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Presentation on theme: "DL PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND CONSULTING LIMITED"— Presentation transcript:

Presentation Prepared By: Dale Lee, P.Eng. May 30, 2013 Google

2 Agenda DL Petroleum Engineering and Consulting Ltd.
Waterflood Concepts Our Methodology Devon Waterfloods (Diana Goldstein) Q&A

Engineering focus Analyze reservoirs’ production performance Predict the locations of underperforming wells Injectors and Producers Predict underperforming regions of reservoirs Infill Drilling injector conversions Primary Analytical Tool: Oil Field Manager (OFM)

Engineering focus Statistical analyses of hydrocarbon production Spatial statistics (i.e. kriging & Regression Analysis) Petro-physical data Pressure & Production history Purpose Optimize hydro-carbon recovery Make money

Previous Studies: Arsenal Energy: Provost Area – Analyzing pools Bangladesh (BGFCL): Titas – non associated gas field Devon Energy: Ferrier – waterflood CNRL: Nipisi – waterflood Grand Forks – waterflood Petro-Canada: Golden Lake – heavy oil waterflood Bellshill Lake – bottom water drive Wapiti – primary oil production Williston Green - waterflood

6 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS Objectives of Waterflooding
Maintain pressure support above bubble point Keep gas in solution Minimize oil viscosity (gas dissolved in oil) Physical displacement of the oil by the water Balance the voidage replacement ratios (VRR) VRR = (Injection/Production) at res. conditions Optimize oil recovery

7 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS Pressure Temperature phase envelope
C to C1 considered waterflood zone Petroleum Society Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy & Petroleum, Determination of Oil and Gas Reserves, Petroleum Society Monograph No. a, Pg. 147

8 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS Criteria for Waterflooding
Geology (k, θ, Sw, heterogeneity index) Single layer model (Buckley Leverett) Multi layer model (Dykstra and Parsons) Gas saturation 𝑆 ′ 𝑔 < 𝑆 ∗ 𝑔 (Craig, The Reservoir Engineering Aspects Of Waterflooding) Mobility ratios 0.3< (𝐾 𝑟𝑤 ∗ 𝜇 𝑜 )/( 𝐾 𝑟𝑜 ∗ 𝜇 𝑤 )<10 (𝐾 𝑟𝑤 ∗ 𝜇 𝑜 )/( 𝐾 𝑟𝑜 ∗ 𝜇 𝑤 )=1, Ideally

9 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS Four stages of Waterflooding
Start of injection to interference Interference to fill-up Fill up to breakthrough Breakthrough to economic flood-out limit Injection rates (piston displacement) 𝑞 𝑤𝑖 =2∗ 𝑞 𝑜 𝐵 𝑜 until fill-up 𝑞 𝑤𝑖 = 𝑞 𝑜 𝐵 𝑜 after fill-up

RF = Displacement Efficiency (DE) x Volumetric Sweep Efficiency (VSE) 𝐷𝐸= 1− 𝑆 𝑜𝑟 − 𝑆 𝑤𝑐 1− 𝑆 𝑤𝑐 𝑉𝑆𝐸=(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝐸 ∗ 𝑉𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑆𝐸)

11 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS Google: 𝐾 𝑟𝑜 - Variable 𝐾 𝑟𝑜 - Constant, May 22, 2013 – Date Accessed

12 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS Determine ROIP (Remaining oil in place) 𝑅𝑂𝐼𝑃= 𝐶∗(1− 𝑆 𝑤𝑒𝑐 )∅𝐴ℎ 𝐵 𝑡 from start of waterflood Determine OOIP (Original oil in place) 𝑁= 𝐶∗(1− 𝑆 𝑤𝑐 )∅𝐴ℎ 𝐵 𝑜𝑖 Determine recovery factor at start of waterflood 𝑅𝐹%= (𝑁 −𝑅𝑂𝐼𝑃) 𝑁 ∗ 100

13 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS Example – Ferrier Unit #2 (Devon)

14 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS ferrier performance

15 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS voidage replacement ratio
𝑉𝑅𝑅= 𝑞 𝑤𝑖 𝛽 𝑤𝑖 𝑞 𝑤𝑝 𝛽 𝑤𝑝 + 𝑞 𝑜 𝛽 𝑜 + 𝑞 𝑔 𝛽 𝑔 𝐶𝑢𝑚𝑉𝑅𝑅= 𝑞 𝑤𝑖 𝛽 𝑤𝑖 𝑞 𝑤𝑝 𝛽 𝑤𝑝 𝑞 𝑜 𝛽 𝑜 𝑞 𝑔 𝛽 𝑔

16 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS pressure data analysis

17 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS fluid pvt data

18 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS fractional flow (water)
Fractional Flow equations 𝑓 𝑤 = 𝑞 𝑤 𝑩 𝒘 𝒒 𝒘 𝑩 𝒘 + 𝒒 𝒐 𝑩 𝒐 + 𝒒 𝒈 𝑩 𝒈 𝑞 𝑤 𝛽 𝑤 =𝐶∗ 𝑘 𝑟𝑤 𝑘ℎ 𝑃 𝑒 − 𝑃 𝑤 𝜇 𝑤 ln 𝑟 𝑒 𝑟 𝑤 Used to calculate average (point) water saturation around a given producer 𝑓 𝑤 =1/(1+ (𝑲 𝒓𝒐 ∗ 𝜇 𝑤 )/( 𝐾 𝑟𝑤 ∗ 𝜇 𝑜 )+ (𝐾 𝑟𝑔 ∗ 𝜇 𝑤 )/( 𝐾 𝑟𝑤 ∗ 𝜇 𝑔 )) Used to generate fractional flow plot as a function of water saturation, Sw, (Buckley Leverett)

19 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS Ferrier example

20 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS fractional flow curve (water)

21 WATERFLOOD CONCEPTS producer water saturation

22 OUR METHODOLOGY Our methodology delivers:
Production Forecasts - Fractional Flow Analyses Production Trends - OFM Scatter Plots Production Trends - Aerial Maps Individual Well Production Analysis Regional or Pattern Production Analysis Inadequate Injection Support Identification Damaged Injector Identification

23 Our methodology fractional flow (oil)
Fractional Flow equations 𝑓 𝑜 = 𝑞 𝑜 𝑩 𝒐 𝜇 𝑜 𝒒 𝒐 𝑩 𝒐 𝜇 𝑜 + 𝒒 𝒘 𝑩 𝒘 𝜇 𝑤 + 𝒒 𝒈 𝑩 𝒈 𝜇 𝑔 𝑞 𝑜 𝛽 𝑜 𝜇 𝑜 =𝐶∗ 𝑘 𝑟𝑜 𝑘ℎ 𝑃 𝑒 − 𝑃 𝑤 ln 𝑟 𝑒 𝑟 𝑤 Used to calculate average (point) oil saturation around a given producer 𝑓 𝑜 =1/(1+ (𝐾 𝑟𝑤 /( 𝐾 𝑟𝑜 )+ (𝐾 𝑟𝑔 )/( 𝐾 𝑟𝑜𝑔 )) Used to generate fractional flow plot as a function of oil saturation, So

24 Our methodology fractional flow (oil)

25 Our methodology fractional flow (@so)

26 Our methodology fractional flow (water)

27 Our methodology fractional flow (oil)

28 Our methodology fractional flow (gas)

29 Our methodology forecast - fractional flow

30 Our methodology producer oil saturation

31 OUR METHODOLOGY producer quadrant analysis

32 OUR METHODOLOGY conformance plots

33 OUR METHODOLOGY conformance plots
Conformance plot of recovery factor as a function of hydrocarbon pore volume injected for each pattern. The thick black line represents the average pattern

34 OUR METHODOLOGY injector hall plots

35 OUR METHODOLOGY incremental oil calculations
The red curve is used as a base line for calculating incremental reserves (100,000 bbl)

36 OUR METHODOLOGY statistical analysis
Year 2010 First regression Fit 43 of 139 wells Second regression Fit 23 of 139 wells Third regression Fit 11 of 139 wells Total fit 77 wells ± 20% 𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟= 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑜𝑖𝑙 −𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑜𝑖𝑙 𝑥 100

37 OUR METHODOLOGY statistical analysis
Statistical Study 139 wells 77 modeled ± 20% 16 wells under performed 46 wells over performed (e.g. pressure support)

38 OUR METHODOLOGY Statistical Limitations
Regression equations are only valid for the dataset analyzed Attention to end points (e.g. modeling relative permeability curves) Statistical models iterative Results can change with dataset and location Fractional flow analysis can not be generalized One reservoir is not necessary representative of other reservoirs Each dataset requires individual analysis

39 Our methodology fractional flow (oil)
First presented at the 46th Annual Technical Meeting May, 1995 in Banff Published in the Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, August 1996

40 Next: devon waterfloods (Diana Goldstein)


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