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Confined Space Awareness Training

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Presentation on theme: "Confined Space Awareness Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Confined Space Awareness Training

2 Objectives Meet requirements IAW NFPA 1670 Sections 6.2 and 7.2
Meet requirements of NFPA 473 Chapter 4 Recognize the need for CSR Initiate and establish communications with victim Recognize and identify hazard associated with non-entry confined space emergencies Recognize confined spaces Perform a non entry retrieval Implement the emergency response system for CSR Implement site control and scene management

3 Introduction Scope and Purpose of OSHA Issues of Compliance
Training Requirements Evaluation of the Rescue Team Equipping the Rescue Team

4 Introduction Entry and Non-entry Rescue
ANSI Standards for Confined Space Civil Liability Confined Space Rescue Compliance Guidelines The rescuer must not only be concerned with the outcome of the rescue but with regulatory compliance as well. Rescuers must know what will keep them prepared for the next rescue and also what will keep them in compliance with applicable regulations. In this lesson we will discuss OSHA compliance for industrial sites, the application of those regulations and suggestions on documentation. It is important to remember that some states (that have the authority to manage OSHA programs) have adopted “state plans” which in many cases are more strict than OSHA guidelines. NELA RRT8

5 Scope and Purpose of OSHA
Permit Required Confined Space (PRCS) Provide standards and procedures to protect employees Equipment and Procedures for rescue are required In-plant rescue or outside arrangement Rescuers must be made aware of hazards Employer must evaluate rescue services Employer must verify rescue availability before conducting a PRCS entry NELA RRT8

6 Issues of Compliance Permit Required Confined Space Regulation
CFR Enhanced Employee participation Authorized entrant observation for monitoring and testing Clarification for “preparing for the timely rescue of incapacitated person from the permitted spaces.” NELA RRT8

7 Issues of Compliance Defining the Response Time
Reaction Time Contact Time Response Time Assessment Time Preparation Time Rescue Time Untimely Rescue Response Rescue Response Time Goals NELA RRT8

8 Issues of Compliance Untimely Rescue Response
Rescue Response Time Goals Confined space incident occurs Rescue team called: 0-3 minutes On Scene in 10 minutes: 3-13 Size up and preparation in 10 minutes: Patient contact and rescue in 15 minutes: Transport for care in 15 minutes: NELA RRT8

9 Issues of Compliance Rescue Response Decision-Making Criteria
Emergency Action Plans Rescue Standby Team is present Patient contact within 4 minutes Rescue Available 10 minute response Patient Contact 5 minutes later NELA RRT8

10 Issues of Compliance Response mode dictated by:
The severity of the hazard. Personal protective equipment required Entrant’s ability to self rescue NELA RRT8

11 Issues of Compliance Rescue Response Categories for PRCS
Rescue Available Fresh air breathing equipment not required Entrant not exposed to IDLH Does not warrant rescue personnel standing by Entrant needs no assistance for exit under normal conditions NELA RRT8

12 Issues of Compliance Rescue Response Categories for PRCS
Rescue Standby Entrant required to use breathing apparatus IDLH or potential for IDLH exists Entrant would have difficulty exiting without help Importance of Categorizing Work Spaces NELA RRT8

13 Issues of Compliance Importance of Categorizing Work Spaces
Informed Decision-Making ability Most fall under Rescue Available Categorizing work spaces into RA or RS is a common sense approach BLUF… Categorizing saves time! NELA RRT8

14 Training Requirements
Regulation Compliance Every rescue member must practice making a PRCS at least once every 12 months Must remove mannequins or people from the confined space Representative permit space must simulate the types of permit spaces for which rescue will be performed Have someone read page 308 starting with “Each member” Every member must conduct the training “At least” “To function appropriately” NELA RRT8

15 Training Requirements
Problem-Solving Scenarios Realistic Scenarios highlight deficiencies Equipment and Manpower Ability to operate from written preplans and SOG Shortcomings in preplans and SOGs Competency, efficiency and timeliness NELA RRT8

16 Training Requirements
Typing of Confined Spaces Size of Opening Configuration of Opening Accessibility Internal Configuration NELA RRT8

17 Training Requirements
NELA RRT8

18 Training Requirements
Importance of Typing and Establishing Training Plans Ensures comprehensive training Practice must be as realistic as possible Worst Case Scenario Obstructed, Elevated versus Non-elevated Proof of Competency… Proof of Practice NELA RRT8

19 Training Requirements
Importance of Typing in Training Effectiveness Training provided is adequate and effective “Designated service has the equipment, training, and overall ability to respond in a timely fashion” Training must provide rescuer’s necessary skills to accomplish the rescue safely Yearly performance evaluations NELA RRT8

20 Evaluation of the Rescue Team
Rescue service must be verified as capable Annual documented performance evaluations Team Individual Three simulated scenarios and a written test Different confined space types NELA RRT8

21 Entry and Non-Entry Rescue
“Rescue” and “Non-Entry Rescue or Retrieval” OSHA urges non-entry rescue Retrieval system Non-entry not always feasible Does not fall under the definition of “rescue” Rescue NELA RRT8

22 Civil Liability Compliance with standards does not eliminate liability
Reasonable Care Be prepared to defend your actions in court Responsibility Liability NELA RRT8

23 Confined Space Rescue Compliance Guidelines
OSHA presents a significant challenge Performance-based standard It is hard to understand exactly what is required for compliance Confined space fatalities continue at an alarming rate Adequate preparation and training are crucial Refer to page NELA RRT8

24 Summary Scope and Purpose of OSHA Issues of Compliance
Training Requirements Evaluation of the Rescue Team Equipping the Rescue Team Refer to page NELA RRT8

25 Summary Entry and Non-entry Rescue Civil Liability
Confined Space Rescue Compliance Guidelines Refer to page NELA RRT8

26 Chapter 20 Managing the Rescue

27 Introduction Safety systems approach to rescue
Incident management system Crisis decision making The response evolution Critical incident stress management

28 Safety Systems Approach to Rescue
Safety is priority in planning and conduction of rescue Assess the situation Attempt rescue or not (pt. dead, alive, viable?) Is team capable? Do we risk team for rescue? If rescue fails what is alternate plan? Plan for safety Train for safety

29 Safety Systems Approach to Rescue
Safety in training Instructor must create positive attitude of safety in training and allow attitude to be present in all rescues Promote safe training Review safety standards Always use back-up systems in training Maintain training equipment and document use and maintenance (treat training equipment as rescue equipment) Establish emergency procedure when incidents occur during training Use the term “This is a real incident instructor has command” Pre-establish emergency communications

30 Safety Systems Approach to Rescue
Respond with safety in mind always Safety officer is immediately responsible for scene safety It is the job of everyone to create a safe environment to work Post-incident safety Do not lose awareness after incident Do not lay equipment down on ledge Do not disassemble equipment in hazard environment (hanging on ledge, near chemicals)

31 Safety Systems Approach to Rescue
Safety Is A State Of Mind, An Attitude. Rescue Team Member Must Set The Example

32 Incident Management System
ICS known as the IMS Sets forth a standard organized approach adaptable to any organization on any incident System is very large Use a tool box Use components applicable to incident Unity of command Each person reports only to one person Rescue member reports to team leader who reports to operations officer who reports to incident commander

33 Incident Management System
Division of labor Tasks assigned to individual or units in an organized manner to accomplish the desired result More functions assigned and completed simultaneously the faster plan comes together Span of control Number of persons or units one person can manage effectively 3 to 7 units optimum number is 5 Exceeding span of control can lead to undesired result

34 Crisis decision making
Decisions made on method to be used in rescue depend on situation Team leader must be established Team must come together Input from entire team helpful in making an informed decision

35 Crisis decision making
Brainstorming “Huddle” the team Gather all pertinent info and distribute info Make contact with victim if possible Begin brainstorming Form action plan Make assignments Instructions need to be short, clear, and to the point Ensure all members understand Carry out the plan Complete assignments then report completion Wait for reassignment

36 The Response Evaluation
Preplan Develop rescue team Develop training program Develop team membership criteria Develop SOG’s Develop plans for future incidents Notify Notify team of incident Respond Establish IC, staging area, equipment needed

37 The Response Evaluation
Size-up Determine safety Determine plan of action to be taken Access Access patient Stabilize Stabilize patient and environment Evacuate Debrief

38 The Response Evaluation
Preplan Notify Debrief Evacuate Respond Stabilize Size-Up Access

39 The Response Evaluation
CSR On-Scene Prioritized Action Plan 1: Make scene safe 2: Victim contact by primary responder 3: Size-Up 4: Request resources 5: Assist competent personnel

40 Critical incident Stress Management
Two types of stress Acute (immediate effects) Chronic (long term reactions to event) Process defined Introduction phase Fact phase Thought phase Reaction phase Symptom phase Teaching phase Reentry phase

41 Summary Safety systems approach to rescue Incident management system
Crisis decision making The response evolution Critical incident stress management

42 Rescue Involving Hazardous Materials
Chapter 19 Rescue Involving Hazardous Materials NELA RRT8

43 Introduction Ludwig Benner’s General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model OSHA Levels of Training Chemical Protective Clothing NFPA Standards for CPC Factors Affecting CPC NELA RRT8

44 Introduction Factors Affecting Rescuers Respiratory Protection
Decontamination Summary NELA RRT8

45 Ludwig Benner’s Model Hazardous Materials Behavior
Four factors that affect hazardous material behavior Inherent properties and quantity Characteristics of the container Natural laws and physics of chemistry Environmental conditions, terrain and weather What would happen if I did nothing? Can the emergency be mitigated defensively? Could an offensive strategy be safe and effective? Where will hazardous material go if released? How will the material get there? When will the hazardous material get there? What harm will the hazardous material do once there? NELA RRT8

46 Ludwig Benner’s Model Sequence of Events Stress Breach Release
Dispersion Exposure Harm NELA RRT8

47 Ludwig Benner’s Model Size-up the Incident Collect data
Record and plot the data Compare the data to established exposure levels for health and safety implications Estimate the impact of exposure to personnel in the endangered area NELA RRT8

48 OSHA Levels of Training
Awareness Operations Technician Specialist Incident Commander NELA RRT8

49 Chemical Protective Clothing
Identify product and physical state Consider flammable vapors and explosive hazard Temperature of released material Likelihood of direct contact Atmospheric concentration (TLV/TWA and IDLH) Presence of radiation Route of entry Potential for suit compromise Entry to confined or crowded spaces NELA RRT8

50 Chemical Protective Clothing
Levels Level A Fully encapsulating with SCBA Vapor and liquid protection Highest level of protection Level B Splash protection with SCBA Not gas tight NELA RRT8

51 Chemical Protective Clothing
NELA RRT8

52 Chemical Protective Clothing
Levels Level C Splash protection with APR Level D Work uniform, with hard hat and eye and foot protection NELA RRT8

53 Chemical Protective Clothing
NELA RRT8

54 Chemical Protective Clothing
Types Type I: Breathing apparatus inside the suit Easy to decon Tend to be bulky Reduced visibility Weigh more NELA RRT8

55 Chemical Protective Clothing
Types Type II: Respiratory protection on the outside Better visibility Increased mobility SCBA could be exposed to contaminant NELA RRT8

56 Chemical Protective Clothing
Types Type III: Utilizes supplied air Increased operating time Mobility is difficult due to air line Entry distance limited to 300 feet NELA RRT8

57 Chemical Protective Clothing
Procedures Conduct Medical Monitoring Train regularly, inspect and maintain CPC Conduct Physical Fitness Use communication and buddy teams Set up decon prior to entry and maintain perimeter security Monitor the atmosphere Set up rehab NELA RRT8

58 NFPA Standards for CPC NFPA 1991 Vapor Protective Suits for Hazardous Materials Chemical Emergencies Minimum documentation Design criteria Performance criteria Testing methods for (vapor suits) exposure to specific chemicals in a vapor and splash environment Personal protective equipment must prevent entry of hazardous materials into the body. The four primary routes of entry are inhalation, absorption, ingestion and injection. NELA RRT8

59 NFPA Standards for CPC NFPA 1992 Liquid Protective Splash Suits for Chemical Emergencies Minimum documentation Design criteria Performance criteria Testing methods for (liquid splash suits) exposure to specific chemicals in a vapor and splash environment NELA RRT8

60 NFPA Standards for CPC NFPA 1993 Support Function Protective Garments for Hazardous Chemical Operations Minimum documentation Design criteria Performance criteria Testing methods for garments worn by personnel in support functions outside of the Hot Zone NELA RRT8

61 Factors Affecting CPC Compromising Protective Fabric Penetration
Movement through suit enclosure (seams, buttons, zippers) Permeation Movement through the suit at the molecular level Degradation Physical and visual change of suit at the site of contamination due to incompatibility NELA RRT8

62 Factors Affecting Rescuers
Wearing CPC Stress Physical and mental Dexterity, mobility, visibility, communication Adequate rehab and rest Temperature Acclimation through training Hydrate Cooling vests NELA RRT8

63 Respiratory Protection
Selection Identify the contaminant Oxygen level Concentration of the contaminant Confined space operation Level of protection clothing Moisture content of ambient air Toxicity Duration of work mission NELA RRT8

64 Respiratory Protection
Components of Air Purifying Respirators Face-piece Also protects eyes Must fit tight Cartridge Hold filters to absorb chemicals Threads onto the mask Exhalation Valve One way valve for protection NELA RRT8

65 Respiratory Protection
Components of Supplied Air Respirators Face-piece Breathing tube Regulator Air supply hose Remote Air supply Exhalation valve NELA RRT8

66 Respiratory Protection
Components of Supplied Air Respirators Face-piece Breathing tube Delivers clean air to the face-piece Regulator Air supply hose Remote Air supply Exhalation valve NELA RRT8

67 Respiratory Protection
Advantages and Disadvantages of APR and SAR APR Weigh less and less expensive Can’t be used in oxygen deficient atmosphere Cannot be used in IDLH environments SAR Can be used against all particulates 300’ range Must exit along same path NELA RRT8

68 Decontamination Why Decontamination is Necessary Short term effects
Effect noticed immediately Example: Corrosives on respiratory system Long term effects Effects may not be known for years Example: Teratogens, carcinogens and mutagens NELA RRT8

69 Decontamination Methods of Decontamination Surfactants Dilution
Neutralization Degradation Absorption Dry decontamination Solidification NELA RRT8

70 Decontamination Testing Decontamination Effectiveness
Visual observation Ultraviolet light reveals staining Wipe Sampling “After the fact” analysis Cleaning solution analysis Analyzes the decontamination solution Permeation testing Sample of CPC submitted for testing NELA RRT8

71 Decontamination Technical and Emergency Decontamination
6 Station Corridor Station 1 – Gross tool drop Station 2 – Gross Shower Station 3 – Wash/Rinse I Station 4 – Wash/Rinse II Station 5 – Undressing area Station 6 – Medical monitoring NELA RRT8

72 Decontamination Completing the Decontamination Process
Remove all clothing Shower thoroughly Don clean clothing Perform recordkeeping and documentation Thorough personal shower after leaving the incident NELA RRT8

73 Summary Ludwig Benner’s General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model
OSHA Levels of Training Chemical Protective Clothing NFPA Standards for CPC Factors Affecting CPC NELA RRT8

74 Summary Factors Affecting Rescuers Respiratory Protection
Decontamination NELA RRT8

75 Confined Space Rescue: Retrieval & Team Deployment
Chapter 17 Confined Space Rescue: Retrieval & Team Deployment NELA RRT8

76 Victim Assistance At the awareness level you are limited to …
DO NOT MAKE ENTRY OR BREAK THE PLANE NELA RRT8

77 Summary CSR situation present one of the most formidable challenges for any technical rescue team. A thorough knowledge of the hazards and their safe mitigation is essential for success. Training and preplanning are the most significant tools in this race against time. NELA RRT8


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