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Ten important discoveries from last decade 1http://pariworld.in By Upasana Gupta.

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Presentation on theme: "Ten important discoveries from last decade 1http://pariworld.in By Upasana Gupta."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ten important discoveries from last decade 1http://pariworld.in By Upasana Gupta

2 Butterfly Supergens 2 By Upasana Gupta

3 The butterfly species Heliconius numata has long proved a mystery. Its population carried seven different discrete wing-patterns. A team of British and French biologists discovered in 2011 the presence of what they called a supergene, a cluster of eighteen genes passed down in a single unit. Discovery: Butterfly supergenes demonstrate unknown method of inheritance 3 By Upasana Gupta

4 Humanzees 4 By Upasana Gupta

5 Its well known that chimpanzees are humankinds closest surviving relative. There are some that believe a human-chimp hybrid named Oliver survived until last year, though DNA testing has proven he was just a normal chimp that displayed human-like traits. David Reich explained, That such evolutionary events have not been seen more often in animal species may simply be due to the fact that we have not been looking for them. Discovery: Human and chimp interbreeding 5 By Upasana Gupta

6 Old Bat 6 By Upasana Gupta

7 Bats are the second largest order of mammals, accounting for a fifth of all mammalian species. A pair of fossils discovered in Wyoming in 2003, part of a new species dubbed Onychonycteris finneyi, has many odd features. Joining the dozens and dozens of other transitional fossils completely invisible to creationists, the fifty-two million year old specimen ends decades of speculation amongst scientists. Discovery: Decades-old bat mystery finally solved by intriguing fossil 7 By Upasana Gupta

8 Tiktaalik 8 By Upasana Gupta

9 One of the most profound transitions in the history of life was the move from water to land. Tetrapod is the name given to the first creatures to leave the water and the name means four limbs. The first tetrapods are the ancestors to all living reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. Scientists have long understood that tetrapods evolved from lobe-finned fish, themost famous example of which is probably coelacanth Tikaalik was the first fossil that is still a fish but displayed the beginnings of digits, wrists, elbows and shoulders. Discovery: Tiktaalik provides missing link between fish and land animals 9 By Upasana Gupta

10 Lice 10 By Upasana Gupta

11 Lice, which have been irritating human scalps for tens of thousands of years, offer a unique method to exploit this. Lice are specialists with claws adapted to their host, so when their particular meal of choice evolves into a new species, the lice follow suit. DNA testing of lice was done by a (probably really itchy) team of researchers at Londons Natural History Museum, offering implications for our knowledge of the evolution of birds and mammals Discovery: Lice offer a new window into the history of mammals 11 By Upasana Gupta

12 Giant Amoeba 12 By Upasana Gupta

13 One of the earliest fundamental traits to evolve in the animal kingdom is that of bilateralism. If you divide a human in two from top to bottom through the middle you will have, for the most part, the same things on both sides. The creation of these particular tracks by creatures moving in a straight line was thought only possible by creatures with two halves. Discovery: Giant amoeba casts doubt on when symmetrical life originated 13 By Upasana Gupta

14 Neanderthal Genome Project 14 By Upasana Gupta

15 Neanderthals are the species that was almost us. In 2010 a team from Germanys Max Planck institute published a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome less then a decade after the mapping of the human genome was completed. Discovery: The Neanderthal genome project suggests were related 15 By Upasana Gupta

16 Lucys Baby 16 By Upasana Gupta

17 The most famous early human ancestor is probably Lucy, the 3.2 million year old skeleton found in Lucy became synonymous with the birth of humanity. Being a child skeleton makes it extremely rare. It is also more complete than Lucy. The child, who was still at nursing age, will add greatly to our knowledge of human ancestry but its hard not to be touched by the descriptions of tiny fingers and a knee cap no bigger than a dried pea. Discovery: Lucys Baby steals Lucys thunder 17 By Upasana Gupta

18 Oldest Ancestor 18 By Upasana Gupta

19 The fossil that stole Lucys crown as the oldest known probably human ancestor in Ardi was a 110 lb (50 kg) small- brained female and she predates Lucy by more than a million years. Ardi was actually found in 1994 but it wasnt until 2009, after a decade and a half of painstaking analysis, that the implications became known. Ardi casts a definitive blow to the old idea. She shows an unexpected mix of traits both advanced and primitive, unlike chimps or gorillas. Discovery: Ardi is oldest human ancestor ever found 19 By Upasana Gupta

20 Junk DNA 20 By Upasana Gupta

21 W hen the human genome projects first draft was presented in 2000, ninety-seven percent of the 3.2 billion bases in the sequence were without apparent function. T he primary function of DNA is to provide the designs for proteins, information which is stored in genes, but these constitute just three percent of a DNA strand. s cientists have identified a portion of noncoding DNA that is fundamental to the development of heart cells, whilst other scientists have found mutations in noncoding DNA that appear to be a key cause of skin cancer. Discovery: Junk DNA isnt junk after all 21 By Upasana Gupta

22 22 By Upasana Gupta


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