4Intervention Planning Setting eventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceHungryPlaying with teacher, & teacher gets up to leaveScreams “no” and hits teacherTeacher sits back down and continues to playFunction?Access adult attentionIrrelevantReduce the likelihoodof the problem behaviorNeutralize or minimize the effects ofsetting events and antecedents toprevent the need for using theproblem behaviorInefficientTeach afunctionallyequivalentreplacementbehaviorIneffectiveMakereplacementbehavior accessfunction ratherthan problembehavior
5Competing Behavior Pathway Good behavior support plan yield challenging behaviors:Irrelevant changing environmentInefficient teaching easier replacementIneffective altering consequencesDesired ResponseTypical ConsequenceSetting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceDevelop the idea of comprehensive interventionRemind that it is more combersome but more effective and reiterate why RTI is such an important processReplacement BehaviorIrrelevantInefficientIneffective
6Functional Equivalence Identify an acceptable way that the child can deliver the same message.Make sure that the new response is socially appropriate and will access the child’s desired outcome.Teach the child a skill that honors that function of the behavior (e.g., if child wants out of activity, teach child to gesture “finished”).
7Competing Behavior Equation Child yells, kicks, throws.Adult gives child another turn.Child told peer gets a turn.Adult says “one more turn, then (peer’s name)’s turn” and gives turn.Child asks for one more turn.
8Discussion Activity: Competing Behavior Equation Child screams and resists.Teacher lets child out of activity.Child asked to join circle.Child gestures “all done.”Teacher lets child out of activity.
11Building support plan from competing behavior pathway Four Steps:Diagram hypothesis statement & competing pathwayIdentify ways to reduce likelihood of challenging behavior (make irrelevant)Teach EASIER functionally equivalent replacement (make inefficient)Allow replacement to access function with added incentive (make ineffective)Remove/minimize CB’s ability to access reinforcementBriefly review steps to building Support plan
12Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging Behavior COMPETING PATHWAYSBEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNINGSetting EventStrategiesAntecedent StrategiesTeaching StrategiesConsequence Strategies
13Setting Event Interventions Percentage of Time With Problem BehaviorBaselineWith Neutralizing RoutineSetting Event & Antecedent39%3%Just Setting Event5%0%Just Antecedent6%Neither Setting Event or AntecedentPercentage of Time With Problem BehaviorBaselineWith Neutralizing Routine20%11%7%0%3%
14SEs alter value of consequence We attempt to alter it back Eliminate or minimize occurrence of a setting eventgood nutrition; regular meals; good nights sleepNeutralize effect of SE - neutralizing routinesAnxiety-humor; tired-rest/nap, unfamiliar person-build rapportWithhold or change triggering cues or events when setting event is presentAdd prompts for desired and alternative behaviors when setting events are present
15Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Dan: 13 years oldProblem behaviors: tantrum (run through house screaming obscenities); lying; stealingIntervene here to reduce presence of setting eventMaintainingConsequencesAvoidPunishmentTriggeringAntecedentsQuestion“Did you take..”ProblemBehaviorLying(Incorrect “yes” or “no” reply)Setting EventsEarlier “secret”behaviorIntervene hereNeutralize setting eventwhen present
16Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Teddy: 7 years old, Asperger’s syndromeProblem behaviors: severe aggression (destroy property, assault another by knocking them to the floor and biting)ProblemBehaviorTriggeringAntecedentsSetting EventsMaintainingConsequencesPhysicalAssaultNegativeInteractionVisit fromMother duringpast 24 hrsEscapeaversive situationNeutralize Routine
17Antecedent Interventions Antecedents trigger behaviors By changing the form of antecedent in some way we attempt to keep behavior from being triggered.
18Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies Remove, modify or weaken cues/signals for problem behaviorsreduce or eliminate specific "triggers"(e.g., don't say "no," say ____ ; reduce demands)offer choices or present requests as choicesuse self-scheduling or choice of sequenceembed difficult requests, use task interspersal, or task variation (e.g., behavioral momentum)modify curriculum and instructional proceduresredesign tasks or activities/routinesadd aids or supports (e.g., tool, visuals, assistive technology)
19Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies (continued) Strengthen cues for, and add prompts for, alternative and desired behaviorsfind instructional prompts that work and use antecedent (proactive) prompting strategies (e.g., most to least; errorless learning)use precorrection and reminderschange discriminative characteristics to promote desired appropriate behaviorteach in activity context; make it relevant; make it a game; utilize preferencesuse priming - make materials or activities familiaradd redundant cues (e.g., picture schedules) to promote desired behavior or to ensure predictability
20Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Dan: 13 years oldProblem behaviors: tantrum (run through house screaming obscenities); lying; stealingMaintainingConsequencesAvoidPunishmentTriggeringAntecedentsQuestion“Did you take..”ProblemBehaviorLying(Incorrect “yes”or “no” reply)Setting EventsEarlier “secret”behaviorIntervene hereReduce anxietyIntervene hereWeaken TriggerNo questions
21Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging Behavior COMPETING PATHWAYSSpelling tasktiredBEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNINGSetting EventStrategiesMinimize: Change bedtime routineChange: Specific splng activity/wordsAntecedent StrategiesTeaching StrategiesConsequence StrategiesNeutralize: Provide nap before workStrengthen: add extra verbal prompt for replacement
22Competing Behavior Pathway CBP/BSPSpelling tasktiredBEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNINGSetting EventStrategiesMinimize: Change bedtime routineChange: Specific splng activity/wordsAntecedent StrategiesTeaching StrategiesConsequence StrategiesNeutralize: Provide nap before workStrengthen: add extra verbal prompt replacement
23Big IdeasPrevention includes both manipulating and/or removing triggers (antecedents) as well as counter acting setting events.Prevention greatly decreases the likelihood the student will need to use the CB (but not completely).Prevention DOES NOT teach the student any new ways to get his/her needs met so should never be used alone!
24Writing Prevention Section of BSP Developed from Competing Behavior PathwayShould outline specific adult behaviors that will address outlined steps from Competing Behavior Pathway.Neutralizing RoutineWeakening the TriggerPrompting for desired alternate
25Neutralizing Routines If “tired” is identified as a setting event then you need to be able to identify when it is in place and how it will be administered/monitoredIn Prevention SectionAdults will ask Joey if he is tired.If Joey indicates he is, adults will offer him a choice between a 10 and 20 minute nap in the quiet area.When the nap is over Joey will be asked if he is ready to start work or if he needs one more minute, and be reminded that if he needs the work to stop, to “ask for a break.”
26Weakening the TriggerIf “Independent seat work” has been identified as the antecedent then an alternate needs to be planned for when the setting is in place.In Prevention SectionWhen Joey has had a nap, adults will inform Joey at the beginning of math class that he will be working on “math magician” when the class transitions to independent seat work by saying “Today is a ‘math magician’ day, so when the other kids start working by themselves, we will get you started on the computer.”
27Competing Behaviors Pathway Teaching desired alternates:DesiredresponseMaintainingConsequencesCOMPETING PATHWAYSTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesSetting EventsAcceptableAlternativeBEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNINGThe third step is to list potential strategies…(USE EXAMPLES FROM CURRENT FOCUS PEOPLE)-Irrelevant: prevention, eg, change schedule, curriculum, instruction; provide better communication method.-Ineffective: e.g., withhold payoff-Inefficient: e.g., increase reinforcement of desired replacement behaviors.We’ve already worked on ways to modify the Triggering Antecedent (Predictor Strategies) and the Setting Events. Use examples to emphasize use of strategies in these categories.Now we’re ready to look at the third general category of behavior support planning: Teaching Strategies or Response-building Strategies. This category includes ways to strengthen alternative behaviors.Setting EventStrategiesPredictor StrategiesTeaching StrategiesConsequence Strategies
29Functional Equivalence is… When two or more behaviors serve the same “function” or purposeBoth behaviors produce the same outcome or maintaining consequenceIdeally the new behaviors should lead to a better outcome.The new behavior needs to communicate the same thing for the student
30Components of FCTStep 2: Teaching a “functionally equivalent” acceptable alternative behaviorDesired AlternativeSays, “Hello.” Interacts with peersMaintaining ConsequenceAttention from peersSetting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequenceTiredApproached by Marge/AllisonScream / Hit headEscape Marge and AllisonAcceptable AlternativeSigns, “Leave.”
31Contextual Fit A skill the student is fluent in If a student has challenges with language then language should not be the modality.Appropriate for settingIf the setting is large group then the replacement behavior should have a component that solicits adult attention.
32More Efficient and Effective Less physical effortShorter durationBetter schedule, amount, & quality of reinforcementLess delay in obtaining the reinforcer
33Example Antecedent: circle time Problem behavior: Joe screams at circleFunction: moved from circle to library (escape circle)
34Example: Planning Intervention 2: Identify Acceptable alternative: acceptable request for leaving (sign, PECS, etc.)3: Teach/Plan: based on his skill Joe will be taught to point to library corner picture to ask to go thereLess effortMore immediate (shorter duration)Greater amount of reinforcement
35ExampleTeach:Away from circle, show Joe picture, model/prompt to point, go immediately to library (repeat several times)Have criterion before moving back to circleAsk Joe to come to circle, keep picture visibleIgnore any screams, prompt pointing to pictureFade prompts and cues over time
36Competing Behavior Pathway Replace Challenging Behavior with a “functionally equivalent” acceptable alternative behaviorDesired AlternativeStay at circleMaintaining Consequence???????Setting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence?????Circle timeScream / Hit headEscape circleAcceptable AlternativePoint at library pic.
37Shaping BehaviorShaping behavior is the process of changing the form of a behavior to the replacement behavior through a series of “successive approximations”.Why shape?When the difference between the challenging behavior and replacement behavior are too great, intervention will be ineffective
38Shaping Behavior When is shaping needed? The replacement behavior is not “in repertoire”A new skill or process needs to be learnedEG: Using cards/symbols for communicationFeatures of challenging behavior out weigh othersRemove a feature, while other challenging aspects are still presentEG: Building a verbal “break” request in a student with violent tantrums
39Shaping Behavior Identifying successive approximations: Identify an appropriate acceptable alternate behavior.PECS verses a verbal responseIdentify that behaviors component skills.Attend to cardTouch/grab cardMove card to specific locationIdentify which of the component skills the student can fluently performJoey can easily attend to the card and grab itJoey has difficulty velcroing card to board
40Shaping behaviorAllow all approximations to access reinforcement until a criterion is reached.Use break card in PECS5 minute break from activityHand Break card to staffTouch Break card
41Shaping behaviorAllow all approximations to access reinforcement until a criterion is reached.Respectfullysay “may I have a break”5 minute break from activitySay “May I have a break”Say “break”
42Promoting Generalization Support variation in the response that fit with variations of the situationSign “more food” when hungrySign “more drink” when thirstyReinforce other communicative behaviorsA basic of FCT is getting your child hooked into communicationHigh efficiency communicative behavior will likely beget more communicative behavior
43When writing the Teaching Section of the BSP think Annual Goal and Objectives Requirements: In a NutshellDescription of anticipated changeWho will doWhat behaviorIn which (when) context (be specific)By what dateMeasured to a criterionGoal/Objective verbage Example:Given a 15 minute free time activity, Polly will keep her hands engaged in appropriate activities (drawing, playing with toys) or to her sides during 90% of that period for 8 of 10 days by the end of the month.Annual goal should reflect what Bobby will be doing a year from now (remember this should reflect the stage of learning the behavior will be at)Objectives should reflect the process of shaping Bobby’s acceptable alternate behaviors to the annual goal.
44Example Objective 1: Objective 2: Goal: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “skip”, “skip please”, “May I skip this activity?”, or “Can I skip this one please?” across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09.Objective 2:When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “skip”, “skip please”, “May I skip this activity?”, or “Can I skip this one please?” in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09.Goal:When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “May I skip this activity?” or “Can I skip this one please?” in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09.
46Big IdeasWe need to teach the student a way of communicating what they need that is appropriate for our school.Replacement behaviors need to be more easier and more efficient than the challenging behaviorWe may need to help shape the desired behavior through helping the student use a series of approximations first.Using replacement behaviors should be IEP goal rather than a reduction of challenging behaivor.
47Consequence Strategies Consequence Strategies lead to the challenging behavior becoming ineffective Through a process called “Differential Reinforcement”Differential Reinforcement:Extinguishing (discontinuing access reinforcement) the challenging behaviorReinforcing another behavior
48Components of Responding Desired BehaviorsChallening BehaviorAdded reinforcement for basicControlled access to function for replacementMinimize access to function & Prompting ReplacementPunishmentSafety Planning
49Competing Behaviors Pathway Consequence Strategies:DesiredresponseMaintainingConsequencesCOMPETING PATHWAYSTriggeringAntecedentsProblemBehaviorMaintainingConsequencesSetting EventsAcceptableAlternativeBEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNINGThe third step is to list potential strategies…(USE EXAMPLES FROM CURRENT FOCUS PEOPLE)-Irrelevant: prevention, eg, change schedule, curriculum, instruction; provide better communication method.-Ineffective: e.g., withhold payoff-Inefficient: e.g., increase reinforcement of desired replacement behaviors.We’ve already worked on ways to modify the Triggering Antecedent (Predictor Strategies) and the Setting Events. Use examples to emphasize use of strategies in these categories.Now we’re ready to look at the third general category of behavior support planning: Teaching Strategies or Response-building Strategies. This category includes ways to strengthen alternative behaviors.Setting EventStrategiesPredictor StrategiesTeaching StrategiesConsequence Strategies
50Consequence Strategy Functional Equivalence: Acceptable Alternate needs to access the functionTo start the replacement behavior needs to access the function every time it is performed (continuous reinforcement)Though the replacement needs to access the function, the access needs to be controlled.
51ExampleIt appears that little Jimmy’s “tantrum” behaviors are maintained from an escape from difficult tasks such as independent math work and independent reading. Mr. D decided that he needed to teach Jimmy to ask to skip a task.Tantrum = timeout or trip to officeSkip request = get out of assignment/assignment w/help
52ExampleJeannie “under the table kicked” her table group during Independent reading in social studies until they yelled at her, resulting in a talking to from Mrs. Walters and detention. Mrs. Walters decided to teach her ask for “1:1 time”.Under the table kick = Adult attention and detention1:1 request = assigned work at teachers desk
53ExampleJoseba’s “wrist biting” seemed to happen when there was a schedule change. It seemed to lead to Joseba being removed from classroom. It also seemed to always lead to a 5-10min. Of discussion about the schedule change. Mr. Washington decided to teach Joseba to ask for “talk-time”.wrist biting = leaving class room/discussionTalk-time request = 5-10min. In discussion spot w/adult
54Controlled Access Escape from Independent work : Escape from work Escape from multiplication : Escape from table groupEscape from Independent Reading : Escape from readingAccess to computer : Access to cartoon networkConnect four : Activities with RobbyHelp request/skip activityBreakskip activityMove requestHelp request/skip activityskip activityRequest computer based activityRequest cartoon networkRequest Connect fourRequest work/play with Robby
55Controlled Access Considerations Where- Can it be given in regular settingForm- What are the specific behaviors when the student is accessing functionHow much- How much time or what amount of the function the student will get.
56Thinning reinforcement Once the acceptable alternate has been established and is being used consistently it is time to considering “thinning” (intermittent reinforcement) the schedule of reinforcement.Why thin?Thinning actually strengthens established behaviorsThinning builds a “tolerance” for delayed reinforcement (how we are generally reinforced)
57Thinning Reinforcement Thinning: Slowly changing from reinforcing the behavior every time it is performed to a level or reinforcement that works for the student and the context.Considerations:Thinning to quickly results in a reoccurrence of challenging behaviorThe reduction should match the context
58ExamplesBreak from a math activity: Thin by gradually requiring more and more work before the break. Break from a person or a setting: Thin by gradually increasing the amount of time he/she must stay before the break is received. Requesting access to a preferred activity or toy: Thin by gradually increasing the amount of time he/she must wait before getting to do the activity
59Thinning Reinforcement When necessary, use visual cues to make the requirement clearIncreased time: Have a visual timer availableWatch with alarm setBig red clockStopwatchIncreased work: Have a tally or check off systemSticker chartAn adapted token boards
60Reinforcer OverlayIt is sometimes difficult to give enough access to the function. Then what?Up the amount of reinforcement available for the replacement behavior.Tokens:Treats:Attention (adult and/or peer)
61Jerome’s tantrums lead to escape from work ALL DAY. Overlay should be used to reinforce both the replacement behavior and the ultimate goal.Jerome’s tantrums lead to escape from work ALL DAY.Break request = 10 minute breakFunctionally Equivalent, but in far less quantityOverlay = 5 min. of work gets Jerome 5 min of preferred activityGood because it reinforces work (the end goal)Overlay = While on break Jerome can play a game with a peerLess good because it because it doesn’t tie back to work
62Safety RoutineWhen does teaching stop and crisis intervention begin?
63The MODEL AGITATION High Low Here is where we really begin to see that the student is moving toward crisis, and because of that we slow the teaching and become a bit more helpfulLow
64The MODEL ACCELERATION High Low During this stage the student is approaching a full blown crisis, and they are really not in a place to learn, so here we are really not teaching at all anymoreLow
65Safety Routine Components Specific behavior that signals to adult to shift the focus from teaching to crisis interventionSpecific steps adults will followSpecific ways adults will interact w/ student until they are fully deescalated
66When writing the responding section be sure to include Responding to desired behaviorAcknowledgementResponding to challenging behaviorPrompting StrategySafety RoutineCrisis intervention plan