. Kidney Int 1999;55(1):(10% reductions in mortality compared to low-flux dialysis)Canaud B, et al. Overview of clinical studies in hemodiafiltration: what do we need now? Hemodial Int 2006c;10(Suppl 1):S5-S12.
32Potential clinical benefits Intradialytic symptoms.Residual renal function.Lower levels of serum inflammatory markers.Anemia correction?Malnutrition?Dyslipidemia and oxidative stressβ2 microglobulin amyloidosissmall protein-bound compoundsRemoval rates of a number of other substances that may function as uremic toxins has been documented using an HDF/HF strategy, including complement factor D (a proinflammatory mediator), leptin (16 kDa; effective removal of leptin may favor the improvement of patient nutritional status), various cytokines, erythropoiesis inhibitors such as 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF), and circulating advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) and AGE precursors, among others.H. Clearance of phosphatePhosphate removal is enhanced somewhat, but not markedlyAcknowledging the predictive value of خ²2-microglobulin concentrations on morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients as recently shown (in the HEMO study), it appears crucial to target low circulating levels of this uremic toxin when considering dialysis adequacy (Cheung et al., 2006, Canaud et al., 2006a)., such as hippuric acid and indoxyl sulfate, superior removal by hemodiafiltration has been demonstrated compared to conventional HD
37convection (hemofiltration) Diffusion(dialysis)convection (hemofiltration)all solutes below the membrane pore size are removed at approximately the same rate(increased capacity to clear middle- and large-size uremic toxins)Water driven (solvent drag)low volume of replacement solutiondepends on solute size (limited capacity to clear middle- and large-size uremic toxins)random molecular motionthe volume of solution used is fivefold higher than the amount of replacement solution used with hemofiltrationOn a liter for liter basis, hemofiltration is the most efficient way to remove solutes from the blood.
41Convective Clearances as a Function of Ultrafiltration in L/Week ,as a Function of Sieving CoefficientTable 2 shows calculated convective solute clearances for various artificial kidney treatment techniques using the simple approximation that clearance equals the product of ultrafiltrate rate and sieving coefficient
42HDF HFHemodiafiltration combines the characteristics of conventional HD with hemofiltration, which permits increased clearance for middle and small molecules.only 8 – 15 L of replacement solution is used, which is infused into the venous return of the extracorporeal circuit.the ultrafiltrate flow through highly permeable membranes is augmented by increasingTMP and hydraulic permeability with absence of dialysate flowThe total volume of exchange for classic hemofiltration ranges from 20 – 40 L per treatmentOn a liter for liter basis, hemofiltration is the most efficient way to remove solutes from the blood.
43Intermittent HDF versus slow continuous HDF (C-HDF) Those who have read through Chapter 13 will notice that this Gupta-Jaffrin clearance equation is different from what was described for C-HDF (continuous hemodiafiltration), where the additive effect of replacement solution to clearance is almost 1:1 in postdilution mode. The difference is this: In C-HDF, unless quite high dialysate flow rates are used, the solute concentration of blood in the dialyzer is reduced only slightly (since the ratio of QB:QD is quite high). Because of this, increasing ultrafiltration across the membrane markedly increases solute removal. In intermittent HDF, the relatively high-efficiency dialysis taking place (with a much higher ratio of dialysate to blood flow) lowers the solute concentration of the blood in the dialyzer substantially. Adding a filtration component is less efficient because the ultrafiltrate now contains a lower concentration of solute