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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 25 © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 25 Product Design Anthropometrics and Ergonomics These icons indicate that teachers notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 25 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 25 Learning objectives To consider the anthropometrics of potential end users when designing a product. To ensure that products being designed are ergonomically suitable for a range of user groups. To become familiar with anthropometric terminology. To be able to place users in a percentile range. To be able to carry out some empirical anthropometric research.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 3 of 25 If a product is going to be successful and meet the needs of the user group, product designers must use specific information about the user group, such as their dimensions and physical characteristics. The dimensions of the human body are called anthropometrics. This word refers to the actual measurements of body parts, e.g. the length of an arm or the width of a foot. Anthropometrics are vital to product design because they are one of the key product criteria that designers use when developing solutions. Background on anthropometrics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 4 of 25 Anthropology The word anthropometrics takes its root from two other words: Metric Anthropology is the study of humankind. Metric describes the universal unit of measurement. When they are combined, they mean the study of human measurements. The study of anthropometrics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 5 of 25 The study of anthropometrics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 6 of 25 You must decide which group of people your product is aimed at. Anthropometric information is provided in tables and divided up into different ages, gender and nationalities. SO… you need to know who you are designing for! A design for an executive office desk for use in the USA would need to take into account the anthropometric data for working adults from America. A childrens keyboard must have keys sized for childrens fingers. Using anthropometric information
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 7 of 25 Work out which body measurements are important. It is vital to know which parts of the body your product needs to accommodate. If you are designing a chair, what anthropometric information will you need? Buttock width Popliteal height Buttock to popliteal length Using anthropometric information
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 8 of 25 Are you designing for smaller, average or larger people? No two people have exactly the same dimensions but we all fit into one of three categories – depending on your dimensions, you will fall into the 5th, 50th or 95th percentile range. Most people appear to be a similar height. These people fall into the 50th percentile range and are considered of average height. A small percentage of people are shorter than this majority – this group is known as the 5th percentile. Others are taller than most people and belong to the 95th percentile. 5% of the population are smaller than the average person and 5% are bigger than the average person. About 90% of the population are considered average. Using anthropometric information
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 9 of 25 Look at the people around you now. Lets carry out some empirical research. Arrange yourselves into gender groups (female and male). Within the gender groups, arrange yourselves into height order. How many people are average and how many are significantly taller or shorter? Could you plot individual heights on the graph and draw a line through them? Does it look like the graph on the previous slide? If not, are there any obvious reasons why? Tallest 1.85m Shortest 1.5m Frequency Average 1.68m Using anthropometric information
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 10 of 25 Its important to think about whether to use the 5 th, 50 th or 95 th percentile anthropometric data. Consider the following design scenarios and discuss why the particular range has been used. Designing a car dashboard 5 th percentile measurements are used so that smaller people can reach the instruments easily. Designing an aircraft seat 95 th percentile measurements are used so that larger people can sit in the seat. Anthropometric constraints
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 11 of 25 Anthropometric constraints
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 12 of 25 Anthropometrics of the hands
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 13 of 25 Anthropometrics of the head and neck
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 14 of 25 Anthropometrics of the lower body
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 15 of 25 Anthropometrics of the upper body
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 16 of 25 Anthropometrics for seating
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 17 of 25 What is ergonomics? The word ERGONOMICS comes from the Greek language: ERGOS = work NOMOS = natural law Ergonomics is the relationship between a product and its user. Ergonomics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 18 of 25 Ergonomists study products, systems and environments and how they fit with their users. As a product designer, you will need to consider how well a product meets the ergonomic needs of its user group in performing a task. If the relationship between these aspects in the circle is weak, the product is ergonomically unsuitable. How would a specification, a product analysis and anthropometric data be useful in this scenario? Ergonomics
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 19 of 25 Bottle case study
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 20 of 25 Designing a kitchen The work triangle. For a right-handed person, the sequence of activities must allow movement from left to right from the sink, to a work surface, to the cooker (in that order). Tall cupboards, doors, routes through the kitchen and passageways should not interfere with the work triangle. The work triangle must not measure more than 7000mm (7m) for medium- sized kitchens. Using the activity on the next slide, create a kitchen layout based around an ideal work triangle. Using ergonomics in the home When designing a kitchen, there are several principles which are essential to stick to:
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 21 of 25 Designing a kitchen
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 22 of 25 Car seats
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 23 of 25 The same chair is being used by a 50 th percentile person, a 5 th percentile person and a 95 th percentile person. How could the design of the chair be improved to suit all three people? Designing a chair
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 24 of 25 Plenary
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 25 of 25 Key points © Boardworks Ltd 2005 25 of 25 Key points Anthropometrics is the study of body measurements and statistical data concerning the sizes and shapes of the population. Ergonomics is the relationship between a product and its users. All people fall into the 5 th, 50 th and 95 th anthropometric percentile range. User group, posture, clearance, reach and strength are all important factors in anthropometrics and ergonomics.
© Boardworks Ltd of 4 © Boardworks Ltd of 4 Product Design Anthropometrics and Ergonomics This is a 4-slide excerpt from Boardworks KS4 D&T.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 24 Resistant Materials Social & Cultural Issues These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available.
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© Boardworks Ltd of 5 © Boardworks Ltd of 5 Product Design CAD/CAM These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are.
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