Presentation on theme: "Types of Chemical Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Double Replacement Reactions Combustion Reactions."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Chemical Reactions Single Replacement Reactions Double Replacement Reactions Combustion Reactions
Recall Synthesis Reactions Two or more substances combine to form one substance. The general form is A + X AX Decomposition Reactions One substance reacts to form two or more substances. The general form is AX A+X
Single Replacement Reactions A metal will replace a metal ion in a compound. The general form is A + BX AX + B A nonmetal will replace a nonmetal ion in a compound. The general form is Y+BX BY + X
Single Replacement Reactions Examples: – Ni + AgNO 3 NiNO 3 + Ag Nickel replaces the metallic ion Ag + (metal replaces metal ion) The silver becomes free silver and the nickel becomes the nickel (II) ion. Ni + AgNO 3 Ag + Ni(NO 3 ) 2 – Balance the equation: – Ni + 2AgNO 3 2Ag + Ni(NO 3 ) 2
Thermite Reaction Steve Spangler Video Thermite
Thermite Reaction Al + Fe 2 O 3 Aluminum will replace iron (III) as was seen in the video. Iron (III) becomes Fe and aluminum metal becomes Al 3+. 2Al + Fe 2 O 3 Al 2 O 3 + 2Fe
Double Replacement Reactions Ions of two compounds exchange places with each other. Reactants must be two ionic compounds, in aqueous solution The general form is AX+BY = AY + BX
Remember the Demonstration!!!!!!!! Word - Lead (II) Nitrate + Potassium Iodide --> Potassium Nitrate + Lead Iodide Skeletal - Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) --> 2KNO 3 (aq) + PbI 2 (s) What occurred??? This is a double displacement reaction
Double Replacement NaOH + CuSO 4 The Na + and Cu 2+ switch places. Na + combines with SO 4 2- to form Na 2 SO 4. Cu 2+ combines with OH - to form Cu(OH) 2 NaOH + CuSO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + Cu(OH) 2 2NaOH + CuSO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + Cu(OH) 2
Double Replacement CuSO 4 + Na 2 CO 3 Cu 2+ combines with CO 3 2- to form CuCO 3. Na + combines with SO 4 2- to form Na 2 SO 4. CuSO 4 + Na 2 CO 3 CuCO 3 + Na 2 SO 4
Double Replacement Reactions Think about it like foiling in algebra, first and last ions go together + inside ions go together Example: AgNO 3(aq) + NaCl (s) AgCl (s) + NaNO 3(aq) Another example: K 2 SO 4(aq) + Ba(NO 3 ) 2(aq) KNO 3(aq) + BaSO 4(s) 2
Recognition You need to be able to recognize which reaction is taking place
Practice Examples: H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Zn + H 2 SO 4 HgO KBr + Cl 2 AgNO 3 + NaCl Mg(OH) 2 + H 2 SO 3 Synthesis Decomposition Single Displacement Decomposition Single Displacement Double Replacement
Combustion Reactions Combustion means add Oxygen Normally, a compound composed of only C, H, (and maybe O) is reacted with oxygen – usually called burning If the combustion is complete, the products will be CO 2 and H 2 O. If the combustion is incomplete,, the products will be CO (or possibly just C) and H 2 O.
Combustion Reaction When a substance combines with oxygen, a combustion reaction results. The combustion reaction may also be an example of an earlier type such as 2Mg + O 2 2MgO. The combustion reaction may be burning of a fuel.
Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions involve light and heat energy released. Natural gas, propane, gasoline, etc. are burned to produce heat energy. Most of these organic reactions produce water and carbon dioxide.
Combustion Reaction When hydrocarbon compounds C x H x are burned in oxygen, the products are water and carbon dioxide. CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O Demonstration
Combustion Reactions Generally combustion reactions involve the burning of a Hydrocarbon (C x H x ) in Oxygen. Other elements can also burn with Oxygen 2Mg + O 2 2MgO+ Energy 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O+ Energy (basis behind fuel cell energy) P 4 + 5O 2 P 4 O 10 + Energy (matches)
Practice Classify each of the following as to type: H 2 + Cl 2 2HCl Synthesis Ca + 2H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 Single Displacement
Practice 2CO + O 2 2CO 2 Synthesis and Combustion 2KClO 3 2KCl + 3O 2 Decomposition
Practice FeS + 2HCl FeCl 2 + H 2 S Double Replacement Zn + 2HCl ? ZnCl 2 + H 2 Single Displacement