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1 Solitary Confinement... By George Swanson Left click to advance.

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1 1 Solitary Confinement... By George Swanson Left click to advance.

2 2 Solitary Confinement... Is it torture? Is it torture?

3 3 Torture

4 4... any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person.... – U.N. Convention Against Torture, Article any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person.... – U.N. Convention Against Torture, Article 1.1

5 5 physical physical

6 6 and physical and

7 7 physical and mental physical and mental

8 8 Some Physical Torture

9 9 A swat team cuts the orange jump suit off an inmate in handcuffs and leg irons. He keeps screaming as they carry him naked through the Maine supermax.

10 10 Some Physical Torture

11 11 Some Physical Torture Black helmeted officers strap the inmate in a restraint chair. He continues to scream as one officer holds his head and Maces him in the face.

12 12 Some Physical Torture

13 13 Some Physical Torture Charles Graner cocks his fist above Iraqi prisoners in Abu Ghraib

14 14 Some Physical Torture He may have learned torture working in a Pennsylvania supermax.

15 15 Some Physical Torture We sentenced him to 10 years in Leavenworth for doing what we trained him to do.

16 16 Mostly Mental Torture Isolation is the worst thing we do to people. ̶ Washington State Prison Official Isolation is the worst thing we do to people. ̶ Washington State Prison Official

17 17 Mostly Mental Torture Solitary confinement left prisoners in a semi-fatuous condition. ̶ U.S. Supreme Court, 1890 Solitary confinement left prisoners in a semi-fatuous condition. ̶ U.S. Supreme Court, 1890

18 18 Mostly Mental Torture 16 to 19 year olds became like Zombies. ̶ N.Y. State Supermax Chaplain 16 to 19 year olds became like Zombies. ̶ N.Y. State Supermax Chaplain

19 19 Mostly Mental Torture Solitary confinement is dehumanizing. ̶ Lorna Rhodes, Anthropologist Solitary confinement is dehumanizing. ̶ Lorna Rhodes, Anthropologist

20 20 Eastern State Prison, Philadelphia, 1822 Solitary Confinement

21 21 Charles Dickens saw it and wrote:

22 22 I hold this slow and daily tampering with the mysteries of the brain, to be immeasurably worse than any torture of the body. I hold this slow and daily tampering with the mysteries of the brain, to be immeasurably worse than any torture of the body.

23 23 And because its ghastly signs and tokens are not so palpable to the eye and sense of touch as scars upon the flesh... And because its ghastly signs and tokens are not so palpable to the eye and sense of touch as scars upon the flesh...

24 24... because its wounds are not upon the surface, and it extorts few cries that human ears can hear because its wounds are not upon the surface, and it extorts few cries that human ears can hear...

25 25... therefore I the more denounce it, as a secret punishment which slumbering humanity is not roused up to stay.... therefore I the more denounce it, as a secret punishment which slumbering humanity is not roused up to stay.

26 26 Solitary Confinement 23 Hours a Day

27 27 An inmate looks at the photographer through the slot where he gets his food and where he is handcuffed. An inmate looks at the photographer through the slot where he gets his food and where he is handcuffed.

28 28 Solitary Confinement de Tocqueville visited American prisons in 1833 He wrote: We saw the evil effect of solitude.We saw the evil effect of solitude. This system, fatal to the health of the criminals, was likewise inefficient in producing their reform.This system, fatal to the health of the criminals, was likewise inefficient in producing their reform.

29 29 A Solitary Confinement Cell 1.7 feet by 12 feet with small slit window opening on sky and prison wall. No grass or trees in sight. 2.Shower works on timer. 3.Small B/W TV for educational programs, some prisoners only. BBC web Site Drawing

30 30 A Solitary Confinement Cell 4. Heavy steel door or grate with small slot for handcuffing or food. Slot may be coated with dried blood, feces and urine. 5.Writing desk. 6.Toilet which shuts off if blocked. 7.Sink. 8.Steel mirror, not smashable glass. BBC web site drawing

31 31 U.S. Supreme Court 1890 Solitary confinement left prisoners in a semi- fatuous condition.Solitary confinement left prisoners in a semi- fatuous condition. The justices saw it as a form of what some people now call no-touch torture.The justices saw it as a form of what some people now call no-touch torture. ̶ ̶ History Professor Alfred W. McCoy University of Wisconsin at Madison

32 32 In the federal supermax prison in Florence, Colorado A Typical Cell In the federal supermax prison in Florence, Colorado A solitary confinement prison is called a supermax.

33 33 Californias Pelican Bay Supermax The X-shaped prison holds 1,300 inmates in solitary. The X-shaped prison holds 1,300 inmates in solitary.

34 34 Californias Pelican Bay Supermax A naked inmate spreads his toes & buttocks. He is handcuffed through the cuff and food slot before leaving his cell.

35 35 Solitary Confinement Belongs with –The rack –The thumbscrew –The wheel –Protracted questioning & cross questioning –And other ingenious forms of entrapment ̶ U.S. Supreme Court 1940

36 36 Solitary disrupts profoundly the sense of the personality. ̶ The U.S. Senate 1994

37 37 The Federal Supermax 400 prisoners in solitary confinement

38 38 Internationally honored criminologist Hans Toch says... A supermax... Impairs the mental health of prisoners.

39 39 Hans Toch World Acclaimed Criminologist Says, A supermax... Is a gulag.

40 40 Hans Toch World Acclaimed Criminologist Says, A supermax... Is reminiscent of traditional inquisitory tribunals.

41 41 Hans Toch World Acclaimed Criminologist Says, In a supermax... Officers and prisoners are situationally dehumanized.

42 42 Hans Toch World Acclaimed Criminologist Says, In a supermax... Youthful prisoners regressed into something less than human.

43 43 Father Joseph Romano NY State supermax chaplain He saw 16-to-19-year-old inmates.

44 44 Father Joseph Romano NY State Supermax Chaplain He says, The light went out in their eyes.

45 45 Father Joseph Romano NY State Supermax Chaplain He says, They became like zombies.

46 46 Father Joseph Romano NY State Supermax Chaplain He says, Id talk to them through the food slot, and all I got back was a blank stare.

47 47 Father Joseph Romano NY State Supermax Chaplain He says, I spent a lot of time trying to console scared kids who cried and cried.

48 48 Father Joseph Romano NY State Supermax Chaplain He says, The supermax is only about punishment and breaking down these guys.

49 49 Solitary Confinement Maine keeps 100 prisoners in solitary confinement. Thats more than in the whole country of England Maine keeps 100 prisoners in solitary confinement. Thats more than in the whole country of England

50 50 Lance Tapley Journalist in Augusta writes about Maines supermax... It is torture.

51 51 Lance Tapley Journalist in Augusta writes about Maines supermax... It is isolation – sometimes for years.

52 52 Lance Tapley Journalist in Augusta writes about Maines supermax hours a day in a tiny cell.

53 53 Lance Tapley Journalist in Augusta writes about Maines supermax... It is sensory deprivation.

54 54 Lance Tapley Journalist in Augusta writes about Maines supermax... Some prisoners howl in constant agony.

55 55 Lance Tapley Journalist in Augusta writes about Maines supermax... Inadequate food is shoved through an unsanitary slot in the door.

56 56 Anthropologist Lorna Rhodes had free access to the Washington State supermax for ten years.

57 57 A truly remarkable book. The inside look at supermax confinement alone is worth the price of admission. This is meticulous scholarship. ̶ Hans Toch, criminologist

58 58 As a result of this book Washington State is considering changes to its whole prison system.

59 59 Rhodes writes: Solitary confinement is dehumanizing.

60 60 Rhodes writes: Disturbed mental states are addressed by imposing conditions that further disturb the mind.

61 61 Rhodes writes: One officer opens the cuffport and stands carefully to one side while the other, who is dressed in a waterproof jumpsuit, quickly pushes in the food tray. Sometimes inmates stab them through the opening or hurl feces or urine at them.

62 62 Rhodes listened: It builds you into a monster because it hardens your feelings. ̶ Inmate

63 63 Rhodes listened: On the third day I started going wall to wall, banging myself. ̶ Inmate

64 64 Rhodes listened: Im like Cerberus at the gates of hell. ̶ Psychiatrist who screens new inmates

65 65 Rhodes listened: I just went off, spitting, urinating…. If they feel like Im gonna be a badass, why not? ̶ Inmate

66 66 Rhodes listened: Isolation is the worst thing we do to people. ̶ Washington State Prison Official

67 67 Alcatraz prison was closed in inmates

68 68 Alcatraz prison was closed in inmates Marion Illinois supermax took its place 500 inmates

69 69 Alcatraz prison was closed in inmates Marion Illinois supermax took its place 500 inmates Were building more supermaxes 50,000 inmates in solitary and growing

70 70 Alcatraz – you could talk to somebody

71 71 Supermax – youre all by yourself

72 72 Supermax Prisons Time Magazine, January 2007 Cell resembles nothing so much as a large, concrete closet.

73 73 Supermax Prisons Time Magazine, January 2007 Majority of Texas and California inmate suicides occur in solitary.

74 74 Supermax Prisons Time Magazine, January 2007 Prisoners' brain waves shift toward a pattern characteristic of stupor and delirium.

75 75 Supermax Prisons Time Magazine, January 2007 Within 48 hours the breakdown is even worse when sensory deprivation is added.

76 76 Supermax Prisons Time Magazine, January 2007 Demolish their psyches while they're in prison, and nobody's safer when they get out.

77 77 Time Quotes Harvard Psychiatrist Stuart Grassian We have to ask ourselves why we're doing this.

78 78 Time Quotes Harvard Psychiatrist Stuart Grassian These aren't a bunch of cold, controlled James Cagneys.

79 79 Time Quotes Harvard Psychiatrist Stuart Grassian We're taking criminals who are already unstable and driving them crazy.

80 80 Dr. George Hunsinger Professor, Princeton Theological Seminary Solitary traumatizes people for life.

81 81 Torture... any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person.... – U.N. Convention Against Torture, Article 1.1

82 82

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87 87 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? Yes! Fatal to health – de Tocqueville

88 88 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? Yes! Shatters the mind – U.S. Supreme Court

89 89 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? Yes! It is a gulag. – Hans Toch

90 90 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? Yes! Dehumanizing. – Lorna Rhodes

91 91 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? Yes! We re driving them crazy. – Stuart Grassian

92 92 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? Yes! Kids become zombies. – Father Joseph Romano

93 93 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? Yes! Some howl in constant agony. – Lance Tapley

94 94 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? Yes! It disrupts personality. – U.S. Senate

95 95 The jury votes: Is solitary confinement torture? The foreman asks us.

96 96 How do you vote?

97 Is solitary confinement torture?

98 98 If it is... If it is... Write President Obama that we should not torture prisoners in American prisons.

99 99 If it is... Write the National Institute of Corrections to prohibit torture in corrections.

100 100 If it is... Ask the governor to close the state supermax.

101 101 If it is... Send a copy of your letter to the newspapers.

102 102 If it is... Schedule a program on prisons for your library, school, church, whatever. Schedule a program on prisons for your library, school, church, whatever.

103 103 If it is... Ask our state & federal representatives not to spend our taxes on supermax torture. Send a copy to the newspapers. Ask our state & federal representatives not to spend our taxes on supermax torture. Send a copy to the newspapers.

104 104 If it is... Decide how youll... Decide how youll...

105 105 Speak your mind. Speak your mind.

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