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Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions. Hindenburg Ship Hydrogen gas combined with Oxygen which caused the ship to catch fire.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions. Hindenburg Ship Hydrogen gas combined with Oxygen which caused the ship to catch fire."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Chemical Reactions

2 Hindenburg Ship Hydrogen gas combined with Oxygen which caused the ship to catch fire

3 Chemical reactions Take place after you eat

4 Photosynthesis

5 In a Chemical reaction One or more substances change into one or more new substances

6 Writing chemical equations Word Equations ReactantsProducts Iron + Oxygen Iron(III) Oxide Hydrogen Peroxide Dihydrogen monoxide + Oxygen Methane + oxygen Carbon dioxide + Dihydrogen monoxide

7 Chemical Equations Skeleton Equations - Equation that does not show the amounts of the reactants and the products Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 Unbalanced equation !!!!!

8 One can add more information to the skeleton equations: To indicate if the reactants and products are liquids, solids or gases you use parentheses Fe(s) + O 2 (g) Fe 2 O 3 (s) To indicate a catalyst (a substance that speeds up the reaction but is not used in the reaction) you place the catalyst over the arrow H 2 O 2 (aq)H 2 O (l) + O 2 (g) MnO 2

9 SymbolExplanation +Used to separate two reactants or two products yields Reaction is reversible (s)Solid state (l)Liquid state (g)Gaseous state (aq)Aqueous solution, dissolved in water Heat is applied to reaction Catalyst used in reaction heat catalyst

10 Balancing Equations Reactants Products Frame + wheel + hanlebar + pedalBicycle F + 2 W + 1 H + 2 PFW 2 HP 2

11 Calcium + Oxygen Calcium Oxide First write the skeleton equation Ca + O 2 CaO Now balance Ca + O 2 CaO 1 Ca 2O2O 1 O Balanced!!

12 Hydrogen + oxygen Dihydrogen monoxide First write the skeleton equation H 2 + O 2 H2OH2O Now balance H 2 + O 2 H2OH2O 2 H 2 O 1 O Balanced!!

13 Types of Chemical Reactions 5 Types combination decomposition Single-replacement Double-replacement combustion

14 Combination Reactions(Synthesis) Chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance 2 Mg(s) + O 2 (g)2 MgO(s) 2 K(s) + Cl 2 (g)2 KCl(s) S (s) + O 2 (g) SO 2 (g) 2 S (s) + 3 O 2 (g)SO 3 (g) Metal + nonmetal Two nonmetals two possibilities

15 Decomposition Reactions Chemical change in which a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products **Requires heat or electricity 2 HgO(s)2 Hg(l) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l) electricity 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) heat

16 Single-replacement Reactions Chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound Zn(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq)ZnSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Cl 2 (g) + 2 NaBr(aq)2NaCl(aq) + Br 2 (aq)

17 Double-replacement Reactions Chemical change involving an exchange of positive ions between two compounds 2 NaCN(aq) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 HCN(aq) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) NaOH(aq) + Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) Fe(OH) 3 (s) + 3 NaNO 3 (aq) **Solution containing two ionic compounds

18 Combustion Reactions Chemical change in which an element or compound reacts with oxygen often producing energy in the form of heat or light CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g)CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(l) 2HCOOH (aq) + O 2 (g)2CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(l) hydrocarbon + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

19 ** The number of elements and/or compounds reacting is a good indicator of possible reaction types and possible products- you can make predictions

20 Combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double- replacement, combustion 1.What are the five different types of reactions? 2.What type of reaction are the following? 1. C 3 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 2. Li + O 2 Li 2 O 3. Zn + AgNO 3 Ag + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 Check what you know!! Combustion Combination Single-replacement

21 3.Predict the type of reaction that will occur? 1.An aqueous solution of two ionic compounds. 2.Reactant is a single compound. 3.The reactants are two elements. 4.The reactants are oxygen and a compound of carbon and hydrogen. Double-replacement Decomposition Combination Combustion

22 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Net ionic equations are different that the equations we are used to writing. We used to write equations like this: AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq) Net Ionic Equations Many important reactions take place in water

23 Complete Ionic Equations Shows the dissolved ionic compound as separate ions Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s) + Na + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) Spectator ions - Ion that appears on both sides of the equation but is not involved in the reaction Net Ionic Equations Equation that shows only the particles that are directly involved in the reaction Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) AgCl(s)

24 Predicting the formation of a precipitate CompoundsSolubility Salts of alkali metals and ammonia Soluble Nitrate salts and chlorate salts Soluble Sulfate salts, except compounds with Pb, Ag, Hg, Ba, Sr, Ca Soluble Chloride salts except compounds with Ag, Pb, Hg Soluble Carbonates, phosphates, chromates, sulfides and hydroxides Insoluble

25 Check what you know!!! 1.Write a balanced net ionic equation. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) PbSO 4 (s) + HNO 3 (aq) Then find the spectator ions and cross them out Pb 2+ (aq) + NO 3 - (aq)+ H + (g) + SO 4 2- (aq) PbSO 4 (s)+ H + (g) + NO 3 - (aq) First write the complete ionic equation Finally, write the net ionic equations Pb 2+ (aq)+ SO 4 2- (aq)PbSO 4 (s)


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