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Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Faculty PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany Functional Behavioral Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Faculty PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany Functional Behavioral Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Faculty PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany Functional Behavioral Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment A Complete System for Education and Mental Health Settings SECOND EDITION By Ennio Cipani and Keven M. Schock

2 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Table of Contents: Slide 1 Chapter 1: Basic Principles Chapter 2: Conducting a Functional Behavior Assessment Chapter 2: FBA, Part 2 Chapter 3: A Function-Based Diagnostic Classification System for Problem Target Behaviors Chapter 4: Functional Treatment that Addresses Functional Diagnosis Appendix A: A Diagnostic Classification System for the Replacement Behavior (DCS-RB) PowerPoint Presentation Slides

3 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Basic Principles Chapter 1: Slide 2

4 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Slide 3 Basic Principles What is wrong with traditional interpretations about problem behavior? Is the role of environmental/context variables trivialized?

5 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Slide 4 The Cornerstone for Understanding Why: Maintaining Contingencies Behavior serves a function. He does it (tantrum) because he has autism, negates an analysis of contextual factors.

6 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Slide 5 Two Types of Contingencies Positive reinforcement operations Negative reinforcement operations There are 2 ways of producing either of these contingencies: Directly or Indirectly (socially mediated)

7 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Slide 6 Direct Access (DA) Behaviors With a direct access behavior, the client's behavior immediately produces access to positive reinforcement In other words, the behavior produces the positive reinforcer

8 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Slide 7 Socially Mediated Access (SMA) Behaviors Other behaviors achieve their effect through the behavior being mediated by someone else. These behaviors produce the desired positive reinforcer through the efforts of someone else.

9 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Slide 8 Direct Escape (DE) Behaviors Behavior can also produce direct termination of existing environmental events, serving a direct escape function. Such behavior is strengthened in its ability to terminate such events when those events are present.

10 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Slide 9 Socially Mediated Escape (SME) Behaviors Escape behaviors can often achieve their effect of removing or postponing an aversive condition through the behavior of someone else.

11 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 1: Slide 10 EOs: The Antecedent Context MOs for behaviors maintained by positive reinforcement MOs for behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement

12 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Conducting A Functional Target Behavior Assessment (FBA) Chapter 2: Slide 11

13 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 12 Conducting a Functional Target Behavior Assessment (FBA) Methods

14 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 13 The Purpose of an FBA To determine environmental function(s) of target behavior(s). When function of target behavior is determined, a functional treatment can be designed. Behavioral function cannot solely be gleaned from rate of occurrence or duration data.

15 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 14 Preview of FTBA Data Collection Methods Behavioral interviewing Scatter plot data A-B-C descriptive analysis Analogue assessment (aka FAB) In-vivo hypothesis testing

16 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 15 Behavioral Interviewing Attempts to discern controlling variables, both antecedent and consequent, by interviewing direct line personnel or care providers Uses possible hypotheses about target behavior as basis for questions to staff persons or parents, e.g., if you thought the behavior might be maintained by tangible reinforcers, how would you frame interview questions?

17 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 16 Four Questions to Consider in Evaluating Behavioral Interview Data Does the problem behavior appear to reliably produce the hypothesized contingency? Is the problem behavior more efficient and effective at producing such a contingency in contrast to other behaviors?

18 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 17 Four Questions to Consider in Evaluating Behavioral Interview Data (continued) In the case of positive reinforcement contingencies, does the behavior usually occur in the absence of the target behavior? (note this is the EO involving deprivation) In the case of negative reinforcement contingencies, does the target behavior usually occur in the presence (or advent) of the aversive, undesired event or object? (EO involving presentation of aversive stimuli)

19 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 18 Did You Ask These Questions? Why does she or he behave that way? Why does she or he do that?

20 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 19 Scatter Plot Data Target behavior(s) as a function of context

21 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 20 What is a Scatter Plot? Plots frequency of target behavior as a function of: time context activities

22 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 21 To Use Scatter Plot Data Examine frequency of problem behavior across days of the week and look for: patterns of high frequency or occurrence patterns of low frequency or non-occurrence see sample scatter plot data in next slide

23 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 22 Mon.Tues.Wed.Thurs. 8:00-8:30 T, PDTT 8:30-8:40 T, PD 8:40-9:25 T 9:25-9:35 T 9:35-10:00 Scatter Plot Data: Tantrums (T) & Property Destruction (PD)

24 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 23 Scatter Plot Data: Tantrums (T) & Property Destruction (PD) Descriptive Analysis Done in real time, soon after the behavior has occurred Trained observer makes it more reliable, although not as reliable as analogue assessment or in-situ hypothesis test For infrequent behaviors, a trigger analysis can be conducted, making antecedent conditions more specific Examine data for patterns of socially mediated contingencies following behavior, or if direct result of behavior seems plausible

25 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 24 Chapter 2: FBA Part 2: Experimental Methods

26 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 25 Analogue Assessment (aka: FAB) Mimic controlling variables in contrived situation

27 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 26 FBA: Part 2 Behavior serves a function He does it (tantrum) because he has autism, negates an analysis of contextual factors.

28 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 27 FBA: Part 2 Experimental methods analogue assessment in-situ assessment

29 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 28 FAB Protocol, Iwata et. al. (1982) Implemented in clinic setting Four conditions; mimic hypothesized contingency demand (escape function) attention (attention function) play/enriched environment (control condition) alone (sensory function)

30 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 29 FAB Protocol, Iwata et. al. (1982) (continued) Quick switching of test conditions; alternating treatments (multielement) design Mimic controlling contingency variable in each of the experimental conditions Consistent and distinctive higher rates in one condition (e.g., demand) indicate probable function (e.g., escape) in non- clinic setting (i.e., real life)

31 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 30 Analogue Assessment: Testing a Hypothesis Using the function-based diagnostic classification system in Cipani & Schock, it is possible to test a specific hypothesis For example, lets say we strongly suspect that a students target problem behavior is a function of instruction which is relatively long Design analogue test that measures behavior under two conditions

32 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 31 Analogue Assessment Testing for Escape/Avoidance of Instruction-Task Duration Diagnosis Conduct 8 mini-sessions, length up to 50 minutes Get Same (or similar) materials that are used in class For 4 sessions, present assignments that last an entire 50 minutes (full=F), i.e., student keeps working until 50 minutes is up. If s/he finishes they get another assignment (or more of the same)

33 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 32 Analogue Assessment Testing for Escape/Avoidance of Instruction-Task Duration Diagnosis (continued) For 4 sessions, present short assignments that last only minutes (short=S). Once assignment is finished, end session, and go to an entertaining activity. Escape contingency: each time the problem target behavior occurs in either short or full sessions, give the student a 1-2 minute break from the assignment. Compare rates of problem behavior and on-task behavior between two conditions (compute rate per block of time to equate S and F conditions); higher rates of problem behavior during full condition point to this variable as producing escape (see data next slide).

34 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 33 Session Type (F or S) FFSFSSFS Number of behaviors/ 5 min On-task rate (%)

35 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 34 Analogue Assessment Testing for Escape/Avoidance of Instruction-Task Difficulty Diagnostic Conduct 8 brief, 20 minute sessions. For 4 sessions – present difficult (D) tasks (those at grade level). For 4 sessions - present easy (E) tasks (tasks several grade levels below, make sure student can perform such before test). Escape contingency: each time target problem behavior occurs, give the student a 1-2 minute break during either test condition. Compare rates of problem behavior and on task behavior (see next slide).

36 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 35 Session Type (D or E) DDEDEEDE Number of behaviors On-task rate (%)

37 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 36 In-situ Hypothesis Test Presence of real life context variables. Test a hypothesized functional interventions effectiveness in comparison to baseline (i.e., absence of functional treatment). If intervention results in decrease in target behavior relative to baseline, diagnostic basis of intervention is on more solid ground.

38 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 37 In-Situ Hypothesis Test for Four Diagnostic Categories in School Settings BaselineTreatment Condition Teacher attention hypothesis Baseline conditionTeacher attention for replacement behavior Peer attention hypothesis No contingencyGroup contingency (peers) for absence of target behavior Tangible reinforcer hypothesis Baseline conditionAccess to item/activity contingent upon replacement behavior Escape from instruction-task difficulty Baseline conditionEasy interspersed tasks, 3:1 ratio

39 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 2: Slide 38 Parameters of In-situ Hypothesis Testing Alternate sessions of baseline vs. treatment. Conduct data collection in abbreviated session length, not over the entire program. Collect data on target behavior and replacement behavior across all sessions.

40 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 3: Slide 39 Chapter 3: A Function-based Diagnostic Classification System for Problem Target Behaviors

41 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 3: Slide 40 A Function-based Diagnostic Classification System for Problem Target Behaviors 4 Major Categories

42 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 3: Slide 41 Characteristics of Function-Based Classification System Diagnoses behavior, not client Provides for prescriptive differential treatment, utility of classification is in identifying a treatment that matches function Assesses context variables Assessment phase concludes with a differential diagnosis

43 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 3: Slide 42 Four Major Categories of Problem Behavior Functions Direct access Socially mediated access Direct escape Socially mediated escape

44 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 3: Slide 43 (1.0) Direct Access (DA) Sub-categories 1.1 DA- Sensory reinforcer 1.2 DA- Tangible reinforcer 1.3 DA- Other

45 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 3: Slide 44 (2.0) Socially Mediated Access (SMA) Sub-categories 2.1 SMA- Adult attention 2.2 SMA- Peer attention 2.3 SMA- Tangible reinforcers 2.4 SMA- Other

46 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 3: Slide 45 (3.0) Direct Escape (DE) Sub-categories 3.1 DE- Unpleasant social situations 3.2 DE- Relatively lengthy tasks/chores 3.3 DE- Relatively difficult tasks/chores 3.4 DE- Aversive physical stimuli/events 3.5 DE- Other

47 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 3: Slide 46 (4.0) Socially Mediated Escape (SME) Sub-categories 4.1 SME- Unpleasant social situations 4.2 SME- Relatively lengthy tasks/chores 4.3 SME- Relatively difficult tasks/chores 4.4 SME- Aversive physical stimuli/event 4.5 SME- Other

48 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 4: Slide 47 Chapter 4: Functional Treatment that Addresses Functional Diagnosis

49 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 4: Slide 48 Making a Replacement Behavior a Replacement Behavior Why is this not a functional treatment? A referral is made for a client who hits people on the shoulder while sitting on the couch and watching TV. The program designer decides that the replacement behavior would be putting his hands in his pockets.

50 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 4: Slide 49 Disable One Function, Enable Another! Target behavior Replacement behavior Eliminate or disable significantly current function Enable & enhance desired environmental function

51 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 4: Slide 50 Replacement Behavior Options: Direct Access Diagnoses Develop alternate direct access chain/behaviors Develop appropriate access mand Omission training (DRO) Premack Contingency option

52 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 4: Slide 51 Replacement Behavior Options: Socially Mediated Access Diagnoses Develop alternate direct access chain/behaviors Develop appropriate access mand DRL Group Contingencies Omission training (DRO) Premack Contingency option

53 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 4: Slide 52 Replacement Behavior Options: Direct Escape Diagnoses Develop alternate direct escape chain/behaviors Develop appropriate escape mand (protest or negotiation) Tolerance training (DNRO) Premack Contingency option

54 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Chapter 4: Slide 53 Replacement Behavior Options: Socially Mediated Escape Diagnoses Develop alternate direct escape chain/behaviors Develop appropriate escape mand (protest or negotiation) Tolerance training (DNRO) Premack Contingency option

55 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Appendix A: Diagnostic Classification System or the Replacement Behavior (DCS-RB) 3 Major Categories Appendix A: Slide 54

56 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Appendix A: Slide 55 Diagnosing the Strength of the Replacement Behavior Function-based system identifies why target behavior occurs frequently Why is alternate (replacement) behavior not occurring at an acceptable rate? Why is it not functional in the persons social environment?

57 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Appendix A: Slide 56 Diagnosis: Mis-directed Contingencies Rate of reinforcement is low relative to rate of reinforcement for target behavior, replacement behavior is in repertoire of client/child, but fails to produce desired contingency under specific motivational operation.

58 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Appendix A: Slide 57 Treatment for Mis-directed Contingency Diagnosis Simple differential reinforcement contingencies Disable current target behavior function, enable replacement behavior function. Not necessary to teach replacement behavior (unlike next diagnostic category), simply alter the functional reinforcer delivery to be heavily in favor of replacement behavior (enable function) and markedly lower for target behavior (disable function).

59 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Appendix A: Slide 58 Diagnosis: Inept Repertoire Replacement behavior is non-existent (or infrequent) in clients repertoire, or fluency of response is not adequate to produce reinforcement. Functional reinforcement contingences are available for such a behavior if it occurred, unfortunately it does not.

60 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Appendix A: Slide 59 Treatment for Inept Repertoire Diagnosis Differential reinforcement alone would be insufficient. Shaping of alternate behavior required In many functional assessments, writer is required to specify teaching strategy for developing alternate replacement behavior, not needed for mis-directed contingency diagnoses, but definitely needed here.

61 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Appendix A: Slide 60 Diagnosis: Faulty Discrimination Replacement behavior occurs under a few antecedent contexts (probably due to reinforcement) but not in others that require such a behavior. Treatment for Faulty Discrimination Diagnosis

62 Copyright © 2011 by Springer Publishing Company, LLC Appendix A: Slide 61 Treatment for Faulty Discrimination Diagnosis Generalization strategies


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