Presentation on theme: "Srta. Forgue El 10 de enero de 2011"— Presentation transcript:
1 Srta. Forgue El 10 de enero de 2011 Español IISrta. ForgueEl 10 de enero de 2011
2 Ahora mismoJuega HANGMAN con el vocabulario de Lección 3 en la pizarra (págs ).
3 Inspección de 5 puntos y tarea de anoche A tiempoRopaCuadernoLibroBolígrafoLa tarea de anoche fue: ej. 6, pág. 103
4 Repaso de la tarea La tarea de anoche fue: ej. 6, pág. 103 Lee un ejemplo de las definiciones (de la tarea). Los compañeros de clase van a estimar las respuestas.La tarea de anoche fue: ej. 6, pág. 103
5 Objetivos de hoyEstudiar los mandatos formales en las págs del libroAprender como dar mandatos a personas con quienes tienes relaciones formales (Ud./Uds.)Completar INTÉNTALO en la pág. 105
7 What are formal commands? As you learned in Lección 2, the command forms are used to give orders or advice. What are some examples of commands in English?You have already learned informal commands, which are used with people you are familiar with or address as tú.Formal commands are used with people you address as usted or ustedes.
8 Who do you call Usted?Usted or Ustedes is a formal way to address people. It is used to show respect or maintain a certain distance with a person.We use Ud. (or the plural Uds.) with:someone you don't know wellan older personan authority figure (a boss, a teacher, a policeman)someone who you know but are not close to (a neighbor)Someone you usually address by a title (Dr. Rodríguez, Sra. López, Sir Elton John…)anyone to whom you wish to show respect
9 ¿Tú, Ud., o Uds.? Mr. and Mrs. Rigney Your best friend A sales associate at a storeYour sister or brotherA classmateA dentistAn elderly couple on the subwaySomeone you have just met
10 How do you form a formal command? 1. The usted and ustedes commands, like the negative tú commands, are formed first by dropping the final -o of the yo form of the present tense. hablar hablo habl beber bebo beb vivir vivo viv
11 How do you form a formal command? The next step is to add the right ending.For -ar verbs, add -e for Ud. or –en for Uds.hablar hablo habl hable Ud. / hablen Uds.For -er and -ir verbs, add -a for Ud. or –an for Uds.beber bebo beb beba Ud. / beban Uds.vivir vivo viv viva Ud. / vivan Uds.
12 Tips for forming the formal command You always start with the “yo” form of the present tense verb. If you do not remember it, use the verb charts in the back of your textbook or your notes from previous chapters.Some “yo” forms are irregular or have weird spelling changes. These changes remain!Ex: decir digo dig diga Ud. / digan Uds.
13 Tips for forming the formal command After you have identified the present tense yo form and taken off the final “O,” you might find it hard to remember which endings to choose from.Think of AR verbs being its own team, and ER/IR verbs on another. Consider the two teams opposites. When you make a formal command, you are adding an “opposite” ending from the original infinitive.normally have endings normally have endingswith “a” in them with “e” in themARARERIR
14 Tips for forming the formal command Example: cantar canto cant cante or canten In this example, he infinitive has -ar as an ending, so you choose the “OPPOSITE” type of ending (-e or -en) to complete the command. If you were to use “canta” and not “cante” it would be wrong. “Canta” can mean “she or he sings” in the present indicative tense or “you (formal) sing.” It is also the tú command, but not the Ud. command.
15 Making the command negative An affirmative command is given when you do want the person to complete the given action.Example: Wash the dishes / Lave los platos.A negative command is given when you do not want the person to complete the given action.Example: Do not wash the plates. / No lave los platos.To make a formal command negative, simply place no before the verb.
16 ResumenThe usted and ustedes commands, like the negative tú commands, are formed by dropping the final -o of the yo form of the present tense. For -ar verbs, add -e or -en. For -er and -ir verbs, add -a or -an.
17 ResumenFormal commands are used with people you address as usted or ustedes.Usted or Ustedes is a formal way to address people. It is used to show respect or maintain a certain distance with a person.An affirmative command is given when you do want the person to complete the given action.A negative command is given when you do not want the person to complete the given action.
20 RepasoWe learned how to form a basic formal command with regular verbs.The usted and ustedes commands are formed first by dropping the final -o of the yo form of the present tense.hablar hablo hablbeber bebo bebvivir vivo viv
21 Repaso The next step is to add the right ending. For -ar verbs, add -e for Ud. or –en for Uds.hablar hablo habl hable Ud. / hablen Uds.For -er and -ir verbs, add -a for Ud. or –an for Uds.beber bebo beb beba Ud. / beban Uds.vivir vivo vivviva Ud. / vivan Uds.
22 What to do with irregular YO forms Verbs with irregular yo forms maintain the same irregularity in their formal commands. These verbs includeconducir conduzcoconocer conduzcodecir digohacer hagoofrecer ofrezcooír oigoponer pongosalir salgotener tengotraducir traduzcotraer traigovenir vengover veo
23 What to do with irregular YO forms After getting the correct yo form and dropping the “o,” you still proceed as usual, adding –e or –en for AR verbs and –a or –an for ER and IR verbs.
24 What to do with stem-changing verbs Note also that verbs maintain their stem changes in usted and ustedes commands.Examples:pensar (e:ie) pienso piens piense Ud./piensen Uds.volver (o:ue) vuelvo vuelv vuelva Ud./vuelvan Uds.pedir (e:i) pido pid pida Ud. / pidan Uds.
25 More spelling changesVerbs ending in -car, -gar, and -zar have a spelling change in the command forms to preserve the hard consonant sound.
26 What to do with stem-changing verbs Common stem-changing verbs include: e:ie comenzar comienzo empezar empiezo entender entiendo pensar pienso perder pierdo preferir prefieroo:uevolver vuelvopoder puedoencontrar encuentromostrar muestrodormir duermoe:iservir sirvorepetir repitopedir pido
27 Let’s try some examples! 1. hacer la cama (Ud.) _____________________Make the bed.2. tener cuidado (Uds.) _____________________Be careful.3. no perder la llave (Ud.) ____________________Don’t lose the key.4. volver a la casa (Uds.) _____________________Return to the house.5. pensar en su futuro (Ud.) __________________ Think of your future.
29 Repaso What is a formal command? How do you form the command? A command given to someone you would normally address as Ud. or Uds. Examples: “Hable Ud.” “Coman Uds.”How do you form the command?You take the present tense “yo” form of the verb, drop the “o” and add –e and –en for AR verbs and –a and –an for ER/IR verbs. You do this with stem-changing and irregular verbs as well.hablar hablo habl hable Ud. / hablen Udsvivir vivo viv viva Ud. / vivan Udspensar pienso piens piense Ud. / piensen UdsHow do you make the command negative?Simply add “no” in front of the verb.
30 Review Exercises(Ud. - llevar) _______________ los libros a la biblioteca.(Uds. - dormir) no ____________ en la clase.(Uds. – tener) _______________ cuidado con los vasos.(Ud. - volver) _______________ temprano.(Ud. - comer) _______________ la ensalada.(Uds. - pedir) no _______________ preguntas ahora, por favor.(Ud. - hacer) _______________ la tarea para mañana.(Uds. - salir) no _______________ del hotel.(Ud. – bailar) ____________ el flamenco conmigo.
31 Irregular Commands These verbs have irregular formal commands. All you really need to remember is 5 Ud. commands – simply add an “n” to get the Uds. command.
32 Los pronombres objetivos What is an object pronoun?Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS directly receive the action of the verb.me (me) te (you-familiar) lo, la (him, her, it, you-formal)nos (us) os (you-all-familiar) los, las (them, you-all-formal)INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS identify to whom or for whom an action is done. These are PERSONAL pronouns and never refer to inanimate objects.me (to/for me) te (to/for you-familiar) le (to/for him, her, you-formal)nos (to/him us) os (to/for you-all-familiar) les (to/for them, you-all-formal)
33 Los pronombres objetivos Look at this example:1. “Mary gives the present to John.”What is the verb? To give.What is being given? The present. “THE PRESENT” is a direct object.To whom is the present intended? To John. “TO JOHN” is the indirect object.2. Now look at this sentence:“Mary gives it to him”Notice we replaced “the present” with the DOP “it” and “to John” with the IOP “to him.” You will need to understand this concept as much as possible before using pronouns with commands.
34 Los pronombres reflexivos Reflexive pronouns are used whenever the subject of a verb is also its object. In other words, reflexive pronouns are used when the subject of a sentence is acting on itself.Example: I wash myself (Me lavo). The person doing the action is also receiving the action.Reflexive pronouns:me — myselfte — yourselfse — yourself (formal), himself, herself, itself, oneselfnos — ourselvesos — yourselvesse — yourselves (formal), themselves
35 Mandatos con los pronombres In affirmative commands, reflexive, indirect and direct object pronouns are always attached to the end of the verb. Ejemplo: lavarlos (Uds.) lávenlos tenerla (Ud.) téngala
36 Mandatos com los pronombres ¡Atención! When a pronoun is attached to an affirmative command that has two or more syllables, an accent mark is added to maintain the original stress. Usually if there is only one pronoun attached, the trick is to place the stress on the 3rd syllable from the end of the word.Example: EN-VI-E-LO. (Send it)Where do you place the accent? Envíelo.If it were EN-VI-E-ME-LO (Send me it), it would still be in the same place: Envíemelo.
37 Mandatos con los pronombres In negative commands, these pronouns always precede the verb.If there is one, the IOP always comes first, and then the DOP if there is one.Remember that “people always come first”No decirselo (not to tell him it) No se (to him) lo diga/n.No traermelo (not to bring it to me) No me (to me) lo traiga/n.Tip: Place extra emphasis on the negative command by spacing out all of the words –perhaps you are being extra clear because you REALLY don’t want them to do something.