4Function of John Sample’s Behavior from FBA: Attention Hypothesis Statement for John Sample from FBA:When John is in a whole group instructional classroom setting and is not recognized by the adult he typically responds by talking out to gain attentionWhat is the Observed Target Behavior from FBA:Talking outFunction of John Sample’s Behavior from FBA: AttentionNow define the Target (Inappropriate) behavior for John in observable terms!
5Describe John’s Target (Inappropriate) Behavior What Does It Look Like?Frantic hand wavingPouting when not called on by teacher or staffRolling around on the carpet after being reprimandedWandering from assigned areaWhat Does It Sound Like?Calling out without teacher recognitionTalking to neighborMaking negative comments following another student’s responseMaking noises that all can hear during lesson
6Describe Possible Replacement Behaviors for John Sample What Do Appropriate Replacement Behaviors Look Like?Raising hand without waving armWaiting without pouting for teacher recognitionResponding by correcting behavior after being reprimandedRemaining in assigned areaWaiting without calling out for teacher attentionListening without talking to neighborListening to another student’s response without commentingListening without making noises that all can hear during lesson
7What Replacement Behavior Do We Need to Teach John? How to gain “Attention” appropriatelyTeaching Strategies:Talk TicketBreaking the Attention-Seeking Habit: The Power of Random Positive Teacher Attention3. Verbal OutburstsStudent Help SignalRubber Band Interventionrubberband.php
8Teaching Strategies Continued StopWait a minutePhotos of student presenting target behavior and replacement behaviorVisual cue card to prompt student to use replacement behaviorVISUAL CUESFinish work TylerQuiet TylerUse your calm spaceGood Work Tylerdrawread
9Functions of Behavior Target Behavior Pos Reinf Neg Reinf Power For: ControlIntimidationVengeance
10Function of Sally Solution’s Behavior from FBA: Power Hypothesis Statement for Sally Solution from FBA:When Sally is in a classroom setting and is asked to complete a task she typically responds by refusing to engage to gain power and control.What is the Observed Target Behavior from FBA:Refusal to Engage in TasksFunction of Sally Solution’s Behavior from FBA: PowerNow define the Target (Inappropriate) behavior for Sally in observable terms!
11Sally Solution Activity Step 1:In Teams, define Sally’s Inappropriate BehaviorStep 2:In Teams, define Sally’s Target/Desired Replacement behaviors that will taught.
12Describe Sally’s Target (Inappropriate) Behavior What Does It Look Like?What Does It Sound Like?Head downPushing away materialsRipping worksheetsBreaking pencilsSaying “NO!”Saying threatening things like “I’m going to hit you!”, “You can’t make me do this!”, etc.ScreamingSlamming materials to the floor
13Describe Possible Replacement Behaviors for Sally Solution What Do Appropriate Replacement Behaviors Look Like?Head up & looking at teacherUsing materials correctly (i.e. without ripping, or throwing, without breaking pencils)Requesting assistance instead of saying “no”, threatening or screaming.Requesting use of an alternate or modified task
14What Replacement Behavior Do We Need to Teach Sally? How to gain “power/control” appropriatelyTeaching StrategiesPassive ResistanceSchool-Wide Strategies for Managing... DEFIANCE / NON-COMPLIANCEAllow the Student a 'Cool-Down' BreakAsk Open-Ended QuestionsDo Not Get Entangled in ArgumentsEmphasize the Positive in Teacher RequestsIncrease 'Reinforcement' Quality of the ClassroomKeep Responses Calm, Brief, and BusinesslikeOffer the Student a Face-Saving OutListen Actively
16Function of Fred Refusal’s Behavior from FBA: Escape/Avoidance Hypothesis Statement for Fred Refusal from FBA:When Fred is in the regular classroom setting and is asked to complete an assignment he typically responds by tearing or destroying materials to gain escape/avoidance.What is the Observed Target Behavior from FBA:Tearing or destroying materialsFunction of Fred Refusal’s Behavior from FBA: Escape/AvoidanceNow define the Target (Inappropriate) behavior for Fred in observable terms!
17Fred Refusal’s Activity Step 1:In Teams, define Fred’s Inappropriate BehaviorStep 2:In Teams, define Fred’s Target/Desired Replacement behaviors that will taught.
18Describe Fred’s Target (Inappropriate) Behavior What Does It Look Like?What Does It Sound Like?Making inappropriate comments to other studentsSlamming books on the floorKnocking over desksTearing up worksheetsMarking/scribbling on paperBreaking pencils
19Describe Possible Replacement Behaviors for Fred Refusal What Do Appropriate Replacement Behaviors Look Like?Raising hand without waving armAsking teacher for help with difficult work either verbally or with the use of a visualAsking for a calm break either verbally or with the use of a visualAsking teacher to show him an example verbally or with the use of a visualTearing up non-school related paper as a releaseAsking teacher for alternate work using a script cardUtilizing a wait card and “I’m Waiting” folder
20What Replacement Behavior Do We Need to Teach Fred? How to gain “Escape/Avoidance” appropriatelyTeaching Strategies:Accommodating All Students: 'Classic' Ideas That Teachers Can Use to Diversify Classroom InstructionWrite assignments or complex directions on the board in addition to saying them Create easy-to-follow 'strategy' sheet that lays out academic problem-solving steps in a clear manner for student to refer to as needed. Give copies of this model to each student, and mount poster-size versions on classroom walls.Teach students acceptable, unobtrusive ways to get academic assistance from peers.Put together 'help-signal' program: when a student gets 'stuck' on seatwork, he or she displays help-signal (e.g., brightly colored index card) on desk, switches to other work until teacher is freed up to approach and provide assistance.Train classmates (or even older students from another classroom) to serve as floating 'peer-tutors' during seatwork, circulating around classroom to help students in difficulty.Keep instructions brief. Break multi-step directions into smaller subsets-and have the student complete one subset before advancing to another. Use simple, clear language.Reducing Problem Behaviors Through Good Academic Management: 10 Strategies
22Function of Sammy Stem’s Behavior from FBA: Self Stimulation “I'm happier 'n a tornado in a trailer park! “Hypothesis Statement for Sammy Stem Refusal from FBA:When Sammy is in an instructional classroom setting and is asked to participate or listen to the group discussion he typically responds by scripting out loud a cartoon episode to gain self-stimulation.What is the Observed Target Behavior from FBA:ScriptingFunction of Sammy Stem’s Behavior from FBA: Self StimulationNow define the Target (Inappropriate) behavior for Sammy in observable terms!
23Sammy Stem’s Activity Step 1: In Teams, define Sammy’s Inappropriate BehaviorStep 2:In Teams, define Sammy’s Target/Desired Replacement behaviors that will taught.“I'm happier 'n a tornado in a trailer park! “
24Describe Sammy’s Target (Inappropriate) Behavior What Does It Look Like?What Does It Sound Like?Staring ahead and smilingRocking back and forthLips movingHands in motionMaking noises such as car soundsVerbalizing words with character intonationsMaking loud responses
25Describe Possible Replacement Behaviors for Sammy Stem What Do Appropriate Replacement Behaviors Look Like?Raising hand to request a sensory breakMoving to the back of the room to the “calm space” area to listen to a tape or engage in a prescribed activityPresenting a cue card requesting removal from the classDrawing perseverative thoughts rather than speaking them
26What Replacement Behavior Do We Need to Teach Sammy? How to gain “self stimulation” appropriatelyTeaching Strategies:Redirect self stim behaviorUse the directive, "no movie talk"Used both auditory and written cues to redirect scripting by stating, "we are not talking about the “The Godfather” right now, we are talking about school“If the stim is "movie talk" and is some how relative to school I may follow the child's lead and say, "Oh, you watched “The Godfather” last night?““I made him an offer he couldn’t refuse!”
27Teaching Strategies Continued Present a Social Story on why scripting bothers othersTeach student appropriate way to seek helpIncrease use of languageDefine a process to take a breakCreate a method to allow student to define needsUse a diet of sensory input.Determine the reason for the stim – define what the student should be doing instead of stimming
28Other Examples of Teaching Strategies TargetBehaviorPos ReinfNeg Reinf
29“Reduce Frustration When Coming in Late” Role play what student needs to do when coming in lateUtilize student/teacher agreement for minimizing frustrationSharpen pencil at the end of the day in preparation for the next dayKeep lunch ticket in designated place so he can fill it out quietly when coming in lateSay to teacher, “I missed that part, can you explain it to me?” when having missed the initial instructionTeach the use of calming strategiesIdentify behaviors related to escalating frustrationUtilize appropriate de-escalating tools or strategiesTardy Note
30“Interact with Peers Appropriately” Role play acceptable and unacceptable ways to attain peer attentionUtilize a preferred peer to give visual feedback (thumbs up/thumbs down) to indicate student’s use of acceptable or unacceptable attention seeking behaviorParticipate in structured game play with peersPre-teaching of role when participating in cooperative learning groups in the general ed classroom
31“Interact with Peers Appropriately” ContinuedEngage in problem solving discussion using a Problem Solving Worksheet
32“Communicate Need for Academic Assistance” Role play how to ask for help before getting upsetUse visual strategies and tools to request assistanceCreate a “Secret Signal” with teacher to request helpUtilize a “Questions for Teacher” folder to be used at a scheduled time to talk to teacher for clarification?HELP
33ResourcesNHCS Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Training ModulesNHCS Student Support & Intervention System ManualWhy Johnny Doesn’t Behave by Barbara Bateman & Annemieke GollyWeb Resources