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Project : Phase 1 Grading Default Statistics (40 points) Values and Charts (30 points) Analyses (10 points) Branch Predictor Statistics (30 points) Values.

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Presentation on theme: "Project : Phase 1 Grading Default Statistics (40 points) Values and Charts (30 points) Analyses (10 points) Branch Predictor Statistics (30 points) Values."— Presentation transcript:

1 Project : Phase 1 Grading Default Statistics (40 points) Values and Charts (30 points) Analyses (10 points) Branch Predictor Statistics (30 points) Values and Charts (25 points) Analyses (5 points) L2 cache Replacement Statistics (30 points) Values and Charts (30 points)

2 Default Statistics: Analyses CPI affected by Percentage of branches, predictability of branches Cache hit rates Parallelism inherent in programs CPI of cc and go higher than others Larger percentage of tough to predict branches cc: 17% branches abt 12% of which is miss-predicted Go: 13% branches abt 20% of which is miss-predicted CPI of cc higher than go L1 miss rate of cc (2.6%) is higher than go (0.6%)

3 Default Statistics: Analyses Compress has high miss rates Smaller execution run: compulsory misses L2 miss rate of anagram high Very few L2 accesses : compulsory misses Program based analyses Gcc has lot of branches Go program has small memory footprint Anagram is a simple program Compress: input file only 20 bytes Note: All are integer programs CPI < 1, multiple issue, out of order

4 Branch Predictor: Statistics Perfect > Bimodal > taken = not-taken Variation across benchmarks (2 points) Go and cc show greatest variation They have significant number of tough to predict branches.

5 L2 replacement policies No great change in miss-rate or CPI 30 points for the values and plots L1 cache was big so very few L2 accesses Associativity of L2 cache was small LRU > FIFO > Random

6 Distribution 90 – 100

7 Phase 2 :Profile guided OPT Profiling Run Run un-optimized code with sample inputs Instrument code to collect information about the run Callgraph frequencies Basicblock frequencies Recompile Use collected information to produce better code Inlining Put hot code together to improve I$

8 Phase 2: Compiler branch hints if (error) // not-taken { … } Compiler provides hints about branches taken/not- taken using profile information In this question Learn to use simulator as a profiler Learn to estimate benefits of optimizations.

9 Example Simple loop 1000: … 1004: … // mostly not taken 1008: jz : jmp 1000 For each branch mark taken or not-taken Taken > 50% Mark taken Not-taken > 50% Mark Not-taken In the above example 1008: not-taken 1032: not-taken 1064: taken InstrFrequencyNot-taken ,00065% % ,00035%

10 Profiling Run For each static branch instruction Collect execution frequency Percentage taken/not-taken Modify bpred_update function in bpred.c Maintain data structure for each branch instruction indexed by instruction address Maintain frequency, taken information Dump this information in the end.

11 Analysis From the information collected If branch is taken > 50% of time, mark taken; Otherwise not-taken Remember the instruction addresses and the hint.

12 Performance Estimation For all branches Predict taken/ not-taken according to the hint You may want to load all the hints into a data structure at the start. Data structure similar to one used for profiling. Indexed by branch instruction address. Estimate new CPI Notes: Sufficient to do this for cc and anagram. After modifying SimpleScalar need to make !!!

13 Phase2: L2 replacement policy LRU policy Works well HW complexity is high Number of status bits to track when each block in a set is last accessed This number increases with associativity. PLRU Pseudo LRU policies Simpler replacement policy that attempts to mimic LRU.

14 Tree based PLRU policy For a n way cache, there are nway -1 binary decision bits Let us consider a 4 way set associative cache L0, L1, L2 and L3 are the blocks in the set B0, B1 and B2 are decision bits

15 Tree based LRU for 4 way

16 Notes Use a 4K direct mapped L1 cache Hopefully this should lead to L2 accesses! Use a 16 way 256 KB L2 cache Hopefully enough ways to make a difference! Compare PLRU with LRU, FIFO and Random Sufficient to do this experiment for cc and anagram!

17 Perfect Mem Disambiguation Memory Disambiguation Techniques employed by processor to execute loads/stores out of order Use a HW structure called Load/Store queue Tracks addresses / values of loads and stores Load can be issued from LSQ If there are no prior stores writing to the same address. If address in unknown, then cant issue load Perfect Disambiguation All addresses are known

18 How are addresses known Two ways to do this: Trace based: Run once and collect and remember all the addresses All registers values are actually known to the simulator through functional simulation Even though a register is yet to be computed, the simulator knows the value Look at lsq_refresh() function in sim-outorder.c To give you flexibility to do both ways Simulate only a million instructions Fast forward 100 million instructions

19 Mem Disambiguation Compare CPI with and without perfect disambiguation Sufficient to do this for cc and go -fastfwd 100 million instructions Simulate for additional 1 million instructions


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