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Classifying Chemical Reactions

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Presentation on theme: "Classifying Chemical Reactions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classifying Chemical Reactions
Chapter 9 Classifying Chemical Reactions

2 Types of Reactions We will consider five types of reactions :
Single displacement reactions Double displacement reactions Decomposition reactions Synthesis reactions Combustion reactions

3 1. Single Replacement Reactions
Single Replacement Reactions occur when one element replaces another in a compound. A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-). element + compound compound + element A + BC  AC + B (if A is a metal) OR A + BC  BA + C (if A is a nonmetal) (remember the cation always goes first!) In a single replacement reaction it is better to write H2O as HOH because it will split into H+ and OH- (not H+ and O2- !!)

4 Single Replacement A small piece of lithium metal is added to water.

5 Single Replacement Reaction

6 Single Replacement Reactions
Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas NaCl(s) + F2(g)  NaF(s) + Cl2(g) unbalanced

7 Single Replacement Reactions
Zinc metal reacts with aqueous nickel (II) nitrate Zn(s)+ Ni(NO3)2(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) + Ni(s)

8 2. Double Replacement Reactions
Double Replacement Reactions occur when the cations in two compounds switch places. compound + compound  compound + compound AB + CD  AD + CB

9 Double Replacement Reactions
KOH + H2SO4 → K2SO4 + HOH FeS + HCl → FeCl2 + H2S NaCl + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + HCl NH4NO3 + NaCl → NH4Cl + NaNO3

10 Decomposition Reactions
Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into two or more substances. Some examples of decomposition reactions are: Potassium chlorate when heated breaks into oxygen gas and potassium chloride. 2KClO3 → 2KCl + 3O2 Heating sodium bicarbonate decomposes into sodium carbonate and water and carbon dioxide. 6NaHCO3 → 3Na2CO3 + 3H2O + 3CO2

11 3. Decomposition Reactions
The simplest decomposition reactions occur when a binary compound breaks up into its elements. Compound  Element + Element In general: AB  A + B Example: 2 H2O  2H2 + O2 Example: 2 HgO  2Hg + O2

12 Decomposition Reaction

13 This reaction is highly endothermic

14 Energy Changes “Many” decomposition reactions involve large changes in energy (they are highly endothermic or highly exothermic).

15 Toluene A A A


17 Trinitrotoluene

18 Tri-Nitro-Toluene

19 Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a contact explosive (physical shock can cause it to explode) and it degrades over time to even more unstable forms. This makes it extremely dangerous to transport or use.

20 Alfred Nobel Nobel found that when nitroglycerin was added to an absorbent inert substance it became safer. He patented this in 1867 as dynamite.


22 “The Merchant of Death is Dead”
Alfred Nobel “The Merchant of Death is Dead”

23 Alfred Nobel “The Merchant of Death is Dead”
The erroneous publication in 1888 of a premature obituary of Alfred Nobel by a French newspaper, condemning him for his invention of dynamite, is said to have brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his death. The obituary stated "The merchant of death is dead" and went on to say, "Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday.” In reality the newspaper had instead confused Alfred for his brother who had passed away.

24 Nobel Prizes Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes.

25 Synthesis Reactions H2O + SO3 → H2SO4
Synthesis reactions occur when two or more substances combine to form a compound. (Sometimes these are called combination or addition reactions.) sulfur trioxide reacts with water to make sulfuric acid. H2O + SO3 → H2SO4

26 4. Synthesis reactions Example: 2H2 + O2  2H2O
The simplest Synthesis reactions occur when two elements combine and form a binary compound. element + element  compound Basically: A + B  AB Example: 2H2 + O2  2H2O Example: Fe + Cl2  FeCl2

27 Synthesis Reaction

28 5. Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas. This is also called burning!!! The products of combustion are carbon dioxide and water.

29 Combustion Reactions - CxHy + O2  CO2 + H2O Example:
Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (example: octane in gasoline, is C8H18). Combustion also got you to school today.

30 Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

31 Combustion Reactions CxHy + O2  CO2 + H2O
Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning can cause by-products like carbon monoxide)

32 Complete vs. Incomplete Combustion
Determined by the amount of oxygen. Incomplete combustion occurs when there isn't enough oxygen to allow the fuel (usually a hydrocarbon) to react completely. Carbon monoxide and pure carbon will be produced in addition to carbon dioxide and water in incomplete combustion.

33 Gas Lighting and CO Poisoning
People who lived in 19th century cities were often poisoned by exposure to carbon monoxide from illuminating gas, which was a flammable mixture of gas suitable for lighting purposes that is made from coal and contained extremely high levels of CO.  

34 Poe's face has one eye drooping lower than the other while his mouth slants the other way. This same abnormality can be seen in the faces of people poisoned by CO today.  It is caused by the effect of repeated CO exposure on facial nerves and can be partially if not completely reversed with months of daily oxygen therapy.(very high levels of CO exposure, in comparison, can cause complete paralysis or coma)

35 Was Poe suffering from CO poisoning or just a troubled soul?
Poe described many symptoms of CO poisoning in his letters, poems and tales. People poisoned by CO often have the same bizarre physical and mental symptoms he describes.

36 Homework Reaction Type and Balancing Worksheet (Due in two days).

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