Presentation on theme: "Types of Chemical Reactions Section 8.2 synthesis reaction combustion reaction decomposition reaction single-replacement reaction double-replacement reaction."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Chemical Reactions Section 8.2 synthesis reaction combustion reaction decomposition reaction single-replacement reaction double-replacement reaction precipitate
Section 8.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions Classify chemical reactions. metal: an element that is a solid at room temperature, a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is generally shiny Identify the characteristics of different classes of chemical reactions.
Classifying Chemical Reactions Key Concept 8: There are four types of chemical reactions: synthesis, combustion, decomposition, and replacement reactions.
Types of Chemical Reactions
Type of Reaction: Synthesis reaction Explanation: Reaction in which two or more simpler substances (elements) react to produce a single product ( compound).
Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.) Other: When two elements react, the reaction is always a synthesis reaction. General Equation: A+BAB
Types of Chemical Reactions Type of Reaction: Combustion Reaction Explanation: Reaction where oxygen combines with a substance (normally contains carbon) and releases energy in the form of heat and light.
Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.) General Equation: ___+O 2 H 2 O + CO 2 CH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g)
Types of Chemical Reactions Type of Reaction: Decomposition Reaction Explanation: Reaction in which a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds.
Decomposition Reactions Other: Decomposition reactions often require an energy source, such as heat, light, or electricity, to occur. General Equation: ABA+B
Types of Chemical Reactions Correctly Identify the type of reaction: S = synthesisD = decompositionC = combustion 1.NH 3 + H 2 SO 4 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 2.C 5 H 9 O + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 3.H 2 + O 2 H 2 O 4.NH 4 OH NH 3 + H 2 O 5.KClO 3 (s) KCl (s) + O 2 (g) 6.Al (s) + S (s) Al 2 S 3 (s) 7.NaNO 3 (s) NaNO 2 (s) + O 2 (g) 8.CO (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) 9.CH 4 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (g) 10.Mg + N 2 Mg 3 N 2
Types of Chemical Reactions Type of Reaction: Single Replacement Explanation: Reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound.
Replacement Reactions General Equation: A + BX AX+ B Other Info: A metal will not always replace a metal in a compound dissolved in water because of differing reactivates. An activity series can be used to predict if reactions will occur. Hydrogen gas goes here
Types of Chemical Reactions Write a balanced chemical equation for each single-replacement reactions involving metals. Zn (s) + AgNO 3 (aq) Zn(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) Na(s) + H 2 O(l)
Types of Chemical Reactions Write a balanced chemical equation for each single-replacement reactions involving halogens Cl 2 (g) + HBr(aq) I 2 + HCl 2 (aq) Simulations
Types of Chemical Reactions Type of Reaction: Double Replacement Explanation: Reaction in which the ions exchange between two compounds.
Replacement Reactions (cont.) General Equation:
Replacement Reactions (cont.) Other: The solid product produced during a chemical reaction in a solution is called a precipitate. precipitate All double replacement reactions produce either water, a precipitate, or a gas.
Replacement Reactions (cont.) This table shows the steps to write double replacement reactions.
Types of Chemical Reactions Write a balanced chemical equation for each double-replacement reactions BaCl 2 (aq) + K 2 CO 3 (aq) (a precipitate of barium carbonate is formed) FeS (s) + HCl (aq)(Hydrogen sulfide gas is formed) Get out your practice problems.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section Assessment Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of reactions? A.deconstructive B.synthesis C.single replacement D.double replacement
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section Assessment The following equation is what type of reaction? KCN(aq) + HBr(aq) KBr(aq) + HCN(g) A.deconstructive B.synthesis C.single replacement D.double replacement
Solution Everyday definition Answer to a problem A type of liquid Chemistry Key Concept 14: Solution- uniform mixture that can contain solid, liquid, or gases Solution = Homogenous mixture They are synonyms
How a solution is made? Solution consist of a solvent and solute. Key Concept 15: Solvent- the substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution; most plentiful substance in the solution. Key Concept 16: Solute- one or more substance dissolved in a solution. Dissociation
Solubility is physical properties. – Physical properties are those properties that can be observed or measured without affecting the composition of the sample. Key Concept 17: Solubility is the maximum quantity of a substance that may be dissolved in another. The maximum amount of solute that may be dissolved in a solvent. Solubility
Effect of Temperature on Solubility Solubility depends on temperature of most solids increases as temperature increases of gases decreases as temperature increases What is sodium chlorides solubility? – Water: 359 g/L – Ammonia: 21.5 g/L – Methanol: 14.9 g/L
White Solid Water + universal indicator Water (at room temperature) HClMethanolIodine Temp of solubility in water Baking Soda Green Slightly soluble Produces gas Insoluble C Sugar Yellow- orange Soluble Insoluble Turns blue 20 C Benzoic Acid PinkInsoluble Soluble C FlourOrangeInsoluble Insoluble Turns blue insoluble Sodium Chloride Orangesoluble Slightly soluble C
30 Soluble and Insoluble Salts Key Concept 18: Ionic compounds that dissolve in water are soluble salts do not dissolve in water are insoluble salts
31 Equations for Forming Solids A full equation shows the formulas of the compounds. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2NaCl(aq) PbCl 2 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) An ionic equation shows the ions of the compounds. Pb 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 (aq) + 2Na + (aq) + 2Cl (aq) PbCl 2 (s) + 2Na + (aq) + 2NO 3 (aq) Key Concept 19: A net ionic equation shows only the ions that form a solid. Pb 2+ (aq) + 2Cl (aq) PbCl 2 (s)
Quick Demo: DR Visual Lead (II) NitrateSodium Chloride Pb(NO 3 ) 2 2NaCl 1.How do I make an solution? 2.What is the solvent and the solute? 3.What happens during dissociation? 4.What happens in a double replacement reaction? Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2NaCl(aq) PbCl 2 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq)
Part 1: (2.5 pts) Purpose: To determine whether or not a reaction occurs and to predict the products of a reaction. Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction (70 pts)
(7.5 pts) Safety: We are working with acids; gloves, goggles, and aprons must be worn properly at all times. All chemicals must be disposed of in specified waste beakers in the fume hoods. These chemicals are toxic and will harm the environment if not disposed of properly. Do not eat, drink, or apply the chemicals to skin. Many of these chemicals are highly corrosive and in addition to being toxic, they will burn your skin and muscle tissue. Ouch! If any of the chemicals get on your skin/eyes you MUST wash exposed area for 15 minutes in eye wash/shower. Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction
(10 pts) Part 2- 1.All nitrate salts are __________. 2.Most salts containing ______ and ________ cations are soluble. 3.All cations from ______________ are soluble. In addition NH 4 +1 salts are soluble. 4.Salts with halogen anions are usually _____________. 5.Most sulfate salts are __________. Exceptions include the cations __________ and ____________. 6.Hydroxides are usually ___________ except those containing cations from __________. Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction
(20 pts) Part that you will need to answer in your lab notebook by predicting products of the double replacement reaction. ( 20) Part 4- Correctly using solubility tables and charts Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction