Presentation on theme: "Building Behavior Support Plans from the Competing Behavior Pathway."— Presentation transcript:
Building Behavior Support Plans from the Competing Behavior Pathway
BSP Supports Behavior Support planning Document SDE BIP form Implementation Training & Support planner (TBD)
Intervention Planning focuses on manipulating environmental factors Antecedents/setting events = when Specific Behavior = What Function = Why
Intervention Planning Irrelevant Reduce the likelihood of the problem behavior Neutralize or minimize the effects of setting events and antecedents to prevent the need for using the problem behavior Inefficient Teach a functionally equivalent replacement behavior Ineffective Make replacement behavior access function rather than problem behavior Setting event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Hungry Playing with teacher, & teacher gets up to leave Screams no and hits teacher Teacher sits back down and continues to play Function? Access adult attention
Functional Equivalence Identify an acceptable way that the child can deliver the same message. Make sure that the new response is socially appropriate and will access the childs desired outcome. Teach the child a skill that honors that function of the behavior (e.g., if child wants out of activity, teach child to gesture finished).
Child told peer gets a turn. Child yells, kicks, throws. Adult gives child another turn. Child asks for one more turn. Adult says one more turn, then (peers name)s turn and gives turn. Competing Behavior Equation
Child asked to join circle. Child screams and resists. Teacher lets child out of activity. Child gestures all done. Teacher lets child out of activity. Discussion Activity: Competing Behavior Equation
Competing Behavior Pathway Setting event None Antecedent Preferred peer Problem Behavior Talking Maintaining Consequence Gain Peer attention Alternative Behavior Peer helper Existing Consequence Grades More work Desired Behavior Work quietly
Competing Behavior Pathway Setting event None Antecedent Preferred peer Problem Behavior Talking Maintaining Consequence Gain Peer attention Alternative Behavior Peer helper Existing Consequence Grades More work Desired Behavior Work quietly Alternative Behavior Peer helper
Building support plan from competing behavior pathway Four Steps: 1. Diagram hypothesis statement & competing pathway 2. Identify ways to reduce likelihood of challenging behavior (make irrelevant) 3. Teach EASIER functionally equivalent replacement (make inefficient) 4. Allow replacement to access function with added incentive (make ineffective) 1. Remove/minimize CBs ability to access reinforcement 11
Setting Event Interventions Percentage of Time With Problem Behavior BaselineWith Neutraliz ing Routine Setting Event & Antecedent 39%3% Just Setting Event 5%0% Just Antecedent 6%0% Neither Setting Event or Antecedent 0% Percentage of Time With Problem Behavior BaselineWith Neutral izing Routine 20%11% 7%0% 3%0%
SEs alter value of consequence We attempt to alter it back 14 1. Eliminate or minimize occurrence of a setting event good nutrition; regular meals; good nights sleep 2. Neutralize effect of SE - neutralizing routines Anxiety-humor; tired-rest/nap, unfamiliar person-build rapport 3.Withhold or change triggering cues or events when setting event is present 1.Add prompts for desired and alternative behaviors when setting events are present
Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions 15 Problem Behavior Lying (Incorrect yes or no reply) Triggering Antecedents Question Did you take.. Setting Events Earlier secret behavior Maintaining Consequences Avoid Punishment Dan: 13 years old Problem behaviors: tantrum (run through house screaming obscenities); lying; stealing Intervene here Neutralize setting event when present Intervene here to reduce presence of setting event
Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions 16 Problem Behavior Triggering Antecedents Setting Events Maintaining Consequences Physical Assault Negative Interaction Visit from Mother during past 24 hrs Escape aversive situation Teddy: 7 years old, Aspergers syndrome Problem behaviors: severe aggression (destroy property, assault another by knocking them to the floor and biting) Neutralize Routine
Antecedent Interventions Antecedents trigger behaviors By changing the form of antecedent in some way we attempt to keep behavior from being triggered.
Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies 18 Remove, modify or weaken cues/signals for problem behaviors reduce or eliminate specific "triggers" (e.g., don't say "no," say ____ ; reduce demands) offer choices or present requests as choices use self-scheduling or choice of sequence embed difficult requests, use task interspersal, or task variation (e.g., behavioral momentum) modify curriculum and instructional procedures redesign tasks or activities/routines add aids or supports (e.g., tool, visuals, assistive technology)
Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies (continued) 19 Strengthen cues for, and add prompts for, alternative and desired behaviors find instructional prompts that work and use antecedent (proactive) prompting strategies (e.g., most to least; errorless learning) use precorrection and reminders change discriminative characteristics to promote desired appropriate behavior teach in activity context; make it relevant; make it a game; utilize preferences use priming - make materials or activities familiar add redundant cues (e.g., picture schedules) to promote desired behavior or to ensure predictability
Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions 20 Problem Behavior Lying (Incorrect yes or no reply) Triggering Antecedents Question Did you take.. Setting Events Earlier secret behavior Maintaining Consequences Avoid Punishment Dan: 13 years old Problem behaviors: tantrum (run through house screaming obscenities); lying; stealing Intervene here Reduce anxiety Intervene here Weaken Trigger No questions
Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging Behavior 21 COMPETING PATHWAYS BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Setting Event Strategies Antecedent Strategies Teaching Strategies Consequence Strategies tired Spelling task Minimize: Change bedtime routine Neutralize: Provide nap before work Change: Specific splng activity/words Strengthen: add extra verbal prompt for replacement
Competing Behavior Pathway CBP/BSP BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Setting Event Strategies Antecedent Strategies Teaching Strategies Consequence Strategies tired Spelling task Minimize: Change bedtime routine Neutralize: Provide nap before work Change: Specific splng activity/words Strengthen: add extra verbal prompt replacement
Big Ideas Prevention includes both manipulating and/or removing triggers (antecedents) as well as counter acting setting events. Prevention greatly decreases the likelihood the student will need to use the CB (but not completely). Prevention DOES NOT teach the student any new ways to get his/her needs met so should never be used alone!
Writing Prevention Section of BSP Developed from Competing Behavior Pathway Should outline specific adult behaviors that will address outlined steps from Competing Behavior Pathway. Neutralizing Routine Weakening the Trigger Prompting for desired alternate
Neutralizing Routines If tired is identified as a setting event then you need to be able to identify when it is in place and how it will be administered/monitored In Prevention Section 1.Adults will ask Joey if he is tired. 2.If Joey indicates he is, adults will offer him a choice between a 10 and 20 minute nap in the quiet area. 3.When the nap is over Joey will be asked if he is ready to start work or if he needs one more minute, and be reminded that if he needs the work to stop, to ask for a break.
Weakening the Trigger If Independent seat work has been identified as the antecedent then an alternate needs to be planned for when the setting is in place. In Prevention Section 1.When Joey has had a nap, adults will inform Joey at the beginning of math class that he will be working on math magician when the class transitions to independent seat work by saying Today is a math magician day, so when the other kids start working by themselves, we will get you started on the computer.
Characteristics of Desired Alternate Functionally Equivalent Contextually Fit A fluent skill More efficient More effective
29 Functional Equivalence is… When two or more behaviors serve the same function or purpose Both behaviors produce the same outcome or maintaining consequence Ideally the new behaviors should lead to a better outcome. The new behavior needs to communicate the same thing for the student
30 Components of FCT Step 2: Teaching a functionally equivalent acceptable alternative behavior Setting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence TiredApproached by Marge/Allison Scream / Hit head Escape Marge and Allison Desired Alternative Says, Hello. Interacts with peers Maintaining Consequence Attention from peers Acceptable Alternative Signs, Leave.
31 Contextual Fit A skill the student is fluent in – If a student has challenges with language then language should not be the modality. Appropriate for setting – If the setting is large group then the replacement behavior should have a component that solicits adult attention.
32 More Efficient and Effective Less physical effort Shorter duration Better schedule, amount, & quality of reinforcement Less delay in obtaining the reinforcer
33 Example Antecedent: circle time Problem behavior: Joe screams at circle Function: moved from circle to library (escape circle)
34 Example: Planning Intervention 2: Identify Acceptable alternative: acceptable request for leaving (sign, PECS, etc.) 3: Teach/Plan: based on his skill Joe will be taught to point to library corner picture to ask to go there – Less effort – More immediate (shorter duration) – Greater amount of reinforcement
35 Example Teach: – Away from circle, show Joe picture, model/prompt to point, go immediately to library (repeat several times) – Have criterion before moving back to circle Ask Joe to come to circle, keep picture visible Ignore any screams, prompt pointing to picture Fade prompts and cues over time
36 Competing Behavior Pathway Replace Challenging Behavior with a functionally equivalent acceptable alternative behavior Setting EventAntecedentBehaviorConsequence ?????Circle timeScream / Hit head Escape circle Desired Alternative Stay at circle Maintaining Consequence ??????? Acceptable Alternative Point at library pic.
Shaping Behavior Shaping behavior is the process of changing the form of a behavior to the replacement behavior through a series of successive approximations. Why shape? When the difference between the challenging behavior and replacement behavior are too great, intervention will be ineffective
Shaping Behavior When is shaping needed? – The replacement behavior is not in repertoire A new skill or process needs to be learned EG: Using cards/symbols for communication – Features of challenging behavior out weigh others Remove a feature, while other challenging aspects are still present EG: Building a verbal break request in a student with violent tantrums
Shaping Behavior Identifying successive approximations: 1.Identify an appropriate acceptable alternate behavior. PECS verses a verbal response 2.Identify that behaviors component skills. Attend to card Touch/grab card Move card to specific location 3.Identify which of the component skills the student can fluently perform Joey can easily attend to the card and grab it Joey has difficulty velcroing card to board
Shaping behavior Allow all approximations to access reinforcement until a criterion is reached. Use break card in PECS Hand Break card to staff Touch Break card 5 minute break from activity
Shaping behavior Allow all approximations to access reinforcement until a criterion is reached. Respectfullys ay may I have a break Say May I have a break Say break 5 minute break from activity
42 Promoting Generalization Support variation in the response that fit with variations of the situation – Sign more food when hungry – Sign more drink when thirsty Reinforce other communicative behaviors – A basic of FCT is getting your child hooked into communication – High efficiency communicative behavior will likely beget more communicative behavior
When writing the Teaching Section of the BSP think Annual Goal and Objectives Requirements: In a Nutshell – Description of anticipated change Who will do What behavior In which (when) context (be specific) By what date Measured to a criterion Goal/Objective verbage Example: – Given a 15 minute free time activity, Polly will keep her hands engaged in appropriate activities (drawing, playing with toys) or to her sides during 90% of that period for 8 of 10 days by the end of the month. Annual goal should reflect what Bobby will be doing a year from now (remember this should reflect the stage of learning the behavior will be at) Objectives should reflect the process of shaping Bobbys acceptable alternate behaviors to the annual goal.
Example Objective 1: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying skip, skip please, May I skip this activity?, or Can I skip this one please? across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09. Objective 2: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying skip, skip please, May I skip this activity?, or Can I skip this one please? in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09. Goal: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying May I skip this activity? or Can I skip this one please? in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09.
Remember Replacement behavior should be… – Functionally Equivalent – Contextually Fit – A fluent skill – More efficient – More effective
Big Ideas We need to teach the student a way of communicating what they need that is appropriate for our school. Replacement behaviors need to be more easier and more efficient than the challenging behavior We may need to help shape the desired behavior through helping the student use a series of approximations first. Using replacement behaviors should be IEP goal rather than a reduction of challenging behaivor.
Consequence Strategies Consequence Strategies lead to the challenging behavior becoming ineffective Through a process called Differential Reinforcement Differential Reinforcement: Extinguishing (discontinuing access reinforcement) the challenging behavior Reinforcing another behavior
Components of Responding Desired Behaviors Added reinforcement for basic Controlled access to function for replacement Challening Behavior Minimize access to function & Prompting Replacement Punishment Safety Planning
Consequence Strategy Functional Equivalence: – Acceptable Alternate needs to access the function – To start the replacement behavior needs to access the function every time it is performed (continuous reinforcement) Though the replacement needs to access the function, the access needs to be controlled.
Example It appears that little Jimmys tantrum behaviors are maintained from an escape from difficult tasks such as independent math work and independent reading. Mr. D decided that he needed to teach Jimmy to ask to skip a task. Tantrum = timeout or trip to office Skip request = get out of assignment/assignment w/help
Example Jeannie under the table kicked her table group during Independent reading in social studies until they yelled at her, resulting in a talking to from Mrs. Walters and detention. Mrs. Walters decided to teach her ask for 1:1 time. Under the table kick = Adult attention and detention 1:1 request = assigned work at teachers desk
Example Josebas wrist biting seemed to happen when there was a schedule change. It seemed to lead to Joseba being removed from classroom. It also seemed to always lead to a 5-10min. Of discussion about the schedule change. Mr. Washington decided to teach Joseba to ask for talk-time. wrist biting = leaving class room/discussion Talk-time request = 5-10min. In discussion spot w/adult
Controlled Access Escape from Independent work : Escape from work Escape from multiplication : Escape from table group Escape from Independent Reading : Escape from reading Access to computer : Access to cartoon network Connect four : Activities with Robby Help request/skip activityBreak skip activityMove request Help request/skip activityskip activity Request computer based activityRequest cartoon network Request Connect fourRequest work/play with Robby
Controlled Access Considerations 1.Where- Can it be given in regular setting 2.Form- What are the specific behaviors when the student is accessing function 3.How much- How much time or what amount of the function the student will get.
Thinning reinforcement Once the acceptable alternate has been established and is being used consistently it is time to considering thinning (intermittent reinforcement) the schedule of reinforcement. Why thin? – Thinning actually strengthens established behaviors – Thinning builds a tolerance for delayed reinforcement (how we are generally reinforced)
Thinning Reinforcement Thinning: Slowly changing from reinforcing the behavior every time it is performed to a level or reinforcement that works for the student and the context. Considerations: 1.Thinning to quickly results in a reoccurrence of challenging behavior 2.The reduction should match the context
Examples Break from a math activity: Thin by gradually requiring more and more work before the break. Break from a person or a setting: Thin by gradually increasing the amount of time he/she must stay before the break is received. Requesting access to a preferred activity or toy: Thin by gradually increasing the amount of time he/she must wait before getting to do the activity
Thinning Reinforcement When necessary, use visual cues to make the requirement clear Increased time: Have a visual timer available » Watch with alarm set » Big red clock » Stopwatch Increased work: Have a tally or check off system » Sticker chart » An adapted token boards
Reinforcer Overlay It is sometimes difficult to give enough access to the function. Then what? Up the amount of reinforcement available for the replacement behavior. – Tokens: – Treats: – Attention (adult and/or peer)
Overlay should be used to reinforce both the replacement behavior and the ultimate goal. Jeromes tantrums lead to escape from work ALL DAY. – Break request = 10 minute break » Functionally Equivalent, but in far less quantity – Overlay = 5 min. of work gets Jerome 5 min of preferred activity » Good because it reinforces work (the end goal) – Overlay = While on break Jerome can play a game with a peer » Less good because it because it doesnt tie back to work
Safety Routine When does teaching stop and crisis intervention begin?
Safety Routine Components Specific behavior that signals to adult to shift the focus from teaching to crisis intervention Specific steps adults will follow Specific ways adults will interact w/ student until they are fully deescalated
When writing the responding section be sure to include Responding to desired behavior – Acknowledgement Responding to challenging behavior – Prompting Strategy Safety Routine – Crisis intervention plan