Presentation on theme: "MANAGING THE SHEEP ENTERPRISE UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS Tracey Renelt, Extension Livestock Educator, Kingsbury County Jim Krantz, Extension Livestock Educator,"— Presentation transcript:
MANAGING THE SHEEP ENTERPRISE UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS Tracey Renelt, Extension Livestock Educator, Kingsbury County Jim Krantz, Extension Livestock Educator, Miner County Jeff Held, SDSU Extension Sheep Spec.
MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES Destock Early wean Supplement Alternative feeds
How much should I feed my ewes? What should I feed to them to meet their nutritional requirements?
DEPENDS ON: Available forage: –Quantity –Quality –Economics Nutrient requirements: –Stage of production –Nutritional status –Environment
EWE NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS 154 lb ewe (NRC, 1985) Stage of Production DM Intake TDN CP Maintenance22.214.171.124 Flushing4.02.3.36 Early Gest126.96.36.199 Late Gest.4.02.3.42 Lactation (single)188.8.131.52 Lactation (twin)184.108.40.206
Winter grazing gestating ewes: –Protein more limiting than energy. –Energy supplements are cost effective when ewes enter winter in good condition and ample forage. –Protein supplements are cost effective for ewes in poor body condition and need to gain weight or with reduced forage intake. 0.33 lb of a 20% supplement 0.20 lb of a 34% supplement ( Summary by Montana State Univ) EWE WINTER FEEDING
CORN AS A SUBSTITUTE Forage supply is: –Limited –Unavailable –Too costly Heavily dependant on economics High fiber co-products may be better for forage replacement
Grain Alfalfa Hay (60% TDN) Brome Hay (56% TDN) Sorghum- Sudan Hay (56% TDN) Prairie Hay (48% TDN) Ear Corn (82% TDN) 1.41.5 1.7 Cracked Corn (91% TDN) 1.51.6 1.9 Whole Shelled Corn (88% TDN) 1.41.6 1.8 (Values based on NRC, 1996) CORN AS A SUBSTITUTE
VALUE Hay $/ton Ear Corn (82% TDN) Cracked Corn (91% TDN) Whole Shelled Corn (88% TDN) $/bu 401.731.921.86 602.602.882.79 803.473.853.72 1004.334.804.65 1205.205.775.58 (Values based on NRC, 1996)
Alternative Feeds in South Dakota Dry-milling corn by-products Wet-milling corn by-products Soybean hulls Beet pulp Wheat midds
Soybean Hulls -High fiber feedstuff which can make up at least 50% of diet dry matter -Best utilized with a forage based ration -In 2002 a group of ewes at SDSU were fed 5 lb of pelleted soyhulls + 1 lb of long stemmed hay -Low- to medium-quality forage is needed to maintain rumen function and slow passage rate
Soybean Hulls Can replace corn on a one-to-one basis for ewes consuming low- and medium- quality forages When fortified with protein, soybean hulls are an excellent energy supplement for low-quality forages 1 lb of hulls can replace: 1.4 lb moderate-quality hay
Dry Milling Feed Products Distillers Grains (Wet or Dry) Thin Stillage (Sweet Water) Condensed Distillers Solubles (Syrup) Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) (Wet or Dry)
DDGS -Safe feedstuff due to high fiber content -Good source of essential nutrients -Supplemental protein source for ewes -lactation performance similar to SBM -Energy density is equal to corn -Recommended at 20% of dry matter intake for lactating dairy cows (max at 30%) -Must consider economics **Refer to ExEx 2022 for more management tips on feeding the ewe flock with limited forage availability. For sample rations use those in Table 4 and 5 ExEx 2022, substitute DDGS for SBM if desired.
DDGS Economics SBM vs DDGS for protein supplement –44.8% vs 29% CP, $200 vs $105/ton Cost for SBM/lb CP (DM basis) = 22.3 cents Cost for DDGS/lb CP (DM basis) = 19.1 cents –(Assume 90% Dry Matter) –To offer a ewe an additional 0.2 lb/day of CP (DM basis) it would require: SBM= 0.45lb (As-fed basis) = 0.045 cents DDGS= 0.70lb (As-fed basis) = 0.039 cents –For a 154 lb ewe fed 6 lb of feed (4% of body weight) during lactation the DDGS would make up 12.5 % of the ration. Well within the recommended feeding level.
Recommendations for DDGS use in the ewe flock Late Gestation (154 lb ewes) - add 0.1 lb (DM) of crude protein = 0.37 lb DDGS (similar to recommendations for winter grazing research at Montana State Univ.) Lactation (154 lb ewes) - add 0.2 lb (DM) of crude protein = 0.75 lb DDGS -Rear twin bearing ewes separate and use best forage to improve milk production/lamb survival. The crude protein needs and energy needs are much higher compared to single bearing ewes. -By using DDGS for protein supplementation it also is serving to replace some forage. Since the energy is similar to corn, for every 1lb of DDGS replaces 1.4 lb or more hay. (See substitution table in slide 8)
Nutrient Composition Nutrient Corn grain Soybean meal CDSDDGS DM, %899025-3085-90 CP, %94810-1525-32 Fat, %425-1010-15 Will vary by: Differences in type, hybrid, and quality of the grain Efficiency of starch conversion Differences in processing techniques
Minerals - DDGS Low calcium High phosphorus High potassium High sulfur
SUMMARY Consider objectives: –Quality and quantity of available forage –Economics –Nutrient requirements of ewes Consider feeding alternative feeds Analyze feeds for nutrients and safety Remember water quality is critical
NITRATES Converted to nitrites Interferes with hemoglobin Leads to asphyxiation Symptoms: –Rapid pulse –Quickened respiration –Staggers/apparent blindness –Abortions
NITRATES Depends on degree of fertilization Generally found low in plant –0 – 12 – extremely high –12 – 24 – low to moderately high Ensiling, but not curing, will help reduce levels –20-60% reduction if properly ensiled –Be aware of silo gasses!
NITRATES Dont harvest for 5 days after most recent rain Alfalfa, timothy, brome, and native grasses are apparently not affected Supplement vitamin A Check water!
Nitrate NitrogenComment 0.00 - 0.10Safe to feed 0.10 - 0.15 Safe for non-pregnant; < 50% of DM for pregnant 0.15 – 0.20 < 50% of DM for all; use caution for pregnant 0.20 – 0.35 < 40% of DM for non-pregnant; do not feed to pregnant 0.35 – 0.40 < 25% of DM for non-pregnant; do not feed to pregnant > 0.40Toxic – do not feed
USING HIGH HITRATE FEEDS Toxicity is related to amount and rate of ingestion Accumulator plants include: –Oat (wheat) hay, sudangrass and sorghums, corn stalks, crop residue –Kochia, pigweed, pigeon grass, thistle Contact your county educator to have samples analyzed for nitrogen nitrate level and forage quality