Presentation on theme: "Types of Chemical Reactions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Types of Chemical Reactions Single Replacement ReactionsDouble Replacement ReactionsCombustion Reactions
2 Recall Synthesis Reactions Two or more substances combine to form one substance.The general form is A + X AXDecomposition ReactionsOne substance reacts to form two or more substances.The general form is AX A+X
3 Single Replacement Reactions A metal will replace a metal ion in a compound.The general form is A + BX AX + BA nonmetal will replace a nonmetal ion in a compound.The general form is Y+BX BY + X
4 Single Replacement Reactions Examples:Ni + AgNO3 NiNO3 + AgNickel replaces the metallic ion Ag+ (metal replaces metal ion)The silver becomes free silver and the nickel becomes the nickel (II) ion.Ni + AgNO3 Ag + Ni(NO3)2Balance the equation:Ni + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Ni(NO3)2
6 Thermite Reaction Al + Fe2O3 Aluminum will replace iron (III) as was seen in the video.Iron (III) becomes Fe and aluminum metal becomes Al3+.2Al + Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2Fe
7 Double Replacement Reactions Ions of two compounds exchange places with each other.Reactants must be two ionic compounds, in aqueous solutionThe general form is AX+BY = AY + BX
8 Remember the Demonstration!!!!!!!! Word - Lead (II) Nitrate + Potassium Iodide --> Potassium Nitrate + Lead IodideSkeletal - Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) --> 2KNO3 (aq) + PbI2 (s)What occurred???This is a double displacement reaction
9 Double Replacement NaOH + CuSO4 The Na+ and Cu2+ switch places. Na+ combines with SO42- to form Na2SO4.Cu2+ combines with OH- to form Cu(OH)2NaOH + CuSO4 Na2SO4 + Cu(OH)22NaOH + CuSO4 Na2SO4 + Cu(OH)2
10 Double Replacement CuSO4 + Na2CO3 Cu2+ combines with CO32- to form CuCO3.Na+ combines with SO42- to form Na2SO4.CuSO4 + Na2CO3 CuCO3 + Na2SO4
11 Double Replacement Reactions Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and last ions go together + inside ions go togetherExample:AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(s) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)Another example:K2SO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) KNO3(aq) + BaSO4(s)2
12 RecognitionYou need to be able to recognize which reaction is taking place
14 Combustion ReactionsCombustion means “add Oxygen” Normally, a compound composed of only C, H, (and maybe O) is reacted with oxygen – usually called “burning”If the combustion is complete, the products will be CO2 and H2O.If the combustion is incomplete, , the products will be CO (or possibly just C) and H2O.
15 Combustion ReactionWhen a substance combines with oxygen, a combustion reaction results.The combustion reaction may also be an example of an earlier type such as 2Mg + O2 2MgO.The combustion reaction may be burning of a fuel.
16 Combustion ReactionsCombustion reactions involve light and heat energy released.Natural gas, propane, gasoline, etc. are burned to produce heat energy.Most of these organic reactions produce water and carbon dioxide.
17 Combustion ReactionWhen hydrocarbon compounds CxHx are burned in oxygen, the products are water and carbon dioxide.CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2OCH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2ODemonstration
18 Combustion ReactionsGenerally combustion reactions involve the burning of a Hydrocarbon (CxHx) in Oxygen.Other elements can also burn with Oxygen2Mg + O2 2MgO+ Energy2H2 + O2 2H2O+ Energy (basis behind fuel cell energy)P4 + 5O2 P4O10 + Energy (matches)
19 Practice Classify each of the following as to type: H2 + Cl2 2HCl SynthesisCa + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2Single Displacement
20 Practice 2CO + O2 2CO2 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2 Synthesis and Combustion Decomposition