Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Classifying Chemical Reactions. Types of Reactions We will consider five types of reactions : 1.Single displacement reactions 2.Double displacement."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 Classifying Chemical Reactions
Types of Reactions We will consider five types of reactions : 1.Single displacement reactions 2.Double displacement reactions 3.Decomposition reactions 4.Synthesis reactions 5.Combustion reactions
1. Single Replacement Reactions Single Replacement Reactions occur when one element replaces another in a compound. A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-). element + compound compound + element A + BC AC + B (if A is a metal) OR A + BC BA + C (if A is a nonmetal) (remember the cation always goes first!) In a single replacement reaction it is better to write H 2 O as HOH because it will split into H + and OH - (not H + and O 2- !!)
Single Replacement A small piece of lithium metal is added to water.
Single Replacement Reaction
Single Replacement Reactions Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas NaCl (s) + F 2(g) NaF (s) + Cl 2(g) unbalanced
Single Replacement Reactions Zinc metal reacts with aqueous nickel (II) nitrate Zn (s) + Ni(NO 3 ) 2(aq) Zn(NO 3 ) 2(aq) + Ni (s)
2. Double Replacement Reactions Double Replacement Reactions occur when the cations in two compounds switch places. compound + compound AB + CD AD + CB
Double Replacement Reactions KOH + H 2 SO 4 K 2 SO 4 + HOH FeS + HCl FeCl 2 + H 2 S NaCl + H 2 SO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + HCl NH 4 NO 3 + NaCl NH 4 Cl + NaNO 3
Decomposition Reactions Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into two or more substances. Some examples of decomposition reactions are: –Potassium chlorate when heated breaks into oxygen gas and potassium chloride. 2KClO 3 2KCl + 3O 2 –Heating sodium bicarbonate decomposes into sodium carbonate and water and carbon dioxide. 6NaHCO 3 3Na 2 CO 3 + 3H 2 O + 3CO 2
3. Decomposition Reactions The simplest decomposition reactions occur when a binary compound breaks up into its elements. Compound Element + Element In general: AB A + B Example: 2 H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2 Example: 2 HgO 2Hg + O 2
This reaction is highly endothermic
Energy Changes Many decomposition reactions involve large changes in energy (they are highly endothermic or highly exothermic).
Toluene A A A
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a contact explosive (physical shock can cause it to explode) and it degrades over time to even more unstable forms. This makes it extremely dangerous to transport or use.
Alfred Nobel Nobel found that when nitroglycerin was added to an absorbent inert substance it became safer. He patented this in 1867 as dynamite.
Alfred Nobel The Merchant of Death is Dead
Alfred Nobel The Merchant of Death is Dead The erroneous publication in 1888 of a premature obituary of Alfred Nobel by a French newspaper, condemning him for his invention of dynamite, is said to have brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his death. The obituary stated "The merchant of death is dead" and went on to say, "Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday. In reality the newspaper had instead confused Alfred for his brother who had passed away.
Nobel Prizes Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes.
Synthesis Reactions Synthesis reactions occur when two or more substances combine to form a compound. (Sometimes these are called combination or addition reactions.) –sulfur trioxide reacts with water to make sulfuric acid. H 2 O + SO 3 H 2 SO 4
4. Synthesis reactions The simplest Synthesis reactions occur when two elements combine and form a binary compound. element + element compound Basically: A + B AB Example: 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Example: Fe + Cl 2 FeCl 2
5. Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas. This is also called burning!!! The products of combustion are carbon dioxide and water.
Combustion Reactions Example: - C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (example: octane in gasoline, is C 8 H 18 ). Combustion also got you to school today.
Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6O 2 6CO 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O
Combustion Reactions C x H y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning can cause by-products like carbon monoxide)
Complete vs. Incomplete Combustion Determined by the amount of oxygen. Incomplete combustion occurs when there isn't enough oxygen to allow the fuel (usually a hydrocarbon) to react completely. Carbon monoxide and pure carbon will be produced in addition to carbon dioxide and water in incomplete combustion.
Gas Lighting and CO Poisoning People who lived in 19th century cities were often poisoned by exposure to carbon monoxide from illuminating gas, which was a flammable mixture of gas suitable for lighting purposes that is made from coal and contained extremely high levels of CO.
Poe's face has one eye drooping lower than the other while his mouth slants the other way. This same abnormality can be seen in the faces of people poisoned by CO today. It is caused by the effect of repeated CO exposure on facial nerves and can be partially if not completely reversed with months of daily oxygen therapy.(very high levels of CO exposure, in comparison, can cause complete paralysis or coma)
Was Poe suffering from CO poisoning or just a troubled soul? Poe described many symptoms of CO poisoning in his letters, poems and tales. People poisoned by CO often have the same bizarre physical and mental symptoms he describes.
Homework Reaction Type and Balancing Worksheet (Due in two days).