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Thank you for using this pre-visit resource. We believe this will help strengthen student learning leading up to and during your gallery visit. Due to the different versions of PowerPoint schools may use, please check for, and correct any formatting issues before you use this presentation with your students. Please check by viewing in slide show format before making any necessary changes. If you have any questions please dont hesitate to contact me. Welcome Learning Experiences Outside the Classrom Te Tuhi Centre for the Arts Phone: (09) 577 0138 ext 7703 email@example.com Jeremy Leatinuu Education Coordinator
Stories from the Pacific Te Tuhi Pre visit lesson 1
Welcome to Stories from the Pacific Over the next few lessons we will learn about… Polynesian tapa Inspired by tapa Designing our story Image: http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explore.jsf?p=R09SRE9OIEdBSEFOhttp://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explore.jsf?p=R09SRE9OIEdBSEFO
Lets start this lesson by exploring Polynesian tapa. Image: http://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explore.jsfhttp://www.nationalgeographicstock.com/ngsimages/explore/explore.jsf
Firstly, what is Polynesian Tapa? Polynesian Tapa is an art form, developed and refined over the last few hundred years and unique to many cultures in the Pacific. 2. The bark is stripped from the tree and beaten to stretch the bark. 4. Once the tapa cloth is dry it is placed over a rubbing tablet covered with dye. The tapa is rubbed over the tablet so the dye and pattern show through. 1. Originally a native of East Asia, the paper mulberry tree is most commonly used to make Polynesian tapa. 3. Other pieces are joined together and beaten, creating a large cloth. Some tapa cloth can be as long as 100 metres! Making Tapa Image: Neich, Roger and Pendergrast, Mick. Pacific Tapa. Auckland NZ: David Bateman Ltd, 1997. http://tropicalbrowns.blogspot.co.nz/2008/10/tonga-part-ii.html http://www.siapo.com/rubbingmethod.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapa_cloth#Fabrication 5. Once the dye is dry the pattern is highlighted and decorated in brown and black dye. Many symbols or pattern used in tapa reflect things of the land and sea such as plants, trees, birds, turtles and insects.
How many different Pacific cultures make tapa? Image: http://www.japanfocus.org/-Terence-Wesley_Smith/2347http://www.japanfocus.org/-Terence-Wesley_Smith/2347 Polynesian tapa is made in… Samoa Tonga Uvea (Wallis Island) and Futuna Niue Cook Islands Tahiti Hawaii Fiji Vanuatu Santa Cruz Islands Solomon Islands Papua New Guinea
Do all Polynesian Tapa look the same? Each tapa is different in its own way. Sometimes the difference is in how the cloth is made, what colours are used, what patterns and signs are drawn and how the images are arranged on the bark cloth. Lets take a closer look at some of the tapa made around the Pacific. Grids and symbols Samoan tapa: Siapo Fijian tapa: Masi Grids or squares are seen often in tapa design, such as siapo and masi. Square or rectangular templates with symbols and pattern are made and rubbed onto the cloth with dye. This is repeated throughout the tapa creating the appearance of a grid. For others the grid is simply painted on creating individual spaces for simple symbols and motif. What might the symbols in this Siapo and Masi reflect? Tongan tapa: Ngatu Uvea tapa: Ngatu Ngatu as it is known in Tonga and Uvea (Wallis Island) also use the grid in their tapa design. Symbols and patterns can become very distinctive and can tell us where the tapa was made. In the siapo and masi examples earlier we saw plants, flowers and leaves as symbols. Ngatu from Tonga have distinctive symbols and are perhaps the only culture to include a shield (of Tonga), a lion and dove. All three symbols reflect events in Tongas history. Image: Neich, Roger and Pendergrast, Mick. Pacific Tapa. Auckland NZ: David Bateman Ltd, 1997.
Nature and pattern Tapa made from Eromanga, Vanuatu: Nemasitse As we have seen in siapo and masi, nature inspires many tapa design. Different types of leaves inspire the decoration of tapa. They can be repeated throughout, creating a pattern like arrangement as seen in this nemasitse. Tahitian tapa scarf Ahufara. Designs on Tahitian tapa also reflect nature but not through drawing symbols. Leaves and fern fronds are dipped in dye and pressed against the cloth leaving an accurate portrait of the leaf. Colour and line Each Pacific culture chooses specific colours and certain drawing tools to decorate their tapa. Tapa made from Papua New Guinea use red from vegetable dyes and black and brown from charocal and certain muds. Tapa, Oro Province, Papua New Guinea Kapa from Hawaii also use a range of different colours including yellow, red, brown and black. To decorate kapa a range of tools are used, from multi-pronged pens that look like forks to patterned bamboo printing stamps. Hawaiian Tapa: Kapa Image: Neich, Roger and Pendergrast, Mick. Pacific Tapa. Auckland NZ: David Bateman Ltd, 1997. http://muse.aucklandmuseum.com/databases/general/SearchResults.aspx?dataset=Tapa&c_image_hasdata=checked&c_image_forcelogic=and&c_countryplaceoforigin_search=hawaii&Page=2
Circular Arranging symbols using a grid has become a common practice when designing tapa, including hiapo. However in hiapo design a curricular arrangement is also used. Nuiean Tapa: Hiapo Image: Neich, Roger and Pendergrast, Mick. Pacific Tapa. Auckland NZ: David Bateman Ltd, 1997. http://internetniue.nu/vibrant-niue/hiapo-gallery/ Such curricular arrangements are mostly drawn with no rubbing tablet being used.
Tapa was made to serve many different things across the Pacific islands. Cook Islands: Mask and costume 1899 Was tapa only made to be an art work? In Rarotonga tapa was made into masks and costumes and worn during celebration and dance. In Tahiti tapa was made into ponchos to cover the top half of the body. In Samoa like many other Pacific cultures, tapa was made into a lavalava or wrap-around skirt. Male dancers dressed in tapa costumes and masks 1903 Teffaaora, chief of Borabora wearing a tiputa or poncho 1820 Orator chiefs left and right wear siapo vala as lavalava or wrap-around skirts 1930` Tapa is used for special occasions such as honouring a guest or during ceremonies such as birthdays, weddings and funerals. Tapa is used as bed coverings or to create a private room. Tapa can be used to decorate the walls, floors and ceiling. It can even decorate things like drums! Tapa continues to be made today and continues to be an important part of Pacific culture, heritage and tradition. Image: Neich, Roger and Pendergrast, Mick. Pacific Tapa. Auckland NZ: David Bateman Ltd, 1997. http://anoteoffriendship.blogspot.co.nz/2010/06/tongan-tapa-cloth.html A display of fine Tongan baskets containing bottles of scented coconut oil, several headrests, woven items and two large bundles of tapa cloth. Assembled for a wedding exchange 1920
Lets recap on what we have learnt so far… As we have seen, Polynesian tapa is made and used by many cultures of the Pacific…
Polynesian tapa… is made from the bark of the paper mulberry tree. The bark is beaten until soft, left to dry, then later decorated using a rubbing tablet and dye. design differs between Pacific cultures. They are sometimes different in how the tapa is made, what symbols or colours are used and how they are arranged on the tapa cloth. is an important part of Pacific culture, tradition and heritage. It is used as clothing, costume, masks, bed coverings to decorate walls, floors and ceilings, to help celebrate birthdays and weddings and to honour guests. What have we learnt so far?
Art Activity: Rubbing tablet Tapa artists used dye and a rubbing tablet to help create their symbols and pattern. Explore the technique of rubbing by collecting small or large leaves from outside. Pick different shaped leaves to make it interesting. Place the leaves under a piece of paper and with your pencil lightly shade over the top. The leaf should shine through the paper just like the symbols on a rubbing tablet. Try arranging your leaves in grids, circles or spread them out like nemasitse. Use a range of drawing tools like pen, chalk, colouring pencil or crayon on different textured pieces of paper. Image: http://www.creativeplayhouse.mumsinjersey.co.uk/2011/11/we-loved-rainbow-collage-much-that-i.html http://www.flickr.com/photos/bobevansimages/6936669581/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://cindylane.com.au/wp-content/uploads/Leaf-rubbings.jpg http://mayamade.blogspot.co.nz/2011/11/oak-stamps.html http://www.spottedcanary.com/Expert_Studio/Welcoming_the_Splendor_of_Fall.htm
In the next lesson we will explore Inspired by tapa. End of lesson