Presentation on theme: "To: From: "Yvonne E." <> Date: 05/24/2006 02:04PM Subject: A Documentation i think you would be interested to watch Hi Dr."— Presentation transcript:
To: Bill.Smith@ccmail.nevada.edu From: "Yvonne E." <> Date: 05/24/2006 02:04PM Subject: A Documentation i think you would be interested to watch Hi Dr. Smith, My name is Danielle, I'm a former ENV 101 student of yours from the Spring 2006. I found this website and a trailer about a documentation you might be interested to watch. Just the trailer amazes me, so i can;t wait to see the movie. http://www.climatecrisis.net Here are the dates they will show it in Nevada: NV Las Vegas 23-Jun Suncoast 16 NV Nevada City 2-Jul Nevada NV Reno 23-Jun Riverside Thank you for opening our eyes and minds about the issues of environment. I think it is very essential for my major (Architecture). I believe designers are the guides who should think a head, be visionary and minimize or even eliminate the bad human impact on our environment. thanks again. Have a great summer. Danielle
BOULDER, Colorado (CNN) -- Ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, long held to be an early warning of a changing climate, has shattered the all-time low record this summer, scientists say. art.nwestpassage.jpg Satellite image shows the Northwest Passage, marked in yellow, is now fully navigable. Additionally, the European Space Agency said nearly 200 satellite photos this month taken together showed an ice-free passage along northern Canada, Alaska and Greenland, according to news reports. Ice was retreating to its lowest level since such images were first taken in 1978, according to a report from The Associated Press. Using satellite data and imagery, the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) now estimates the Arctic ice pack to cover 4.24 million square kilometers (1.63 million square miles) -- equal to just less than half the size of the United States. That figure is about 20 percent less than the previous all-time low of 5.32 million square kilometers (2.05 million square miles) set in September 2005 Mark Serreze, senior research scientist at NSIDC, termed the decline "astounding." "It's almost an exclamation point on the pronounced ice loss we've seen in the past 30 years," he said. Most researchers had anticipated the complete disappearance of the Arctic ice pack during summer months would happen after the year 2070, he said, but now, "losing summer sea ice cover by 2030 is not unreasonable." Don't Miss * Arctic sea ice cover hits all time low * Scientists: Dramatic sea ice loss by 2050 * Special Report: Eco Solutions Leif Toudal Pedersen of the Danish National Space Center told the AP that Arctic ice has shrunk to some 1 million square miles. The previous low was 1.5 million square miles, in 2005. "The strong reduction in just one year certainly raises flags that the ice (in summer) may disappear much sooner than expected," Pedersen said in an ESA statement posted on its Web site Friday, according to AP. Scores of peer-reviewed scientific studies have documented a steady, worldwide decline in ice cover, from the sea-bound ice covering the North Pole to the vast, land-based ice sheets that cover the Antarctic continent. Glaciers, from Greenland to the Alps to Mount Kilimanjaro near the equator, have also been vanishing. The loss of land-based ice is predicted to lead to a future rise in sea levels. Most estimates predict a rise ranging from a few inches to a meter or more. A substantial rise in sea level could imperil low-lying areas from Bangladesh to Miami to Lower Manhattan, and could magnify the damage from landfalling hurricanes and cyclones. While the loss of sea ice, like the Arctic ice pack, would not contribute to sea level rise, wildlife experts say it could alter the Arctic ecology, threatening polar bears and other mammals and sea life. Scientists add that an ice-free Arctic could also accelerate global warming, as white-colored ice tends to deflect heat, while darker-colored water would absorb more heat. But along with concerns, the melting Arctic also raises possible opportunities on business and political fronts. This summer, both Russia and the United States made efforts to inventory the potential mineral wealth on the ocean floor beneath the declining ice pack. Russia also sent a submarine to the North Pole to stake a symbolic claim to the Arctic as a part of the Russian nation. The decline in ice also raises the possibility of an ice-free "Northwest Passage," a shipping route north of the Canadian mainland that could provide a shortcut for transit between the Atlantic and Pacific. It is possible that the Arctic sea ice could decline even further this year before the onset of winter, Serreze said. Ice levels can reach their low point anywhere from mid-September to early October.
http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/science/09/18/driving.iceland/index.html REYKJAVIK, Iceland (CNN) -- Iceland may be best known for world-famous musical export Bjork but there's a new star quickly gaining this island nation worldwide acclaim -- clean energy. art.fcell.car.jpg This hydrogen fuel cell car is leading an energy revolution in Iceland. more photos » For more than 50 years Iceland has been decreasing its dependence on fossil fuels by tapping the natural power all around this rainy, windswept rock of fire. Waterfalls, volcanoes, geysers and hot springs provide Icelanders with abundant electricity and hot water. Virtually all of the country's electricity and heating comes from domestic renewable energy sources -- hydroelectric power and geothermal springs. It's pollution-free and cheap. Yet these energy pioneers are still dependent on imported oil to operate their vehicles and thriving fishing industry. Iceland's geographic isolation in the North Atlantic makes it expensive to ship in gasoline -- it costs almost $8 a gallon (around $2 a liter). Iceland ranks 53rd in the world in greenhouse gas emissions per capita, according to the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center -- the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy. Retired University of Iceland Professor Bragi Arnason has come up with a solution: Use hydrogen to power transportation. Hydrogen is produced with water and electricity, and Iceland has lots of both. "Iceland is the ideal country to create the world's first hydrogen economy," Arnason explains. His big idea has earned him the nickname "Professor Hydrogen." Arnason has caught the attention of General Motors, Toyota and DaimlerChrysler, who are using the island-nation as a test market for their hydrogen fuel cell prototypes. One car getting put through its paces is the Mercedes Benz A-class F-cell -- an electric car powered by a DaimlerChrysler fuel cell. Fuel cells generate electricity by converting hydrogen and oxygen into water. And fuel cell technology is clean -- the only by-product is water. Video Watch the F-cell navigate through Reykjavik » "It's just like a normal car," says Asdis Kritinsdottir, project manager for Reykjavik Energy. Except the only pollution coming out of the exhaust pipe is water vapor. It can go about 100 miles on a full tank. When it runs out of fuel the electric battery kicks in, giving the driver another 18 miles -- hopefully enough time to get to a refueling station. Filling the tank is similar to today's cars -- attach a hose to the car's fueling port, hit "start" on the pump and stand back. The process takes about five to six minutes. Photo See some of the F-cell's unique features » In 2003, Reykjavik opened a hydrogen fueling station to test three hydrogen fuel cell buses. The station was integrated into an existing gasoline and diesel station. The hydrogen gas is produced by electrolysis -- sending a current through water to split it into hydrogen and oxygen. The public buses could run all day before needing refueling. The bus project lasted three years and cost around $10 million. Planet in Peril Anderson Cooper, Jeff Corwin & Dr. Sanjay Gupta explore the Earth's environmental issues in a CNN worldwide investigation. October 23-24 at 9 p.m. ET on CNN see full schedule » The city will need five refueling stations in addition to the one the city already has to support its busy ring road, according to Arnason. The entire nation could get by on 15 refueling stations -- a minimum requirement. Within the year, 30-40 hydrogen fuel-cell cars will hit Reykjavik streets. Local energy company employees will do most of the test-driving but three cars will be made available to The Hertz Corp., giving Icelanders a chance to get behind the wheel. Learn more about fuel cells » "I need a car," says Petra Svenisdottir, an intern at Reykjavik Energy. Svenisdottir, 28, commutes to work from her home in Hafnarfjorour to Reykjavik. The journey takes her about 15 minutes if she can beat traffic. "If I didn't have a car I would have to take two or three buses and wait at each bus stop to arrive at work more than an hour later, cold and wet!" Don't Miss * GM takes step toward fuel-cell car Most Icelanders drive cars, says Arnason. Around 300,000 people live in a place about the size of the U.S. state of Kentucky. Transportation is limited to cars, buses and boats. "Everyone has a car here," Arnason says. And it's very typical for an Icelandic family to own two cars. Arnason drives a small SUV. Fuel cell cars are expected to go on sale to the public in 2010. Carmakers have promised Arnason they will keep costs down and the government has said it will offer citizens tax breaks. He figures it will take an additional 4 percent of power to produce the hydrogen Iceland would need to meet its transportation requirements. advertisement Once Iceland's vehicles are converted over to hydrogen, the fishing fleet will follow. It won't be easy because of current technological limits and the high cost of storing large amounts of hydrogen, but Arnason feels confident it can happen. He predicts Iceland will be fossil fuel free by 2050. "We are a very small country but we have all the same infrastructure of big nations," he said. "We will be the prototype for the rest of the world." E-mail to a friend E-mail to a friendko
You may also want to look at IISD's Inuit Observations on Climate Change. Check out: http://www.iisd.org/casl/projects/inuitobs.htm Pam Pamela Chasek, Ph.D. Editor, Earth Negotiations Bulletin 212 East 47th Street #21F New York, NY 10017 USA tel: +1-212-888-2737 fax: +1-646-219-0955 e-mail: email@example.com http://www.iisd.ca/linkages -----Original Message----- From: firstname.lastname@example.org [mailto:email@example.com] On Behalf Of Armin Rosencranz Sent: Wednesday, July 19, 2006 10:38 AM To: Zsuzsanna Pato Cc: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Climate films Obviously you should show AN INCONVENEIENT TRUTH as soon as it's out on DVD. Quoting Zsuzsanna Pato :
A colleague recently compiled the following list. I haven't seen most of these, but they are out there on DVD or VHS somewhere: Inconvenient Truth (D.Guggenheim, A.Gore), 2006, 100 min.; You may also want to look at IISD's Inuit Observations on Climate Change. Check out: http://www.iisd.org/casl/projects/inuitobs.htm Great Warming (Stonehaven Production), 2006, 85 min.; Global Warming: What You Need to Know (Discovery Channel with Tom Brokaw), 2006, 120 min.; Before the Flood (P.Lindsay), 2005, 60 min.; Global Warming: The Signs and the Science (PBS), 2005, 60 min.; Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect (EVN), 2004, 20 min.; Venus-teoria (P. Toiviainen), 2004, 52 min.; The Great Warming (J. Hallet, A. Abel), 2003, 120 min.; Turning Down the Heat (J. Hamm, P.J.Reece), 1999, 46 min.; Generation to Generation: The Story of Climate Change and Oregon (Oregon Office of Energy), 1999, 9 min.; Climate Stock Volume 3: Global Temperature and Human Induced Climate Change (UCAR), 1998, 28 min.; Warnings from the ice (R.Gardner), 1998, 60 min.; Investigating Global Warming (National Geographic Society), 1997, 22 min.; Climate Report (Sierra Club), 1996, 12 min.; Climate Change: Science vs. Politics (Open University Worldwide), 1996, 25 min.; Earth at Risk: Global Warming (A. Schlessinger), 1993, 30 min.; The Greenhouse Effect (Allied Video Corporation), 1993, 16 min.; New Explorers Series: Crisis: Planet Earth (PBS), 1990, 30 min.; Climate and Man (Granada LWT Int., vol. 1-6), 1990, 26 min. each volume; After the Warming (M. Slee and J. Burke), 1989, 110 min.. Cheers, Tony -- Anthony Leiserowitz Research Scientist Decision Research (541) 485-2400 email@example.com http://www.uoregon.edu/~ecotone/
This was noted in the NY Times today -- a comparison of 1941 and 2004 glaciers in Alaska. http://nsidc.org/data/glacier_photo/special_high_res.html Go to: http://nsidc.org/data/glacier_photo/special_collection.html for other pairs. And note that a German organization has had a far better version of this up for European glaciers since at least 2002 at: http://www.gletscherarchiv.de/karte.htm (click on any of the red dots to see a then-now pair of glacier pictures for that location). Ron
robin toles Undergraduate Research Awards 07 UNLVs Office of Research Services is inviting undergraduates to apply for Undergraduate Research Awards, which will provide up to $3,500 in funding for research and creative activity projects in any academic discipline. Grant proposals due in the Office of Research Services April 12. We ask faculty to encourage students to develop projects and apply for this funding. Students interested in applying for the grant must plan projects in close collaboration with faculty mentors. Students selected to receive the grants may be asked to present the results of their projects through poster or oral presentations during the spring 2007 semester. Approximately 10 to 12 Undergraduate Research Awards are awarded each year. Additional details about the application requirements and evaluation process are available on the web at http://www.unlv.edu/Research/services_grants/services_grants_ura.html or by calling the Office of Research Services at 895-0456.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6967121,00.html Island Nations Warn of Warming Threat Wednesday October 3, 2007 4:31 AM By SLOBODAN LEKIC Associated Press Writer UNITED NATIONS (AP) - Island countries from around the world warned Tuesday that despite debate over global warming and the potential for a significant increase in sea levels, there has been little concrete action to stem the climate changes that threatens their existence. ``The international community has convened numerous conferences and summits at which it has agreed on wide-ranging plans and programs of action,'' Foreign Minister of the Maldives Abdalla Shahid, told the U.N. General Assembly. ``However... all too often the reality of implementation has failed to match the ambitious rhetoric.'' He was speaking just days after the world body convened its first-ever climate summit which sought to put new urgency into global talks to reduce global-warming emissions. The dangerous emissions, or greenhouse gases, come primarily from the burning of fossil fuels like coal-burning power plants. Scientists and environmentalists say carbon dioxide in particular is to blame for warmer temperatures, melting glaciers and rising sea levels. The United Nations organized last week's summit to create momentum for December's annual climate treaty conference in Bali, Indonesia, when Europe, Japan and others hope to initiate talks for an emissions-reduction agreement to succeed the Kyoto Protocol in 2012. The 175-nation Kyoto pact, which the U.S. rejects, requires 36 industrial nations to reduce carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases. The Maldives is a low-lying island nation consisting of a number of atolls in the Indian Ocean. As the flattest nation on earth - with an average height of only 7 feet above sea level - it is considered particularly vulnerable to the perils of global climate change. Climate researchers say that many of its islands will disappear over the next century as the seas rise. Shahid's warnings were echoed by other speakers at Tuesday's General Assembly session. ``We view associated problems of high frequency of abnormal climate, sea level rise, global warming and coastal degradation as matters affecting the economic and environmental security of all small island states,'' said Timothy Harris, foreign minister of the Caribbean nation of St. Kitts and Nevis. Charles Savarin, foreign minister of nearby Dominica, said that rising sea temperatures were causing the death and bleaching of corals and a decline of fish stocks. ``Climate change is the most pressing environmental problem humankind has ever faced,'' he said. And Sonatane Taumoepeau-Tupou, foreign minister of the Pacific kingdom of Tonga, urged developed nations to implement emissions reductions and help developing nations to do the same. ``Climate change is not regarded just as an environmental issue, since it has implications for economic growth and sustainable development,'' he said.
E.G. please always turn off your cell phone or put it on vibrate mode for class A kind reminder on distractions such as phone use, noise (see syllabus). Please allow fellow students to focus. Dr. William James Smith, Jr. Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies, UNLV Adjunct Assistant Professor in Geography, The University of Iowa
http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20071007/ap_on_sc/sea_ice_walrus;_ylt=AiiBWNSQLbscF9K8zYvjcIdH2ocA By DAN JOLING, Associated Press Writer 34 minutes ago ANCHORAGE, Alaska - Thousands of walrus have appeared on Alaska's northwest coast in what conservationists are calling a dramatic consequence of global warming melting the Arctic sea ice. Alaska's walrus, especially breeding females, in summer and fall are usually found on the Arctic ice pack. But the lowest summer ice cap on record put sea ice far north of the outer continental shelf, the shallow, life-rich shelf of ocean bottom in the Bering and Chukchi seas. Walrus feed on clams, snails and other bottom dwellers. Given the choice between an ice platform over water beyond their 630-foot diving range or gathering spots on shore, thousands of walrus picked Alaska's rocky beaches. "It looks to me like animals are shifting their distribution to find prey," said Tim Ragen, executive director of the federal Marine Mammal Commission. "The big question is whether they will be able to find sufficient prey in areas where they are looking." According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder, September sea ice was 39 percent below the long-term average from 1979 to 2000. Sea ice cover is in a downward spiral and may have passed the point of no return, with a possible ice-free Arctic Ocean by summer 2030, scientist Mark Serreze said. Starting in July, several thousand walrus abandoned the ice pack for gathering spots known as haulouts between Barrow and Cape Lisburne, a remote, 300-mile stretch of Alaska coastline. The immediate concern of new, massive walrus groups for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is danger to the animals from stampedes. Panic caused by a low-flying airplane, a boat or an approaching polar bear can send a herd rushing to the sea. Young animals can be crushed by adults weighing 2,000 pounds or more. Longer term, biologists fear walrus will suffer nutritional stress if they are concentrated on shoreline rather than spread over thousands of miles of sea ice. Walrus need either ice or land to rest. Unlike seals, they cannot swim indefinitely and must pause after foraging. Historically, Ragen said, walrus have used the edge of the ice pack like a conveyor belt. As the ice edge melts and moves north in spring and summer, sea ice gives calves a platform on which to rest while females dive to feed. There's no conveyor belt for walrus on shore. "If they've got to travel farther, it's going to cost more energy. That's less energy that's available for other functions," Ragen said. Deborah Williams who was an Interior Department special assistant for Alaska under former President Bill Clinton, and who is now president of the nonprofit Alaska Conservation Solutions said melting of sea ice and its effects on wildlife were never even discussed during her federal service from 1995 to 2000. "That's what so breathtaking about this," she said. "This has all happened faster than anyone could have predicted. That's why it's so urgent action must be taken." Walrus observers on the Russian side of the Chukchi Sea have also reported more walrus at haulouts and alerted Alaska wildlife officials to the problems with the animals being spooked and stampeded. If lack of sea ice is at the heart of upcoming problems for walrus, Ragen said, there's no solution likely available other than prevention. "The primary problem of maintaining ice habitat, that's something way, way, way beyond us," he said. "To reverse things will require an effort on virtually everyone's part." n the Net: U.S. Marine Mammal Commission: http://www.mmc.gov/http://www.mmc.gov/
NPR TALK OF THE NATION FEBRUARY 22, 2007 Talk of the Nation, February 22, 2007 · Many scientists say immediate action it needed to stop global warming. But some economists argue that the benefits of any realistic solution aren't worth the cost. Can we afford to stop global warming? Guests: Jonah Goldberg, Los Angeles columnist and contributing editor to National Review Barry Rabe, professor at The Gerald Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, and senior fellow at the Brookings Institution Dan Kammen, director of the Berkeley institute of the Environment and the founding director of the Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory at Berkeley
The exact temperatures that follow do not matter when we look at very long periods, as this is just an estimate I provide. What does matter is that earths climate has varied significantly -- with ice ages, mini-ice ages, and periods of warming occurring. But is it true that todays warming is enhanced by humans or is it just part of a natural cycle?
Some scientists says we are supposed to be going towards an ice age, others say warming is O.K. generally, but it is happening too fast. While others say there is no evidence of human impact (many less say this now), instead they say there is warming, but it is natural, so do not change our development policies at this time. Do we utilize the precautionary principle?! Will everyone equally? If we do it can impact economies and development styles. What parts of this are political economy, frontier or reliable science?!
How does the Earths climate fluctuate? Is climate change new?! Well... Average temperature over past 900,000 years Thousands of years ago Average surface temperature (°C) 900800700600500400300200100Present 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Temperature change over past 22,000 years Years ago Temperature change (°C) 20,00010,0002,0001,000200100Now -5 -4 -3 -2 0 1 2 End of last ice age Agriculture established Average temperature over past 10,000 years = 15°C (59°F)
Temperature change over past 1,000 years Year Temperature change (°C) 100011001200130014001500160017001800190020002101 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
Average temperature over past 130 years Year Average surface temperature (°C) 186018801900192019401960198020002020 13.6 13.8 14.0 14.2 14.4 14.6 14.8 15.0 Mumfords paleotechnic age?
The earth's average surface temperature has increased by about 0.6 °C (1°F) during last century, and human activities are increasing the levels of greenhouse gases which tends to warm the planet. How much and how fast temperatures will continue to rise remains uncertain, and the exact impacts of climate change over the 21st century, especially for local regions, remain largely unknown. * Human populations are not equally vulnerable, but there is much that cant be anticipated.
Ecosystems have a limited capacity to adapt to climate change; some might not be able to cope as they had done in earlier periods and are expected to suffer damages because: * The rate and extent of climate change is expected to be faster and greater than in the past and could exceed nature's maximum adaptation speed; * Human activities and pollution have increased the vulnerability of ecosystems.
Some key natural and human-based factors. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and several other gases in the lower atmosphere absorb some of the infrared radiation (heat) radiated by the earths surface. This causes their molecules to vibrate and transform the absorbed energy into longer-wavelength infrared radiation in the troposphere. If the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases rise and they are not removed by other natural processes, the average temperature of the lower atmosphere will increase gradually. *Know tables 18-1 & 18-2 -- I do not have time to discuss all in detail
Water vapor is by far the most important greenhouse gas. Nevertheless, the human-made increase in other greenhouse gases such as CO2 are expected to induce some additional warming in the coming decades. Warmer air contains more water vapor; this in turn amplifies the man-made warming. Other reactive mechanisms (feedback) could both amplify or reduce this warming.
Greenhouse gases Gases in the earths lower atmosphere that cause the greenhouse effect. Examples are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide. Global warming Since the industrial revolution in the late 1700s, and especially since the 1950s, there has been a large increase in the use of fossil fuels. Using these fuels releases the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. Also, during this period deforestation has been extreme, reducing sinks and releasing carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide through burning lands, lastly cultivation of rice paddies and use of inorganic fertilizer have caused release of additional nitrous oxide. Based on this many scientists worry that this increase in greenhouse gases is intensifying the natural greenhouse effect, and raising temperatures in the lower atmosphere.
Rays of sunlight penetrate the lower atmosphere and warm the earth's surface. The earth's surface absorbs much of the incoming solar radiation and degrades it to longer-wavelength infrared radiation (heat), which rises into the lower atmosphere. Some of this heat escapes into space and some is absorbed by molecules of greenhouse gases and emitted as infrared radiation, which warms the lower atmosphere. As concentrations of greenhouse gases rise, their molecules absorb and emit more infrared radiation, which adds more heat to the lower atmosphere. (a)(b)(c)
Evidence: 1) CO 2 higher than in the past 420,000 yrs, maybe last 20 mill; 2) Last century the hottest in 1k yrs; 3) Warming most in last 50 or so yrs; 4) 9 of 10 warmest yrs since 1861 occur in the past decade; 98/2000 at top; 5) Shrinking of glaciers globally, 6) Ice masses at poles melting (show retreating glaciers large image? and Mt. Kilimanjaro -- 82 percent of the ice field has been lost since it was first mapped in 1912); 7) Sea level up 4-8 in last 100 yrs; 8) Species migration
Atmospheric pressure (millibars) 02004006008001,000 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 (Sea Level) –80–4004080120 Pressure = 1,000 millibars at ground level Temperature (˚C) Altitude (kilometers) Altitude (miles) 75 65 55 45 35 25 15 5 Thermosphere Heating via ozone Mesosphere Stratosphere Ozone layer Heating from the earth Troposphere Temperature Pressure Mesopause Stratopause Tropopause Layers of atmosphere
Carbon dioxide Temperature change End of last ice age 16012080400 Thousands of years before present Concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (ppm) 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 –10.0 –7.5 –5.0 –2.5 0 +2.5 Variation of temperature (˚C) from current level
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Year 1800190020002100 260 310 360 410 Parts per million
Red is carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emission Green is represents the sink (Meadows) Agarwal and Narain also state that India should be allowed more emissions because Indias pop is bigger too!
If Hardin was right about the commons, then who will regulate the countries with high emissions?…Kyoto, Bush, etc. Will Andersons methods apply?
EPA's Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ResourceCenterToolsGHGCalculator.html http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climat/home_en.htm http://www.cmdl.noaa.gov/research.html
Methane (CH 4 ) Year 1800190020002100 0.6 1.2 1.8 2.4 Parts per million Fig. 18.4b, p. 450
Year Parts per million 1800190020002100 260 290 300 310 320 Nitrous Oxide
Year 199020002025205020752100 100 150 200 250 Index (1900 = 100) Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Fig. 18.5, p. 451
Year 186018801900192019401960198020002010 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Observed Model of greenhouse gases + aerosols + solar output Temperature change (°C) from 1980–99 mean Fig. 18.7, p. 453
Antarctica Cold water melting from Antarctica's ice cap and icebergs falls to the ocean floor and surges northward, affecting worldwide circulation. Cold water melting from Antarctica's ice cap and icebergs falls to the ocean floor and surges northward, affecting worldwide circulation. Greenland
Todays sea level Years before presentPresent 250,000200,000150,000100,00050,0000 –130 0 –426 0 Height above or below present sea level (meters) Height below present sea level (feet)
http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/science/11/24/global.warming.reut/index.html SCIENCE & SPACE Report: Humans impacting sea levels Thursday, November 24, 2005; Posted: 2:04 p.m. EST (19:04 GMT) WASHINGTON (Reuters) -- Ocean and so-called greenhouse gas levels are rising faster than they have for thousands of years, according to two reports published on Thursday that are likely to fuel debate on global warming. One study found the Earth's ocean levels have risen twice as fast in the past 150 years, signaling the impact of human activity on temperatures worldwide, researchers said in the journal Science. Sea levels were rising by about 1 millimeter every year about 200 years ago and as far back as 5,000 years, geologists found from deep sediment samples from the New Jersey coastline. Since then, levels have risen by about 2 millimeters a year. While the planet has been in a warmer period, driving cars and other activities that create carbon dioxide are having a clear impact, the Rutgers University-led team said.
"Half of the current rise... was going on anyway. But that means half of what's going on is not background. It's human induced," said Kenneth Miller, a geology professor at the New Jersey-based school who led the 15-year effort. Carbon dioxide emissions come mainly from burning coal and other fossil fuels in power plants, factories and automobiles. Miller and his colleagues analyzed five 500-meter deep samples to look for fossils, sediment types and variations in chemical composition, giving them data on the past 100 million years. They also analyzed data from satellite, shoreline markers and by gauging ocean tides, among other measures. "It allows us to understand the mechanisms of sea level change before humans intervened," Miller said in an interview. His team did not determine whether the rate is accelerating. The research, funded mostly by the National Science Foundation, also found ocean levels were lower during the dinosaur era than previously thought. They were about 100 meters higher than now, not 250 meters as many geologists had thought, Miller said. Measurements also showed that, while many scientists had thought polar ice caps did not exist before 15 million years ago, frozen water at the poles did form periodically. "We believe the ice sheet was not around all the time. It was only around during cool snaps of the climate," Miller said.
Measurements also showed that, while many scientists had thought polar ice caps did not exist before 15 million years ago, frozen water at the poles did form periodically. "We believe the ice sheet was not around all the time. It was only around during cool snaps of the climate," Miller said. In another report published in Science, European researchers using three large samples of polar cap ice found carbon dioxide levels were stable until 200 years ago. "Today's rise is about 200 times faster than any rise recorded" in the samples, study author Thomas Stocker said in an e-mail interview with Reuters. The historic data "put the present rise of the last 200 years into a longer-term context," he added. Trapped gas bubbles in the ice, drilled out from Antarctica depths of about 3,000 meters, provided scientists with information on the Earth's air up to 650,000 years ago.
Researchers participating in The European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica measured levels of carbon dioxide as well as methane and nitrous oxide -- two other gases known to affect the atmosphere's protective ozone layer. "The study does not directly address global warming. But what we provide is an important new baseline for the climate models with which we investigate global warming," said Stocker, a professor of climate and environmental physics at the University of Bern in Switzerland. Copyright 2005 Reuters. All rights reserved.This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
CASE Small island society impacts: drowning, salt water, storm intensity increase There are real teams with people like my partner on them which are dealing with this right now. Previously the President of the Federated States of Micronesia begged industrial nations to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol and to reduce greenhouse emissions. Our coastal development is an issue too e.g. beach revenue, new properties, soil / agricultural loss.
PACIFIC ISLANDS REPORT VILLAGERS TO BE MOVED FROM DISAPPEARING PNG ISLAND WELLINGTON, New Zealand (RNZI, Nov. 24) – The 1,300 residents of the Carteret Islands in Papua New Guinea are to be re-located because their land is being washed into the sea. Over the years, the islanders have been moving further inland as more of their coastline has disappeared in what they describe as rising sea levels. The first 10 to 16 families will be relocated to the neighbouring island of Bougainville over the next 14 months, with the rest of the population joining them by 2012. The programme will cost about US$300,000. A district manager for the Autonomous Bougainville Government, Paul Tobosi, says it has been a difficult decision for the islanders. "Some are reluctant but because of the situation they dont have much choice. Every day theres food problems, they struggle almost every day to try and find food for the family, so I think they think its best to come out here." November 25, 2005 Radio New Zealand International: www.rnzi.com
PACIFIC ISLANDS REPORT Pacific Islands Development Program/East-West Center With Support From Center for Pacific Islands Studies/University of Hawaii RISING SEA LEVEL REALITY IN LOW-LYING PACIFIC By Vasemaca Rarabici Special to Pacific Islands Report TOKYO, Japan (June 28) - In Kiribati, two islets - Tebua Tarawa and Abanuea - disappeared in 1999. In Tuvalu and the Marshall Islands, people are being relocated inland because of coastal erosion. And in Tonga, recent figures showed that the sea level at one location has risen by 10 centimeters in the past 13 years. For bigger and higher lying Pacific Island states, such as Fiji, Hawaii and Tahiti, sea level rise might still seem far away. But for many Pacific islanders, global warming is a difficult reality. With most of the islands population living close to the sea, a rise of as little as a meter could prove devastating, especially for small island states. The impact of global warming on these countries is becoming more significant with changes in weather patterns, such as longer periods of rain and drought. There are also more hurricanes and typhoons that hit at either the wrong time of the year or at the most unexpected islands. This is why Pacific leaders are speaking in world forums on global warming, claiming their countries very existence is on the line. The recent Pacific Islands Leaders Meeting with Japan in Okinawa on May 26-27 was another opportunity. "Pacific nations contribute just 0.6 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions yet are the first to suffer the consequences of sea level rise due to global warming," said Tuvalu Prime Minister Maatia Toafa during the summit. Japan, one of the most industrialized countries in the world, in 2002 pumped 1,100 tonnes of carbon dioxide into the sky. The largest source of emissions was from the industrial sector - 476 million tonnes - followed by the transport sector with 262 million tonnes, the commercial sector with 197 million tonnes and the residential sector with 166 million tonnes. Mr Takeshi Sekiya, a Senior Environment Officer at the Ministry of Environment in Japan, said that these emissions have increased significantly each year. But he said Japan is committed to saving Pacific Island countries from sea-level rise through its own environmental programmes to reduce carbon dioxide emission, which contributes to global warming. Mr Sekiya said government policies were being put in place so that industrial companies become more environmentally friendly in the production of their energy. "We are committed to the Kyoto Protocol and by 2010 Japans target is to reduce our emission of greenhouse gases by six per cent from the current 13 per cent," Mr Sekiya said. He noted, however, that at its current rate, Japan would miss its target. Fiji Foreign Affairs Minister Kaliopate Tavola said Japan's effort to reduce its carbon dioxide emission was good news for Pacific island countries. Mr Tavola said the Kyoto Protocol might not reverse trends but it was an important cooperation framework between big industrialised countries and small island states like those of the Pacific. Professor Akio Watanabe, chairman of the steering committee of the Pacific Island Nations Fund, said the world is a global village sharing the same ocean and it is important for big industrialised nations to be responsible of the way they discard their waste into the environment. At the policy level, there are two laws - the Climate Change Policy Law and the Energy Efficiency Law - that govern Japan's efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Under the Climate Change Policy Law, Mr Sekiya said, there have been several environmental programmes currently implemented to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. One of the most public examples is the focus on "Cool Biz fashion" where the normal business fashion in Japan has been changed to suit the changing weather. This means that during Japan's notoriously hot and humid summer, there are no ties and much cooler business suits. Ms Yoshikawa Mariko, the Media Liaison Officer at Mitsukoshi, one of Japans leading department stores, said the whole idea is to make people comfortable and less hot when working, which mean less use of the air conditioning system and less carbon dioxide emission. Another example is limiting the level of air conditioning in homes and workplaces. Mr Sekiya said that during summer, air conditioning temperature should not go lower than 23 degrees Celsius and in winter not higher than 28 degrees Celsius. Also consumers have been asked to manage their waste properly because much of it still ends up in the incinerators which when burnt emits so much carbon dioxide. Under the Energy Efficiency Law, Mr Sekiya said industrialised companies have to account for their carbon dioxide emission if they produce more than 3,000 tonnes a year. Japan's electrical utility companies are required by law that at least one per cent of it total energy production is from non-renewable sources such as wind and solar which does not produce carbon dioxide. Mr Hisatake Kishimoto, the Research Officer at the Okinawa Electrical Power Company in Japan, said they are required to expand their renewable energy source and also to do fuel switching from coal to natural gas. Commercial buildings in Japan are required by law to reduce their unit energy consumption. In the transport sector, Mr Sekiya said companies are required to promote distribution efficiencies and modal shifts to railway and ships. He said Japan is also committed in its research to further reduce pollution, which is being led by its 10 electrical power utilities. He added that policies were also being looked at so that consumers could play a huge part in reducing pollution. June 28, 2006 Vasemaca Rarabici, a Fiji freelance writer, was a 2006 Sasakawa Pacific Islands Journalism Fellow. This report was written while in Tokyo and Okinawa, Japan.
Increased deaths from heat and disease Disruption of food and water supplies Spread of tropical diseases to temperate areas Increased respiratory disease Increased water pollution from coastal flooding Human Health Rising sea levels Flooding of low-lying islands and coastal cities Flooding of coastal estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs Beach erosion Disruption of coastal fisheries Contamination of coastal aquifiers with salt water Sea Level and Coastal Areas Changes in forest composition and locations Disappearance of some forests Increased fires from drying Loss of wildlife habitat and species Forests Changes in water supply Decreased water quality Increased drought Increased flooding Water Resources Shifts in food-growing areas Changes in crop yields Increased irrigation demands Increased pests, crop diseases, and weeds in warmer areas Agriculture Extinction of some plant and animal species Loss of habitats Disruption of aquatic life Biodiversity Prolonged heat waves and droughts Increased flooding More intense hurricanes, typhoons, tornadoes, and violent storms Weather Extremes Increased deaths More environmental refugees Increased migration Human Population
Mosquitoes may bring tropical diseases north, invasive species etc. Super-cyclones may be generated as weather becomes intense. But impacts will be uneven and difficult to predict! Kyoto Protocol -- What it is, and what all the fuss is about. A sympathetic Russian response!
PreventionCleanup Cut fossil fuel use (especially coal) Shift from coal to natural gas Transfer energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies to developing countries Improve energy efficiency Shift to renewable energy resources Reduce deforestation Use sustainable agriculture Slow population growth Remove CO 2 from smokestack and vehicle emissions Store (sequester CO 2 by planting trees) Sequester CO 2 underground Sequester CO 2 in deep ocean
CDM for sust development, tech transfer etc. paper topics http://ghg.unfccc.int/ http://unfccc.int/ http://cop9.str3.com/ http://www.grida.no/db/maps/collection/climate6/index.htm see Iceland, Germany, Spain, Sweden, New Zealand (geothermal) http://www.oecd.org/document/13/0,2340,en_2649_34359_1849485_1_1_1_1,00.html http://cdm.unfccc.int/ CDM as Sustainable Development?, business ploy, or some hybrid? Julian Simon http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ResourceCenterToolsGHGCalculator.html CNN CLIPS ON EPA Energystar, 2 Fuel Cell Revolution IF NOT DONE YET, 4 CLIMATE CHANGE CLIPS Reality of Climate Change 13 min on Pacific at Risk CD by SPREP Do not do Clouds of Change on same CD 27 min this time Real player clips from COP 9 Webcasts (see favorites) or download from http://cop9.str3.com/ Byrne and Glove discussed if not done yet
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10716772 NPR search climate change and find such clips as the above on carbon trading in Europe See also Ebans Focus the Nation page and UTUBE
Hypothetical sinks, but even if, would behavior change? but is it a Zero sum gain shell game? More on air later
CNN VIDEO CLIP ON CLIMATE CHANGE NEGOTIATIONS use Global Warming #2 and then original http://www.climatemash.org/ animation my disclaimer WATCH FOR AND CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING IN THE NEXT VIDEO CLIPS What is necessary: Political will or technical ability -- both? Are either impacts or influence over the changes equal? science vs. sound science discourse Any role for nationalism We stop here
More ways individuals can reduce fuel use and emissions: Carpool, walk, use mass trans Buy less stuff Insulate walls and ceilings Insulate water heaters Caulk and weather strip doors and windows Use conservation light bulbs Keep water heater below 120 d Wash clothes in warm or cold Use low flow showerhead Use Energy Star appliances CONSERVE to save money while you reduce GHG emissions CNN CLIP ON EPA Energy Star Julian Simon?
HOW ARE WE MONITORING CLIMATE CHANGE AND HOW ARE IMPACTS RECEIVED? 1. Clouds of Change first 16 minutes 2. Reality of Climate Change 9 minutes
Dear GIS Colleagues, The process of presenting a resolution before the AAG on global climate change began at the Denver meetings and with an article by Univ. of Arizona Chair JP Jones. It was strengthened as the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions went into force as international law, developed further as the climatological events of 2005 unfolded with so many records, and intensified with the US walkout of the annual climate conference COP-11 in Montreal in Decemberalone in its position to not continue the climate talk process after 2012. The latest blow came when climate scientist Dr. James Hansen, director of the NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), charged that the White House, "...has tried to stop him from speaking out since he gave a lecture last month calling for prompt reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases linked to global warming" (NY Times 1/29/06). This is another example of the significant problem science is having with this Administration. In addition, the global scientific community is gearing up for the International Polar Year (3/2007 to 3/2009), to intensify research as to why the polar regions are experiencing almost double the rate of warming as the lower latitudes. Geographers, as they have all along, are playing an important role in the scientific consensus on anthropogenically forced climate change. Please see the resolution posted at the following URL and decide if you want to join this ad hoc group of geographers to get the AAG on record with other scientific associations and groups concerning this vital issue that touches all aspects of geographic science and education. Let me know what you think as well. Our AAG Resolution and petition is at: http://www.petitionspot.com/petitions/AAG_Climate_Change Warm regards, Robert W. Christopherson Geosystems firstname.lastname@example.org P.O. Box 128 Lincoln, CA 95648-8312 John Paul Jones III Professor and Head Department of Geography and Regional Development email@example.com University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721-0076
This story appeared this week in the Guardian. Thought it might be of interest for those of you interested in the potential/pathologies of ecological modernization. Best, Damian White Dept of Sociology and Anthropology James Madison University Sweden plans to be world's first oil-free economy 15-year limit set for switch to renewable energy Biofuels favoured over further nuclear power John Vidal, environment editor Wednesday February 8, 2006 The Guardian Sweden is to take the biggest energy step of any advanced western economy by trying to wean itself off oil completely within 15 years - without building a new generation of nuclear power stations. The attempt by the country of 9 million people to become the world's first practically oil-free economy is being planned by a committee of industrialists, academics, farmers, car makers, civil servants and others, who will report to parliament in several months. The intention, the Swedish government said yesterday, is to replace all fossil fuels with renewables before climate change destroys economies and growing oil scarcity leads to huge new price rises. "Our dependency on oil should be broken by 2020," said Mona Sahlin, minister of sustainable development. "There shall always be better alternatives to oil, which means no house should need oil for heating, and no driver should need to turn solely to gasoline."According to the energy committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, there is growing concern that global oil supplies are peaking and will shortly dwindle, and that a global economic recession could result from high oil prices. Ms Sahlin has described oil dependency as one of the greatest problems facing the world. "A Sweden free of fossil fuels would give us enormous advantages, not least by reducing the impact from fluctuations in oil prices," she said. "The price of oil has tripled since 1996." A government official said: "We want to be both mentally and technically prepared for a world without oil. The plan is a response to global climate change, rising petroleum prices and warnings by some experts that the world may soon be running out of oil." Sweden, which was badly hit by the oil price rises in the 1970s, now gets almost all its electricity from nuclear and hydroelectric power, and relies on fossil fuels mainly for transport. Almost all its heating has been converted in the past decade to schemes which distribute steam or hot water generated by geothermal energy or waste heat. A 1980 referendum decided that nuclear power should be phased out, but this has still not been finalised. The decision to abandon oil puts Sweden at the top of the world green league table. Iceland hopes by 2050 to power all its cars and boats with hydrogen made from electricity drawn from renewable resources, and Brazil intends to power 80% of its transport fleet with ethanol derived mainly from sugar cane within five years. Last week George Bush surprised analysts by saying that the US was addicted to oil and should greatly reduce imports from the Middle East. The US now plans a large increase in nuclear power. The British government, which is committed to generating 10% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2012, last month launched an energy review which has a specific remit to consider a large increase in nuclear power. But a report by accountants Ernst & Young yesterday said that the UK was falling behind in its attempt to meet its renewables target. "The UK has Europe's best wind, wave and tidal resources yet it continues to miss out on its economic potential," said Jonathan Johns, head of renewable energy at Ernst & Young. Energy ministry officials in Sweden said they expected the oil committee to recommend further development of biofuels derived from its massive forests, and by expanding other renewable energies such as wind and wave power. Sweden has a head start over most countries. In 2003, 26% of all the energy consumed came from renewable sources - the EU average is 6%. Only 32% of the energy came from oil - down from 77% in 1970. The Swedish government is working with carmakers Saab and Volvo to develop cars and lorries that burn ethanol and other biofuels. Last year the Swedish energy agency said it planned to get the public sector to move out of oil. Its health and library services are being given grants to convert from oil use and homeowners are being encouraged with green taxes. The paper and pulp industries use bark to produce energy, and sawmills burn wood chips and sawdust to generate power. Damian White ***************************************Dr Damian White Assistant Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, James Madison University, Sheldon Hall, Harrisonburg, Virginia VA 22801; USA Phone: 540 568 6423 Fax:540.568 6112 www.jmu.edu/sociology
For more see: Union of Concerned Scientists Climate Impacts in Key Regions, Global Warming 101 Hurricanes and Climate Change http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science/hurricanes-and-climate-change.html
http://www.devilducky.com/media/38792/ http://www.climatemash.org/ http://www.cleartheair.org/dirtypower/ UIOWA Conservation class animation
How are human activities affecting the ozone layer Ozone depletion in the stratosphere Ozone layer Layer of gaseous ozone (O 3 ) in the stratosphere that shields life on earth by filtering out about 95% of harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Ozone depletion Decrease in concentration of ozone in the stratosphere.
Atmospheric pressure (millibars) 02004006008001,000 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 (Sea Level) –80–4004080120 Pressure = 1,000 millibars at ground level Temperature (˚C) Altitude (kilometers) Altitude (miles) 75 65 55 45 35 25 15 5 Thermosphere Heating via ozone Mesosphere Stratosphere Ozone layer Heating from the earth Troposphere Temperature Pressure Mesopause Stratopause Tropopause Layers of atmosphere
Key concerns For: Plants and animals (including human) and damage to the food web on land and in the ocean Manifestations: Immune system suppression, sunburn, aging/wrinkling of the skin, skin cancer, decreased yields of some sensitive species
Agents Carbon tetrachloride (dry cleaning) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) the dream chemical (kills ozone and is a greenhouse gas) Hydrogen chloride Methyl bromide Methyl chloroform
View animation Ch.18 #3 Miller Ultraviolet light hits a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) molecule, such as CFCl 3, breaking off a chlorine atom and leaving CFCl 2. UV radiation Sun Once free, the chlorine atom is off to attack another ozone molecule and begin the cycle again. A free oxygen atom pulls the oxygen atom off the chlorine monoxide molecule to form O 2. The chlorine atom and the oxygen atom join to form a chlorine monoxide molecule(ClO). The chlorine atom attacks an ozone (O 3 ) molecule, pulling an oxygen atom off it and leaving an oxygen molecule (O 2 ). Cl C F O O O O O O O O O O Summary of Reactions CCl 3 F + UV Cl + CCl 2 F Cl + O 3 ClO + O 2 Cl + O Cl + O 2 Repeated many times
Ozone thinning (hole) Polar vortex AntarcticArctic Europe has thinning too!Images from 2001 Isolated vortex of ice crystals collects CFCs in winter it is a ticking bomb in that, when sunshine arrives in spring 40-50% loss, then that ozone free moves around the world! 3xs the size of the continental U.S. in 2000.
Reasons for human concern Increased incidence and severity of sunburn Eye damage Skin cancer Immune system suppression Increase in acid deposition Lower crop yields and productivity impacts nutrition
Ultraviolet A Ultraviolet B Thin layer of dead cells Squamous cells Basal layer Melanocyte cells Basal membrane Blood vessels Hair Epidermis Sweat gland Dermis Squamous Cell CarcinomaBasal Cell CarcinomaMelanoma Fig. 18.21a, p. 470 LIKE SHAMUS
CFC substitutes Techno-political fixes Montreal Protocol Ozone-depleting chemicals under 3 alternatives Year 1950197520002025205020752100 3,000 0 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 Abundance (parts per trillion) No protocol 1987 Montreal Protocol 1992 Copenhagen Protocol (see Table 18-3 p. 471)
Montreal and Copenhagen Protocol Success? Problem is gases stay in atmosphere a long time… thus, 2000 results still bad.
END OF SLIDE SHOW DO NOT STUDY AFTER THIS For a chronologically organized summary see: http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/labs/samson/ozone/lab14_new.html
Center for Energy and Environmental Policy research A brief overview of some of CEEPs air quality and climate alternative research
In case any of you haven't seen this yet and may be interested... See below. Pam Pamela S. Chasek, Ph.D. Editor, Earth Negotiations Bulletin IISD Reporting Services 212 East 47th Street #21F New York, NY 10017 USA, Tel: +1 212-888-2737- Fax: +1 646 219 0955 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) www.iisd.org IISD Reporting Services - Earth Negotiations Bulletinwww.iisd.ca Subscribe for free to our publicationshttp://www.iisd.ca/email/subscribe.htm To: Climate Change Info Mailing List Subject: The Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change. Most people assume that those interested in the ethical dimensions of climate change focus on the single question of what are human duties to protect plants, animals and humans from climate change, a question very relevant to the issue of setting an atmospheric GHG target. Yet, this is only one of many profound ethical questions entailed by climate change. A collaboration of nine organizations around the world will be holding a side event and a two day meeting on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change in Montreal. The side event will take place on Monday, December 5th at 6:00 pm in Room 2. The side event will, among other things, make the case for why ethics needs to be expressly integrated into climate change science and economics because these policy discourses often hide and distort the important ethical questions raised by climate change. The questions that this group will be considering include: 1. Responsibility for Damages: Who is ethically responsible for the consequences of climate change, that is, who is liable for the burdens of: a. preparing for and then responding to climate change (i.e. adaptation) or b. paying for unavoided damages? 2. Atmospheric Targets: What ethical principles should guide the choice of specific climate change policy objectives, including but not limited to, maximum human-induced warming and atmospheric greenhouse gas targets? 3. Allocating GHG Emissions Reductions: What ethical principles should be followed in allocating responsibility among people, organizations, and governments at all levels to prevent ethically intolerable impacts from climate change? 4. Scientific Uncertainty: What is the ethical significance of the need to make climate change decisions in the face of scientific uncertainty? 5. Cost to National Economies: Is the commonly used justification of national cost for delaying or minimizing climate change action ethically justified? 6. Independent Responsibility to Act: Is the commonly used reason for delaying or minimizing climate change action that any nation need not act until others agree on action ethically justifiable? 7. Potential New Technologies: Is the commonly used justification for delaying or minimizing climate change action that new less-costly technologies may be invented in the future ethically justifiable? 8 Procedural Fairness: What principles of procedural justice should be followed to assure fair representation in decision-making? Anyone interested in working on these issues in Montreal or later should contact Don Brown at email@example.com. For more information on this, the Collaborative Program on the Ethical Dimensions of Climate Change has a website at http://rockethics.psu.edu/climate/index.htm. Donald A. Brown, Esq. Director, Pennsylvania Consortium for Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy, Rock Ethics Institute, Penn State University, 717-783-8504, firstname.lastname@example.org. -- You are currently subscribed to climate-l as: email@example.com, To unsubscribe send a blank email to leave-399224-17060J@lists.iisd.ca - Subscribe to Linkages Update to receive our fortnightly, html-newsletter on what's new in the international environment and sustainable development arena: http://www.iisd.ca/email/subscribe.htm - Archives of Climate-L and Climate-L News are available online at: http://www.iisd.ca/email/climate-L.htm - Archives of Water-L and Water-L News are available online at: http://www.iisd.ca/email/water-L.htm
http://www.cnn.com/2005/TECH/science/11/24/global.warming.reut/index.html SCIENCE & SPACE Report: Humans impacting sea levels Thursday, November 24, 2005; Posted: 2:04 p.m. EST (19:04 GMT) WASHINGTON (Reuters) -- Ocean and so-called greenhouse gas levels are rising faster than they have for thousands of years, according to two reports published on Thursday that are likely to fuel debate on global warming. One study found the Earth's ocean levels have risen twice as fast in the past 150 years, signaling the impact of human activity on temperatures worldwide, researchers said in the journal Science. Sea levels were rising by about 1 millimeter every year about 200 years ago and as far back as 5,000 years, geologists found from deep sediment samples from the New Jersey coastline. Since then, levels have risen by about 2 millimeters a year. While the planet has been in a warmer period, driving cars and other activities that create carbon dioxide are having a clear impact, the Rutgers University-led team said. "Half of the current rise... was going on anyway. But that means half of what's going on is not background. It's human induced," said Kenneth Miller, a geology professor at the New Jersey-based school who led the 15-year effort. Carbon dioxide emissions come mainly from burning coal and other fossil fuels in power plants, factories and automobiles. Miller and his colleagues analyzed five 500-meter deep samples to look for fossils, sediment types and variations in chemical composition, giving them data on the past 100 million years. They also analyzed data from satellite, shoreline markers and by gauging ocean tides, among other measures. "It allows us to understand the mechanisms of sea level change before humans intervened," Miller said in an interview. His team did not determine whether the rate is accelerating. The research, funded mostly by the National Science Foundation, also found ocean levels were lower during the dinosaur era than previously thought. They were about 100 meters higher than now, not 250 meters as many geologists had thought, Miller said. Measurements also showed that, while many scientists had thought polar ice caps did not exist before 15 million years ago, frozen water at the poles did form periodically. "We believe the ice sheet was not around all the time. It was only around during cool snaps of the climate," Miller said. In another report published in Science, European researchers using three large samples of polar cap ice found carbon dioxide levels were stable until 200 years ago. "Today's rise is about 200 times faster than any rise recorded" in the samples, study author Thomas Stocker said in an e-mail interview with Reuters. The historic data "put the present rise of the last 200 years into a longer-term context," he added. Trapped gas bubbles in the ice, drilled out from Antarctica depths of about 3,000 meters, provided scientists with information on the Earth's air up to 650,000 years ago. Researchers participating in The European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica measured levels of carbon dioxide as well as methane and nitrous oxide -- two other gases known to affect the atmosphere's protective ozone layer. "The study does not directly address global warming. But what we provide is an important new baseline for the climate models with which we investigate global warming," said Stocker, a professor of climate and environmental physics at the University of Bern in Switzerland. Copyright 2005 Reuters. All rights reserved.This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.