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Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Structured Cabling Project Chapter 9 Paul Flynn Paul Flynn.

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Presentation on theme: "Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Structured Cabling Project Chapter 9 Paul Flynn Paul Flynn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Structured Cabling Project Chapter 9 Paul Flynn Paul Flynn

2 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Safety is primary concern Never work on a device with the case open and the power plugged in. Never work on a device with the case open and the power plugged in. Test electrical sockets with a multimeter Test electrical sockets with a multimeter Locate all electrical conduits and power wires before installing any cables Locate all electrical conduits and power wires before installing any cables Properly ground all networking equipment. Never cut or nick a live 120V AC line. Properly ground all networking equipment. Never cut or nick a live 120V AC line. Wear safety glasses whenever you are drilling or cutting Wear safety glasses whenever you are drilling or cutting Measure carefully before you cut, drill into, or permanently alter construction materials. Measure carefully before you cut, drill into, or permanently alter construction materials. Investigate what you will be drilling or cutting into, before you begin Investigate what you will be drilling or cutting into, before you begin Cleanliness ex. minimize the amount of dust Cleanliness ex. minimize the amount of dust Follow proper ladder placement and safety procedures whenever you must use a ladder Follow proper ladder placement and safety procedures whenever you must use a ladder

3 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Network Documentation Some of the documents you should create while planning/designing your network: Some of the documents you should create while planning/designing your network: engineering journal: engineering journal: logical topology logical topology physical topology physical topology cut sheets: a rough sketch of cabling runs cut sheets: a rough sketch of cabling runs problem-solving matrices problem-solving matrices labeled outlets labeled outlets labeled cable runs labeled cable runs summary of outlets and cable runs summary of outlets and cable runs summary of devices, MAC addresses, and IP addresses summary of devices, MAC addresses, and IP addresses

4 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Project Planning Structured cabling project is ideal for group work so assign different group members different jobs Structured cabling project is ideal for group work so assign different group members different jobs Ex: Cable runner, project manager, Jack and Patch Panel Terminator Ex: Cable runner, project manager, Jack and Patch Panel Terminator Create a flowchart to insure project is done thoroughly, accurately and on time Create a flowchart to insure project is done thoroughly, accurately and on time installing outlets, jacks installing outlets, jacks running cables and testing them running cables and testing them punching cables into patch panels punching cables into patch panels documenting cables documenting cables installing PCs, NICs, hubs, switches, routers installing PCs, NICs, hubs, switches, routers configuring PCs, switches, routers configuring PCs, switches, routers

5 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing TIA/EIA-568-A standards 3m 6m 90m

6 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing RJ-45 Jack One side of the RJ-45 jack contains eight color- coded slots. The individual Cat5 wires are punched down into the slots according to color using a punch down tool. The other side of the jack is a female plug, which looks like a standard phone jack One side of the RJ-45 jack contains eight color- coded slots. The individual Cat5 wires are punched down into the slots according to color using a punch down tool. The other side of the jack is a female plug, which looks like a standard phone jack There are 2 methods for mounting RJ-45 jacks There are 2 methods for mounting RJ-45 jacks Surface mounting: mount the jacks on the surface of the wall Surface mounting: mount the jacks on the surface of the wall Flush mounting: cut through the wall Flush mounting: cut through the wall

7 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Surface-mounting an RJ-45 jack Two types of boxes that you can use to surface mount RJ-45 jacks to a wall Two types of boxes that you can use to surface mount RJ-45 jacks to a wall Screw-mounted box Screw-mounted box Adhesive-backed box Adhesive-backed box Adhesive-backed are faster to install; however once affixed, you cant move them Adhesive-backed are faster to install; however once affixed, you cant move them Most network installers prefer to use surface- mounted RJ-45 jacks because they are easier and faster to install. You don t need to cut into the wall Most network installers prefer to use surface- mounted RJ-45 jacks because they are easier and faster to install. You don t need to cut into the wall Details on how to surface-mount an RJ-45 jack are found in Chapter Details on how to surface-mount an RJ-45 jack are found in Chapter 9.2.4

8 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Flush Mounting an RJ-45 jack You must take several factors into consideration before you decide to flush mount an RJ-45 jack into a wall. You must take several factors into consideration before you decide to flush mount an RJ-45 jack into a wall. Is the wall made of plaster or drywall? Is the wall made of plaster or drywall? Plaster is harder to work with because it crumbles easily Plaster is harder to work with because it crumbles easily Are there any wide wood baseboards on the wall? if so you may want to install the jack there. But make sure you don t cut the opening into the bottom 5 cm of the baseboard, because the walls bottom plate will block you from pushing it in Are there any wide wood baseboards on the wall? if so you may want to install the jack there. But make sure you don t cut the opening into the bottom 5 cm of the baseboard, because the walls bottom plate will block you from pushing it in Details on flush-mounting RJ-45 jacks are found in Chapter 9.2 Details on flush-mounting RJ-45 jacks are found in Chapter 9.2

9 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Procedure for placing the copper wires in a jack Steps you must use to place the cable wires into the jack: Steps you must use to place the cable wires into the jack: Strip the jacket about 2.5 cm Strip the jacket about 2.5 cm Place the wires in front of the jack and keep them there while you work Place the wires in front of the jack and keep them there while you work Separate each pair of twisted wires Separate each pair of twisted wires Place each wire on the corresponding color-coded slot of the jack Place each wire on the corresponding color-coded slot of the jack Punch the wires down into the slots using a punch down tool Punch the wires down into the slots using a punch down tool

10 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Procedure for punching copper wires in a jack A punch tool is a device that uses spring- loaded action to push wires between the pins on the jack while at the same time, skinning the sheath away from the wire. A punch tool is a device that uses spring- loaded action to push wires between the pins on the jack while at the same time, skinning the sheath away from the wire.

11 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Basics for Installing Strip back only as much of the cable's jacket as is required to terminate the wires Strip back only as much of the cable's jacket as is required to terminate the wires Make sure that you maintain the twists in each pair of wires, as much as possible. It is the twisting of the wires that produces the cancellation that is needed to prevent EMI and RFI. CAT 5 UTP, the maximum amount of untwisted wire that is allowed is 13 mm Make sure that you maintain the twists in each pair of wires, as much as possible. It is the twisting of the wires that produces the cancellation that is needed to prevent EMI and RFI. CAT 5 UTP, the maximum amount of untwisted wire that is allowed is 13 mm Never bend cable to the extent that it exceeds a 90 º angle Never bend cable to the extent that it exceeds a 90 º angle Avoid stretching cable when you are handling it, wires inside will untwist Avoid stretching cable when you are handling it, wires inside will untwist If multiple cables must run over the same path, use cable ties to cinch them together. If multiple cables must run over the same path, use cable ties to cinch them together. Never allow cables to be nicked or kinked Never allow cables to be nicked or kinked Leave enough slack for the cable to reach the floor, and extend another cm at both ends. Leave enough slack for the cable to reach the floor, and extend another cm at both ends. Use cable ties, cable support bars, wire management panels, and releasable Velcro straps to secure cables. Never use a staple gun Use cable ties, cable support bars, wire management panels, and releasable Velcro straps to secure cables. Never use a staple gun

12 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Dos and Donts for UTP DosDonts Use Cable Ties Dont untwist wires more than 13mm Leave Slack Minimize the bent radius to 90º Leave Service coils in the ceiling No Kinks Use support bars Dont stretch the cable Use Velcro Minimize twisting the cable jackets Use Cable Management Panels No staple guns

13 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Documenting cable runs A cut sheet is a rough diagram that: A cut sheet is a rough diagram that: Shows the locations of the cable runs Shows the locations of the cable runs Indicates the numbers of the classrooms, offices, or other rooms, to which the cables have been run. Indicates the numbers of the classrooms, offices, or other rooms, to which the cables have been run. Ex. Rm# 519, 201 Ex. Rm# 519, 201 Can be referred to when its time to place corresponding numbers on all telecom outlets and patch panels in the wiring closet Can be referred to when its time to place corresponding numbers on all telecom outlets and patch panels in the wiring closet

14 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Specifications for labeling cable According to the TIA/EIA 606 standards, each hardware termination unit must have some kind of unique identifier. This identifier must be marked on each termination hardware unit. Termination hardware units include: According to the TIA/EIA 606 standards, each hardware termination unit must have some kind of unique identifier. This identifier must be marked on each termination hardware unit. Termination hardware units include: Patch panels Patch panels Jacks Jacks Computer Computer Also important to label the cable at each end Also important to label the cable at each end

15 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Specifications for labeling cable For example, if you have 4 cables going to room number 201: For example, if you have 4 cables going to room number 201: Label each cable as 201A, 201B, 201C, 201D Label each cable as 201A, 201B, 201C, 201D Label each faceplate going to the particular workstation with the same number i.e. 201A Label each faceplate going to the particular workstation with the same number i.e. 201A Also label each cable connection at the patch panel in the wiring closet in ascending order Also label each cable connection at the patch panel in the wiring closet in ascending order

16 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Preparing cable for routing and labeling If you need to route 4 cables to each room, route all four cables at the same time If you need to route 4 cables to each room, route all four cables at the same time Use 4 spools of cable Use 4 spools of cable Assign a letter to each spool Assign a letter to each spool Ex. A for the cable going to room A Ex. A for the cable going to room A Place the spools at the central point or wiring closet. Place the spools at the central point or wiring closet. Unwind a segment of the cable and label it 3 times, each label being 60 cm apart Unwind a segment of the cable and label it 3 times, each label being 60 cm apart Ex. 201A, 201B Ex. 201A, 201B Use electrical tape to keep all 4 cables together while routing them Use electrical tape to keep all 4 cables together while routing them Tie a string around the ends to help pull the cables Tie a string around the ends to help pull the cables

17 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Easiest procedure for routing cable The easiest way to route cable is to mount it on a wall The easiest way to route cable is to mount it on a wall Tie the cables with a tie-wrap then mount the tie-wrap to the wall. Tie the cables with a tie-wrap then mount the tie-wrap to the wall. You can use screws to put the tie-wrap on the wall You can use screws to put the tie-wrap on the wall Or adhesive tie-wraps if you re sure that the cables will not need to be moved Or adhesive tie-wraps if you re sure that the cables will not need to be moved Never use staples to attach cable to walls Never use staples to attach cable to walls

18 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Mounting cable in raceway Raceway is a wall-mounted channel that has a removable cover Raceway is a wall-mounted channel that has a removable cover decorative raceway decorative raceway presents a more finished appearance presents a more finished appearance Placed in areas where the raceway may be seen Placed in areas where the raceway may be seen gutter raceway gutter raceway less attractive alternative to decorative raceway less attractive alternative to decorative raceway primary advantage is that it is big enough to hold several cables primary advantage is that it is big enough to hold several cables restricted to spaces such as attics and spaces created by dropped ceilings. restricted to spaces such as attics and spaces created by dropped ceilings. Can be mounted with adhesive backing or with screws Can be mounted with adhesive backing or with screws After mounting the raceway, lay the cable inside it, and attach the top. After mounting the raceway, lay the cable inside it, and attach the top. This will help to protect the cable This will help to protect the cable

19 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Running cable through existing raceway Two concerns with routing cable in existing raceway: Two concerns with routing cable in existing raceway: First, is there room? The new bundle of cable you want to route in the raceway may exceed the capacity of the raceway. First, is there room? The new bundle of cable you want to route in the raceway may exceed the capacity of the raceway. Second, it is preferable not to route cable in a raceway with power wiring. This can potentially cause noise problems. Second, it is preferable not to route cable in a raceway with power wiring. This can potentially cause noise problems.

20 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Personal safety precautions before installing cable When working in walls, ceilings or attics, turn off all power that might pass through that area When working in walls, ceilings or attics, turn off all power that might pass through that area Before you begin work, learn the locations of all fire extinguishers Before you begin work, learn the locations of all fire extinguishers Avoid wearing excessively baggy clothes Avoid wearing excessively baggy clothes If you anticipate working in a dropped ceiling space, survey the area If you anticipate working in a dropped ceiling space, survey the area If you need to cut or saw, wear safety glasses If you need to cut or saw, wear safety glasses Consult the buildings maintenance engineer to find out if there is asbestos or lead where youll be working Consult the buildings maintenance engineer to find out if there is asbestos or lead where youll be working Keep your work area orderly and neat Keep your work area orderly and neat

21 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Building safety Always find out in advance what the local building codes are. Always find out in advance what the local building codes are. Some building codes may prohibit drilling or cutting holes in certain areas such as fire walls or ceilings Some building codes may prohibit drilling or cutting holes in certain areas such as fire walls or ceilings If you must route cable through spaces where air is circulated, you will need to use a fire-rated cable. If you must route cable through spaces where air is circulated, you will need to use a fire-rated cable.

22 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Supporting horizontal cabling When running cable in a dropped ceiling space, never lay the cable on top of the ceiling. Use: When running cable in a dropped ceiling space, never lay the cable on top of the ceiling. Use: Wall-mounted gutter Wall-mounted gutter Use tie-wraps Use tie-wraps Ladder racks Ladder racks

23 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Stringing cable in an attic, or room with a dropped ceiling A telepole is a telescoping pole with a hook at one end to hold the cable. It is used to string cable across a dropped ceiling or attic quickly. A telepole is a telescoping pole with a hook at one end to hold the cable. It is used to string cable across a dropped ceiling or attic quickly. Used in areas where it s cramped, dark, dusty, and there s poor air circulation Used in areas where it s cramped, dark, dusty, and there s poor air circulation

24 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Fishing cable from above a wall When you fish cable through a wall you ordinarily work from an attic or a dropped ceiling space. When you fish cable through a wall you ordinarily work from an attic or a dropped ceiling space. Locate the top plate of the wall, and drill a 19 mm hole through it. Locate the top plate of the wall, and drill a 19 mm hole through it. feed fish tape through the hole you drilled, down into the wall feed fish tape through the hole you drilled, down into the wall Your helper below you should grab the tape when he sees it Your helper below you should grab the tape when he sees it Then he should tape the UTP cable to the hook of the fish tape Then he should tape the UTP cable to the hook of the fish tape Then you can pull the cable up through the wall Then you can pull the cable up through the wall

25 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Fishing cable from below a wall You can fish horizontal cable from a basement to the work areas on the first floor You can fish horizontal cable from a basement to the work areas on the first floor Drill a 3.2 mm hole, at an angle, through the first floor Drill a 3.2 mm hole, at an angle, through the first floor Push a coat hanger into the hole to indicate the spot when you are in the basement. Push a coat hanger into the hole to indicate the spot when you are in the basement. Go to the basement and locate the wire. Go to the basement and locate the wire. Mark the spot Mark the spot Drill a new hole in this spot Drill a new hole in this spot Push the cable up through this second hole, to the wall opening where the work area outlet is located Push the cable up through this second hole, to the wall opening where the work area outlet is located

26 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Wiring Closet A wiring closet can either be a specially designed room or cabinet. Equipment in a wiring closet include: A wiring closet can either be a specially designed room or cabinet. Equipment in a wiring closet include: Patch Panels Patch Panels Wiring Hubs Wiring Hubs Bridges Bridges Switches Switches Routers Routers When you have more than one wiring closet in a network, one closet is designated as the MDF and all the others are IDFs When you have more than one wiring closet in a network, one closet is designated as the MDF and all the others are IDFs

27 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Patch Panels A patch panel is an interconnecting device that acts as a switchboard, where horizontal cables coming from workstations, can connect to other networking devices to form a LAN A patch panel is an interconnecting device that acts as a switchboard, where horizontal cables coming from workstations, can connect to other networking devices to form a LAN The front of a patch panel resemble the ports on faceplates of telecomm outlets in the work area. The front of a patch panel resemble the ports on faceplates of telecomm outlets in the work area. The back of a patch panel rows of pins, much like those in an RJ-45 jack The back of a patch panel rows of pins, much like those in an RJ-45 jack

28 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Laying wires in a patch panel Lay down cable wires in ascending order, by cable number. Lay down cable wires in ascending order, by cable number. Keep the ends of the cable centered above the pin locations Keep the ends of the cable centered above the pin locations Keep the jacket within 6.4 mm of the pin locations in order to avoid exposing too much wire. Keep the jacket within 6.4 mm of the pin locations in order to avoid exposing too much wire. Don t untwist the wire pairs any more than necessary Don t untwist the wire pairs any more than necessary

29 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Punch Tools A punch tool has spring-loaded actions. This allows it to perform 3 functions: A punch tool has spring-loaded actions. This allows it to perform 3 functions: Pushes the wire between two metal pins Pushes the wire between two metal pins Skins the sheath from the wire (so that it can make an electrical connection with the pins) Skins the sheath from the wire (so that it can make an electrical connection with the pins) The punch tool's blade also cuts off any extra wire. The punch tool's blade also cuts off any extra wire.

30 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Mounting a patch panel You can mount patch panels: You can mount patch panels: On walls On walls On distribution racks On distribution racks In a cabinet In a cabinet A distribution rack is a simple skeletal frame that holds equipment such as patch panels, repeaters, hubs, and routers. A distribution rack is a simple skeletal frame that holds equipment such as patch panels, repeaters, hubs, and routers. Advantage is that it allows easy access to the front and the back of equipment Advantage is that it allows easy access to the front and the back of equipment Height 1-1.9m Height 1-1.9m Width 0.5m Width 0.5m

31 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Network Operation Testing The baseline is the set of data about your network: The baseline is the set of data about your network: Taken when network is operating at an acceptable level Taken when network is operating at an acceptable level Used to compare current measurements with the recorded measurements that were taken when the system was known to be operating properly Used to compare current measurements with the recorded measurements that were taken when the system was known to be operating properly

32 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Cable testing equipment A cable tester is a hand held device that can certify that cable meets the required IEEE and TIA/EIA standards A cable tester is a hand held device that can certify that cable meets the required IEEE and TIA/EIA standards Some can provide printouts, others can be attached to a PC to create a data file. Some can provide printouts, others can be attached to a PC to create a data file.

33 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Tests performed by cable testers determine cable distance determine cable distance locate bad connections locate bad connections provide wire maps for detecting crossed pairs provide wire maps for detecting crossed pairs measure signal attenuation measure signal attenuation measure near-end crosstalk measure near-end crosstalk detect split pairs detect split pairs perform noise level tests perform noise level tests trace cable behind walls trace cable behind walls

34 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Cable testers and distance measurements Time domain reflectometers (TDRs), measure the distance to open-ended, or shorted, cable Time domain reflectometers (TDRs), measure the distance to open-ended, or shorted, cable They do it by sending an electrical pulse through the cable They do it by sending an electrical pulse through the cable Device then times the signal's reflection from the end of the cable. Device then times the signal's reflection from the end of the cable. Accurate to within 60 cm Accurate to within 60 cm

35 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Time Domain Reflectometers In order for it to determine which connections in a cable run are faulty, In order for it to determine which connections in a cable run are faulty, Attach the TDR to the patch cord at the patch panel Attach the TDR to the patch cord at the patch panel If it reports the distance to the patch panel, instead of a more distance point, then you know there is a connection problem at that level If it reports the distance to the patch panel, instead of a more distance point, then you know there is a connection problem at that level Then you can measure through the RJ-45 jack located at the telecomm outlet. Then you can measure through the RJ-45 jack located at the telecomm outlet. If it reports the distance to the patch panel, instead of a more distance point, then you know there is a connection problem at that level If it reports the distance to the patch panel, instead of a more distance point, then you know there is a connection problem at that level

36 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Wire Maps When wires are connected in reversed order, they are referred to as crossed pairs When wires are connected in reversed order, they are referred to as crossed pairs The connections are not good, and must be redone The connections are not good, and must be redone A wire map indicates which wire pairs connect to which pins and detects crossed-pairs A wire map indicates which wire pairs connect to which pins and detects crossed-pairs Causes crosstalk Causes crosstalk

37 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Crossed Pairs A crossed pair would be taking 1 and putting it in 2 on the other end. This is correct wiring

38 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Split pairs When wires split, they are no longer part of the same circuit When wires split, they are no longer part of the same circuit Therefore they provide no cancellation; no protection Therefore they provide no cancellation; no protection Resulting in crosstalk Resulting in crosstalk Detected by visual inspection and crosstalk measurements Detected by visual inspection and crosstalk measurements

39 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Split pairs Pairs are supposed to be 1-2 and 3-6

40 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Signal Attenuation A reduction in the power of a signal is called attenuation A reduction in the power of a signal is called attenuation A signal injector sends out a signal onto the cable which is attached on the other end to a cable tester A signal injector sends out a signal onto the cable which is attached on the other end to a cable tester

41 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of Computing Sources of noise florescent lights florescent lights heaters heaters radios radios televisions televisions computers computers motion sensors motion sensors radar radar motors motors electronic devices of all kinds electronic devices of all kinds

42 Institute of Technology Sligo - Dept of ComputingCrosstalk Summary Causes of crosstalk include: Causes of crosstalk include: Split pairs Split pairs Crossed pairs Crossed pairs Cable pulled too tightly Cable pulled too tightly Untwisted too much at the patch panel Untwisted too much at the patch panel Outside interference Outside interference


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