Presentation on theme: "Types of Chemical Reactions"— Presentation transcript:
1Types of Chemical Reactions synthesis reactioncombustion reactiondecomposition reactionsingle-replacement reactiondouble-replacement reactionprecipitateSection 8.2
2Section 8.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions Classify chemical reactions.metal: an element that is a solid at room temperature, a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is generally shinyIdentify the characteristics of different classes of chemical reactions.
3Classifying Chemical Reactions Key Concept 8: There are four types of chemical reactions: synthesis, combustion, decomposition, and replacement reactions.
5Type of Reaction: Synthesis reaction Types of Chemical ReactionsType of Reaction:Synthesis reactionExplanation: Reaction in which two or more simpler substances (elements) react to produce a single product ( compound).
6Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.) Other: When two elements react, the reaction is always a synthesis reaction.General Equation:A + B AB
7Type of Reaction: Combustion Reaction Types of Chemical ReactionsType of Reaction:Combustion ReactionExplanation: Reaction where oxygen combines with a substance (normally contains carbon) and releases energy in the form of heat and light.
8Types of Chemical Reactions (cont.) General Equation:___ + O2 H2O + CO2CH4 (g) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O (g)
9Decomposition Reaction Types of Chemical ReactionsType of Reaction:Decomposition ReactionExplanation: Reaction in which a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds.
10Decomposition Reactions Other: Decomposition reactions often require an energy source, such as heat, light, or electricity, to occur.General Equation:AB A + B
11Correctly Identify the type of reaction: Types of Chemical ReactionsCorrectly Identify the type of reaction:S = synthesis D = decomposition C = combustionNH3+ H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4C5H9O + O2 CO2 + H2OH2 + O2 H2ONH4OH NH3 + H2OKClO3 (s) KCl (s) + O2 (g)Al (s) + S (s) Al2S3 (s)NaNO3 (s) NaNO2 (s) + O2 (g)CO (g) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)CH4 (g) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O (g)Mg + N2 Mg3N2
13Type of Reaction: Single Replacement Types of Chemical ReactionsType of Reaction:Single ReplacementExplanation: Reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound.
14Replacement Reactions General Equation:A + BX AX + BOther Info: A metal will not always replace a metal in a compound dissolved in water because of differing reactivates.Hydrogen gas goes hereAn activity series can be used to predict if reactions will occur.
15Types of Chemical Reactions Write a balanced chemical equation for each single-replacement reactions involving metals.Zn (s) + AgNO3 (aq)Zn(s) + H2SO4 (aq)Na(s) + H2O(l)
16Types of Chemical Reactions Write a balanced chemical equation for each single-replacement reactions involving halogensCl2 (g) + HBr(aq)I2 + HCl2 (aq)Simulations
17Type of Reaction: Double Replacement Types of Chemical ReactionsType of Reaction:Double ReplacementExplanation: Reaction in which the ions exchange between two compounds.
19Replacement Reactions (cont.) Other: The solid product produced during a chemical reaction in a solution is called a precipitate.All double replacement reactions produce either water, a precipitate, or a gas.
20Replacement Reactions (cont.) This table shows the steps to write double replacement reactions.
21Types of Chemical Reactions Write a balanced chemical equation for each double-replacement reactionsBaCl2(aq) + K2CO3 (aq) (a precipitate of barium carbonate is formed)FeS (s) + HCl (aq) (Hydrogen sulfide gas is formed)Get out your practice problems.
22A B C D Section Assessment Which of the following is NOT one of the four types of reactions?A. deconstructiveB. synthesisC. single replacementD. double replacementABCD
23A B C D Section Assessment The following equation is what type of reaction?KCN(aq) + HBr(aq) → KBr(aq) + HCN(g)A. deconstructiveB. synthesisC. single replacementD. double replacementABCD
25Solution = Homogenous mixture Everyday definitionAnswer to a problemA type of liquidChemistryKey Concept 14: Solution- uniform mixture that can contain solid, liquid, or gasesSolution = Homogenous mixtureThey are synonyms
26How a solution is made? Solution consist of a solvent and solute. Key Concept 15: Solvent- the substance that dissolves the solute to form a solution; most plentiful substance in the solution.Key Concept 16: Solute- one or more substance dissolved in a solution.Dissociation
27Solubility Solubility is physical properties. Physical properties are those properties that can be observed or measured without affecting the composition of the sample.Key Concept 17: Solubility is the maximum quantity of a substance that may be dissolved in another. The maximum amount of solute that may be dissolved in a solvent.
28Effect of Temperature on Solubility depends on temperatureof most solids increases as temperature increasesof gases decreases as temperature increasesWhat is sodium chlorides solubility? Water: 359 g/LAmmonia: 21.5 g/LMethanol: 14.9 g/L
29Water + universal indicator HCl Methanol Iodine White SolidWater + universal indicatorWater (at room temperature)HClMethanolIodineTemp of solubility in waterBaking SodaGreenSlightly solubleProduces gasInsoluble50 CSugarYellow-orangeSolubleTurns blue20 CBenzoic AcidPink100 CFlourOrangeinsolubleSodium Chloridesoluble
30Soluble and Insoluble Salts Key Concept 18: Ionic compounds thatdissolve in water are soluble saltsdo not dissolve in water are insoluble salts
31Equations for Forming Solids A full equation shows the formulas of the compounds.Pb(NO3) 2(aq) + 2NaCl(aq) PbCl2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)An ionic equation shows the ions of the compounds.Pb2+(aq) + 2NO3−(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + 2Cl−(aq)PbCl2(s) + 2Na+(aq) + 2NO3−(aq)Key Concept 19: A net ionic equation shows only the ions that form a solid.Pb2+(aq) + 2Cl−(aq) PbCl2(s)
32Quick Demo: DR Visual Lead (II) Nitrate Sodium Chloride Pb(NO3) NaClHow do I make an solution?What is the solvent and the solute?What happens during dissociation?What happens in a double replacement reaction?Pb(NO3) 2 (aq) + 2NaCl(aq) PbCl2(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
33Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction (70 pts) Part 1:(2.5 pts) Purpose: To determine whether or not a reaction occurs and to predict the products of a reaction.
34Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction (7.5 pts) Safety:We are working with acids; gloves, goggles, and aprons must be worn properly at all times.All chemicals must be disposed of in specified waste beakers in the fume hoods. These chemicals are toxic and will harm the environment if not disposed of properly.Do not eat, drink, or apply the chemicals to skin. Many of these chemicals are highly corrosive and in addition to being toxic, they will burn your skin and muscle tissue. Ouch!If any of the chemicals get on your skin/eyes you MUST wash exposed area for 15 minutes in eye wash/shower.
35Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction Beginning NitrateHCladdedH2SO4 addedNaOH addedLiNO3KNO3Mg(NO3)2Ca(NO3)2Co(NO3)2Cu(NO3)2AgNO3Pb(NO3)2(10 pts) Data Table and Results
36Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction (10 pts) Part 2-All nitrate salts are __________.Most salts containing ______ and ________ cations are soluble. All cations from ______________ are soluble. In addition NH4+1 salts are soluble.Salts with halogen anions are usually _____________.Most sulfate salts are __________. Exceptions include the cations __________ and ____________. Hydroxides are usually ___________ except those containing cations from __________.
37Title: Determining Solubility to Solve Double Replacement Reaction (20 pts) Part that you will need to answer in your lab notebook by predicting products of the double replacement reaction. ( 20) Part 4- Correctly using solubility tables and charts