Presentation on theme: "Standard Grade Computing Automated Systems. What is an Automated System When computers are used to control a system consisting of machinery and equipment."— Presentation transcript:
What is an Automated System When computers are used to control a system consisting of machinery and equipment.
Examples of Automated Systems washing machine central heating system video recorder microwave oven controlling machinery in a factory traffic light control aircraft guidance
Why use Automated Systems? faster than a humans do boring and repetitive jobs accurate - dont make mistakes efficient – dont need breaks can be used in dangerous situations flexible - can be programmed to do different tasks
Stationary Robots Stay in one place all the time e.g. used on factory assembly lines Control programs are stored on disc or tape Can be reprogrammed to do a different task
Anatomy of a Robot Arm Some robots have parts that resemble human limbs A jointed robot arm has a waist shoulder elbow wrist hand (specialised to suit the robots task) Waist Shoulder Elbow Wrist
Degrees of Freedom The number of degrees of freedom is the number of ways the arm can move. To work in three dimensions the arm must have at least three degrees of freedom. The human arm has eight degrees of freedom.
ROTATE BASE OF ARM PIVOT BASE OF ARMBEND ELBOW WRIST UP AND DOWNWRIST LEFT AND RIGHTROTATE WRIST
End Effectors The hand of the robot arm is specialised to the task the robot is programmed to do. The hand could be a gripper paint spray gun welding electrode suction cap paint stripper magnet
Mobile Robots Robots which move are called mobile robots. The robot Dante walks into volcanoes. In 1994, NASA, Carnegie Mellon University and the Alaskan Volcano Observatory used satellite and Internet connections to manoeuvre Dante into the active crater of Mt. Spur, an Alaskan volcano 90 miles west of Anchorage.
Nomad is a four wheeled robot that has been looking for asteroids in Antarctic. Nomad was built to explore the Antarctic in search of new meteorite samples in January 2000. Nomad spent nearly two weeks in the Arctic frost, examining over 100 indigenous rocks and ultimately classifying seven as bona-fide meteorites.
Computer Aided Design Buildings Buildings Cars Cars Motorways Motorways Mobile Phones Mobile Phones Circuit Boards Circuit Boards Processors Processors
Benefits of CAD Easier to produce complex drawings Easier to produce complex drawings Making changes to design is easier Making changes to design is easier Can make multiple copies Can make multiple copies Can use library shapes Can use library shapes
CAD Hardware High resolution monitor High resolution monitor Powerful processor Powerful processor High capacity backing storage High capacity backing storage Graphics tablet Graphics tablet Graphics plotter Graphics plotter
Computer Aided Manufacture Use of computers to control machinery in the production process Use of computers to control machinery in the production process Car manufacture Car manufacture Fabric cutting in making clothes Fabric cutting in making clothes Fitting components to circuit boards Fitting components to circuit boards
CADCAM Objects are designed using CAD Objects are designed using CAD Design is fed to the controlling computer Design is fed to the controlling computer Robots and machines assemble the product Robots and machines assemble the product
Benefits of CADCAM Faster process Faster process More accurate process More accurate process Less waste Less waste Increases productivity Increases productivity Higher quality end product Higher quality end product
Effects of CADCAM Machines have replaced people Machines have replaced people Fewer jobs Fewer jobs Remaining jobs have become deskilled Remaining jobs have become deskilled More jobs for computer programmers and engineers More jobs for computer programmers and engineers
Simulation A computer mimics a real world activity A computer mimics a real world activity Flying a plane Flying a plane Driving a car Driving a car Crashing a car Crashing a car Performing surgery Performing surgery Computer games Computer games
Virtual Reality The user is immersed in the computer generated world The user is immersed in the computer generated world Virtual reality headsets/helmets Virtual reality headsets/helmets Sensory gloves Sensory gloves
Intelligent Robots Have a range of sensors Have a range of sensors Mimic the human senses and functions Mimic the human senses and functions Hear : microphone Hear : microphone See : sonar beams / optical sensors See : sonar beams / optical sensors Feel : tactile/pressure sensors Feel : tactile/pressure sensors Walk : Human-like legs Walk : Human-like legs
Robots in the Future Hovering the house Ironing
Open Loop Control Control computer Control Information
Closed Loop Control Control computer Traffic Sensor Feedback from sensor Control Information
Sensors A sensor detects physical quantities e.g. heat, and provides this input to the controlling computer.
Types of Sensors There are sensors to detect heat light collisions proximity magnetic fields pressure
Analogue Signals Most electrical signals are analogue signals. Analogue signals vary continuously over time. They can have any value between the upper and lower limits.
Digital Signals Computers can only work with digital signals. Digital signals have only two values - on or off.
Signal Converters A computer is connected to a device by a circuit called an interface. The interface must be able to convert the computers digital signals to analogue signals if required. This is done by a digital to analogue converter. Signals can be changed in the other direction by an analogue to digital converter. A transducer is a device which changes a physical input e.g. heat, pressure or light into an analogue signal.
AD Converter Analogue to Digital Converter Processor Sensor + (transducer)
DA Converter Digital to Analogue Converter Device Processor
Teaching Robots Programming by Example (lead-through) a human guides the robot the positional sensors in the robot tell the computer about the movement of each joint the robots actuators (motors) repeat the stored sequence of movements.
Programming Robots a programmer works out the whole sequence of movements and describes them in a high level language writing a new program will enable the robot to do a different task.
Control Languages Computer programs are always written in a programming language. You have learned to program in Visual Basic. Most robots are programmed to move using a special control language. They use meaningful commands like forward, right, left, wait, grasp, up and down which relate to the robot world.
Control Programs Disc/Tape Stationary robots may have the control program stored on disc or tape. Stationary robots may have the control program stored on disc or tape. Can be changed easily. Can be changed easily.
Control Programs ROM Chips Mobile robots are more likely to have the program stored on a ROM chip. Mobile robots are more likely to have the program stored on a ROM chip. Chips are more expensive Chips are more expensive More permanent More permanent Give a faster start up Give a faster start up
Social Implications Disadvantages workers will lose their jobs. Some jobs may become de- skilled and offer less job satisfaction
Advantages workers can be retrained to do more interesting and skilled jobs. fewer people work in dangerous factory conditions. workers who did boring jobs will have more leisure time. jobs will increase in the computing and leisure industries.
Technical Implications Safety moving parts of machine must be covered. robot vehicles have sensors to detect if anything is in the way they can be programmed to move slowly so that people can get out of their way people are kept out of some areas of the factory robot arms etc. should only operate when an item is in position
Economic Implications Automated Systems are Capital Intensive very expensive to install but dont demand wage rises dont require lunch breaks dont require canteens and toilet facilities money will be saved in the long term Factories used to all be Labour Intensive large number of workers required Increased Productivity more goods manufactured in the same time for the same cost