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American Foreign Diplomacy

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Presentation on theme: "American Foreign Diplomacy"— Presentation transcript:

1 American Foreign Diplomacy
Isolationism v. Internationalism U.S. wanted to remain isolated during 1920s & 1930s U.S. found it difficult not to be involved in world affairs Tried to use diplomacy to promote world peace Encouraged world leaders to seek disarmament: reducing the amount of weapons, soldiers, munitions in ones army

2 Attempts to Maintain Peace
Washington Naval Conference, 1921 Included U.S., G.B., France, Japan, Italy Limited tonnage of ships Agreed to respect territorial rights Acceptance of Open Door Policy in China Kellogg-Briand Pact Outlawed war except in cases of self-defense Signed by 62 nations Proved unsuccessful when Japan invaded Manchuria in (1931)

3 Dawes Plan Designed to stabilize the German economy U.S. bankers would lend $ to Germany Germany could then make its reparation payments to Britain, France, Italy Those countries could then repay their debts to U.S. The Great Depression stopped this plan & canceled reparations

4 Isolationist Impulses
Many Americans believed U.S. had been tricked into getting involved in WWI Congress takes action to prevent involvement in overseas conflicts Resulted in passage of 3 Neutrality Acts, U.S. wouldn’t sell arms to warring nations U.S. wouldn’t loan $ to warring nations U.S. wouldn’t ship non-military goods to warring nations

5 The Rise of Totalitarian Dictatorships
Many nations turned to dictators to solve their problems after World War I & some after the G.D. Characteristics of totalitarian dictatorships Govt. controls every aspect of a person’s life One party controls the govt. The state is supreme Individuals have few, if any, rights Political opposition is forbidden

6 4 Dominant Totalitarian dictatorships of the 1920s/1930s
Mussolini in Italy, 1922 Hitler in Germany, 1933 Military dictatorship in Japan, 1931 Stalin in the Soviet Union, recognized by U.S. in 1933

7 The Shadow of War Japan aggressive in China (Manchuria, 1932)
Mussolini aggressive in Africa Hitler aggressive in the Rhineland (1936) & in Austria (March 1938) Created the Third Reich Demanded Sudetenland (Sept. 1938) Resulted in Munich Conference, Sept. 1938 Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain, & Daladier met Chamberlain used appeasement Returned home claiming “peace in our time” Hitler got Sudetenland; agreed not to seize the rest of Czechoslovakia March 1939, Hitler annexed all of Czechoslovakia

8 Foreign Policy EQ’s Describe the Dawes Plan. Describe the Kellogg-Briand Pact. Why did it fail? Explain the events of the Washington Naval Conference. Define Disarmament. Why can this policy be viewed in a negative way? Explain the Neutrality Acts. Describe 5 characteristics of Totalitarian Governments. List the 4 totalitarian dictatorships of the 1920’s-1930’s.

9 The War Begins Nazi-Soviet Pact (Aug. 1939)--Stalin (Soviet Union) & Hitler (Germany) Non-aggression Pact- agreed to divide Poland and prevented Germany from fighting two-front war Sept. 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland using blitzkrieg (Lightning War) Britain & France declared war on Germany Spring 1940—Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, & Luxembourg fell to German blitzkrieg

10 Establishing a Puppet Government
Germany defeated France (1940)--bypassed the Maginot Line 300,000 soldiers rescued at Dunkirk Germany est. a puppet govt. in Vichy, France French General Charles de Gaulle headed the Free France movement in London Secret organization, the Resistance, worked in France

11 From Neutrality to War U.S. proclaimed neutrality in couldn’t refrain from helping the Allies Sent 50 old destroyers to Britain (Churchill) for 99 year lease on naval & air bases in the Atlantic U.S. passed a Cash-and-Carry law--allowed U.S. to sell arms to the Allies Nations must pay cash & carry goods away themselves FDR elected to unprecedented 3rd term in 1940 U.S. passed Lend-Lease Act in 1941 Allowed the President to sell, exchange, lend, or lease war materials to any country whose security he considered vital to the defense of the U.S.----Used w/ Britain & later Russia

12 Atlantic Charter (1941) U.S. & Britain agreed to seek no territorial gain Agreed to: “the right of all peoples to choose the form of govt. under which they will live” U.S. placed an embargo on Japan Japan continued to be aggressive in Asia Sank some American ships in 1937 (Panay) U.S. stop shipment of metal, oil, fuel to Japan Japan signed agreement w/ Germany & Italy (1941) Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Japan demanded U.S. drop the embargo U.S. only end it if Japan withdrew from China Negotiations continued in Nov w/o agreement

13 Pearl Harbor Sunday, December 7, 1941, at 7:55 a.m. Japan attacked the U.S. fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor, HI U.S. expected the attack in the Philippines U.S. lost over 19 ships, including all 8 battleships, & 150+ aircraft 2,400+ Americans died FDR said it was “a date which will live in infamy” U.S. declared war on Japan the next day Germany & Italy declared war on U.S. within 3 days--- We promptly returned the gesture


15 The Allies Versus the Axis
Allied Powers: U.S., Britain, USSR (50 total) Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan (9 total) WWII was really two separate theaters: Pacific War: U.S. Britain, Australia, New Zealand v. Japan European & African War: had 3 fronts: Eastern, Southern, Western Eastern Front: USSR v. Germany Southern Front: U.S., Britain, Australia v. Germany & Italy Western Front (D-Day): U.S., Britain, France v. Germany & Italy Axis Powers were ahead “Dark days” for the Allies

16 **The Tide of the War Turns in the Pacific & Europe**
Planning Strategy Next Allied strategy was debated Decided to make defeating Hitler top priority Operation Torch: invasion of N. Africa to attack the Germans & Italians from behind Followed by attacks in the Mediterranean Sea (Italy) Carried out in late 1942 & early 1943 Successful strategy & a major victory for the Allies Gave Allies control of the Mediterranean Made shipping supplies to Europe possible Made an invasion of southern Europe possible **The Tide of the War Turns in the Pacific & Europe**

17 Holding Action in the Pacific
Japanese successfully captured many islands following the Pearl Harbor attack Two significant battles (fought in the air) Battle of the Coral Sea, 1942 Prevented Japan from seizing Australia Battle of Midway, 1942 Turning point in the Pacific Gave Japan a decisive defeat by sinking 4 of their aircraft carriers The Invasion of Italy – The Southern Front Italy was considered the weak point of the Axis Powers 1943, the Allies invaded Sicily & Italy Italians overthrew Mussolini & Italy surrendered Hitler sent German troops to resist Allies & rescue Mussolini---unsuccessful Allies pushed on until they liberated Rome (1944)

18 The Eastern Front Stalin had asked for 3 things for 3 years
Massive supplies Territorial concessions in Eastern Europe Second front in Western Europe Soviets resisted the Germans in the east 1943, the Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point Red Army went on the offensive 1943, Axis advances had been stopped in Europe & the Pacific Allies launched land, air, and sea offensives on all fronts

19 ***Ended the Great Depression***
The War at Home “Remember Pearl Harbor”: rallying cry “V for Victory”: a familiar symbol 6 million men & women volunteered 10 million men were drafted Melting pot of men Discrimination still occurred in the army (1 million blacks) The Economy recovers U.S. economy fully recovered during WWII Unemployment dropped sharply ***Ended the Great Depression***

20 Organizing for War Production
Federal agencies created to coordinate everything (WWI) Office of War Mobilization (OWM): oversaw all areas of production War Production Board: Americans made the shift from peacetime to wartime production Helped Americans exceed tough production demands Office of Price Administration (OPA): controlled inflation by creating item price ceilings---included rents, gasoline, tires, coffee, canned food, meat, etc. War Manpower Commission (WMC): decided which industries needed workers most National War Labor Board: helped to settle labor disputes to prevent production from being interrupted---encouraged workers to join unions

21 American Foreign Policy Assignment
Complete the following: Explain 5 specific ways that the U.S. mobilized for war. Discuss 3 things that Stalin wanted from the Allies. Explain the role of the Soviets in the Eastern Front. Explain key events related to the invasion of Italy. Identify the Allied and Axis Powers. Describe Operation Torch. Explain its significance. Discuss 2 significant battles in the Pacific. Who wins? Why is this important?

22 Changes on the Home Front
War demanded sacrifices from Americans People planted victory gardens to stretch the food supply Americans used ration coupons Scrap-rubber and scrap-iron collections People stood in long lines to buy scarce items Businesses encouraged support “Use it up, wear it out, make it do, or do without”

23 Women met the demand for workers
By end of war, 1 out of 3 workers was a woman “Rosie the Riveter” became a national symbol Women gained confidence they could have both a family & a job or career African Americans gained more acceptance FDR banned discrimination in all govt. agencies, in job training programs, & in all companies doing business w/ the federal govt. Fair Employment Practices Committee: created to ensure equal treatment for minorities in war industries

24 Rosie the Riveter

25 D-Day in France – The Western Front
Allies planned a cross-channel invasion across the English Channel for 2 yrs. Directed by Supreme Allied Commander of Europe, General Dwight D. Eisenhower Called Operation Overlord Success depended on 3 things Adequate landing vessels, troops, & supplies Secrecy of the mission Clear weather

26 D- Day Continued……………. June 6, 1944, the most famous & largest amphibious landing in history began 176,000 troops were ferried across the channel Landed on the beaches of Normandy U.S. landed on beaches of Utah & Omaha Germany fiercely resisted the invasion Allies finally liberated Paris in Aug. 1944 Allies began pushing the Germans back toward Berlin and liberating the rest of Western Europe

27 Pearl Harbor created anger against Japanese
Japanese Americans Pearl Harbor created anger against Japanese Japanese-Americans were held responsible for the attack Became easy targets for discrimination Seen as a menace Defense officials warned of possible sabotage FDR gave the War Dept. authority to remove thousands 110,000 were taken from homes & jobs along the west coast

28 Japanese Americans continued……….
They were relocated to 10 internment camps out west Still loyal to U.S. Some served in the military 2/3 were American-born citizens U.S. govt. apologized in 1988; gave $20,000 to each surviving internee

29 On the Attack in the Pacific
U.S. had expected the initial Japanese attack in the Philippines Japan had seized the Philippines shortly after the Pearl Harbor invasion Gen. Douglas MacArthur stationed there & vowed he would return to recapture the island U.S. leaders decided to use a leapfrog or island hopping campaign against Japan 1944, the U.S. sank much of the Japanese fleet in a battle off the coast of the Philippines MacArthur returned to the Philippines fulfilling his promise Late 1944, U.S. beginning to bomb Japan

30 Ending the War in Europe
1944, the Germans launched a last counter-offensive in the Ardennes Forest Resulted in the Battle of the Bulge Temporarily slowed the Allied advance In the east, the Soviets had finally pushed into Germany American & Russian troops met at the Elbe River, 100 miles west of Berlin On April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide Third Reich was defeated & surrendered one week later Next day, May 8, 1945, was declared VE-Day, Victory in Europe Day

31 Election of 1944 FDR ran & won an unprecedented 4th term: did not want to run but thought it would be a mistake to change leadership during the war Democratic party chose a new V.P. (Harry S Truman) FDR was easily re-elected President Truman Takes Office FDR died in April 1945 Truman knew very little about the war strategy Immediate task was finishing the war w/ Japan 1945 America captured Iwo Jima & Okinawa Strikes on Japan were next During battles-- Japanese pilots had begun using kamikaze tactics Bitter struggle to end war w/ Japan

32 A New Weapon July 16, 1945, the first successful atomic bomb was tested in--- Alamogordo, NM Mission to build--- called the Manhattan Project $2 billion & employed over 100,000 people Involved many scientists who had fled from Nazis Bomb parts were made in 3 locations (TN, NM, WA) When 2 bombs were ready, Japan warned to surrender or face complete destruction—ignored Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 Another dropped on Nagasaki- August 9, 1945 2 more bombs were scheduled for Aug. 13 & 16 if Japan did not surrender Japan surrender on August 14, 1945 (V-J Day) World War II was completely over!

33 The Holocaust Full horror of the concentration camps was realized after the war was over Allied troops liberated the people in the camps Worst camps were Auschwitz & Treblinka in Poland and Buchenwald & Dachau in Germany 6 million Jews, 1/3 of Europe’s Jews were killed This systematic killing of the Jewish people is called the HOLOCAUST Another 6 million people also died in the camps (Catholics, labor leaders, gypsies, political opponents, mentally & physically handicapped, Slavic people)

34 Aftermath of World War II
55 million civilians & soldiers died Changed the map of the world Empires of France, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Japan, & Britain were in ruins U.S. & the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers People in Africa & Asia sought freedom At home, minorities found new opportunities Our economy completely recovered Potential of science was revealed Could either advance or destroy civilization Atomic/nuclear age was born ***Cold War would soon begin***

35 Allied Diplomacy and Peace Talks
Wartime Summit Meetings Fall 1943, Allied leaders began planning for what would happen after the war Were confident they would win Big Three (Stalin, FDR, Churchill)

36 2 Major Summits Teheran Conference (1943)
Discussed strategy for defeating the Axis Committed to the cross-channel invasion Stalin promised to enter the Pacific war once Germany surrendered Discussed an international organization to replace the failed League of Nations Discussed what to do w/ Germany when it surrendered

37 Yalta Conference (1945) Mostly discussed Germany Agreed it would be divided into 4 occupation zones Discussed plans for the United Nations Committed to allowing free elections in countries the Axis had controlled during the war


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