Presentation on theme: "Richard Justice. There are a total of three mustard gases, but the one that is most commonly known is called Sulfur Mustard. Sulfur Mustard Gas was first."— Presentation transcript:
There are a total of three mustard gases, but the one that is most commonly known is called Sulfur Mustard. Sulfur Mustard Gas was first synthesized in 1859 by Dr. Guthrie. Was first used by the Germans in World War I in 1917 in Ypres, Belgium. (Stewart)
It was designed to take the soldiers out of the fight but not kill them, ie: high causality rates but low death rates. In WWI the death rate from mustard gas is said to be 2.5% It was also used in 1936 in the Italian-Ethiopian conflict and most recently used in the 1980s in the wars with Iraq and Iran (Sullivan).
Formula: C4H8Cl2S Melting/Freezing Point at 1 atm: 13-14˚C Boiling Point at 1 atm: 215- 217˚C Molecular Weight: 159.08g Solubility: Slightly soluble in water, very soluble in lipid/fat solvents Appearance: colorless when pure, usually yellow or brown when not pure Odor: garlic-like (Pechura)
Dr. Meyer first synthesized pure sulfur-mustard gas by having 2-chloroethanol to react with potassium sulfide to produce thiodiglycol. 2ClCH CHOH + KS S(CHCHOH) + 2KCl The next step is to have thiodiglycol react with phosphorus trichloride to produce mustard gas. 3S(CH CH OH) + 2PCl 3S(CH CH Cl) + 2P(OH) HCl, COCl, and SOCl can be used instead of 2PCl (Pechura)
Very potent Hard to detect Cheap, easy synthesis Readily deployed in explosives Difficult to protect from Garment penetration Lingers on clothes and equipment (Stewart)
Binds to DNA and forms cross linking that inhibits mitosis, glycolysis, releases tissue proteases, and eventually results in cellular death. Binding is done through an alkylation reactions that are fast and irreversible. (Stewart)
Like any other chemical both the amount and time of exposure are what determines how much damage and where the damage to the body is. Overall Mustard Gas is a mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. The most common body parts that are effected by the gas are the lungs, eyes, skin. There are a few other parts included as well but the lungs, eyes, and skin are the most effected by it. (Stewart)
Most of the damage is done on the regions where skin layers are less thick and more moist, such as the face, scrotum, anal regions, groin and axilla Toxicity increases with temperature. Mild cases lead to effects similar to sunburn and more severe cases can lead to blisters, black skin, fluid loss, hypovolemia and renial failure. (Stewart)
Most likely to be damaged Can lead to light intolerance, eye spasms, and even corneal damage in the worst cases, which could lead to blindness. (Stewart)
Most common means organ that damage can lead to death After hours of exposure the victims start to experience tracheobronchitis which will lead to sore throat, coughing, sinus pain, etc. Symptoms worsen in 12 hours and responds poorly to any relief. After several days inflammation of airway occurs within a few days, and in severe cases respiratory failure occurs within 24-48 hours. Even some mild exposure can lead to lung cancer for some patients (when they get older) (Stewart)
1%-3% mortality rate from exposure Kills by respiratory failure, bone marrow damage, infection, or burns. Spread through contact is high (Stewart) Treatment: Burns: similar to thermal burns, use silver sulfadiazine creams Eyes: atropinre eye drops, topical steroids, dark eye glasses to cover eyes Inhalation: cool steam and cough drops for mild, oxygen supplemented breathing support and intubation (most extreme) should used for more severe cases Cure: NONE (Stewart)
The best way to prevent poisoning is to wear a gas mask that can filter out the mustard gas and wear a protective suit that is specifically designed for chemical warfare (like the one in the picture). (Stewart) The most important detail about the suit is that it MUST NOT have any leaks or be too thin with the protection, otherwise you will get poisoned.
Stewart, Charles. Weapons of Mass Casualties and Terrorism Response. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers Inc., 2006. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=7ZnXZfwWwgcC&pg=PA46&lpg=P A46&dq=levinstein+inventor+mustard&hl=en#v=onepage&q=levinstei n%20inventor%20mustard&f=false. Nov 11, 2012. Pages 46-49. http://books.google.com/books?id=7ZnXZfwWwgcC&pg=PA46&lpg=P A46&dq=levinstein+inventor+mustard&hl=en#v=onepage&q=levinstei n%20inventor%20mustard&f=false Pechura, Constance M. and Rall, David P. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington D.C.: National Academic Press, 1993. The National Academic Press. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=2058&page=71 Nov 11, 2012. Pages 24, 71-72. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=2058&page=71 Sullivan, Kathleen. Vial found in Presidio may be mustard gas/ Army experts expected to identify substance. San Francisco Chronicle. October 22, 2002. Hearst Newspapers. http://www.sfgate.com/green/article/Vial-found-in-Presidio-may-be- mustard-gas-Army-2760483.php. Nov 11, 2012. http://www.sfgate.com/green/article/Vial-found-in-Presidio-may-be- mustard-gas-Army-2760483.php
Angelfire. War in Iraq. NBC protection suits. Apr 8, 2003. http://www.angelfire.com/realm3/war.in.iraq/pages/22.htm. Nov 14, 2012. http://www.angelfire.com/realm3/war.in.iraq/pages/22.htm Dr. Dayat. Causes of Lung Cancer. Lung with Cancer damage. 2010. http://lung-cancer-treatments.blogspot.com/2011/06/causes-of-lung- cancer-asbestos-cancer.html. Nov 14, 2012. http://lung-cancer-treatments.blogspot.com/2011/06/causes-of-lung- cancer-asbestos-cancer.html Dr. Sidell, Frederick R. Vesicants. Ann Med Milit Belg. 1989; 3s:12. http://www.sc- ems.com/ems/NuclearBiologicalChemical/MedicalAspectsofNBC/cha pters/chapter_7.htm. Nov 14, 2012. http://www.sc- ems.com/ems/NuclearBiologicalChemical/MedicalAspectsofNBC/cha pters/chapter_7.htm Ilankai Tamil Sangam. Sri Lanka Launches Gas Attacks on Tamil Civilians, and Tamils Prepare for More. A Civilian Victim of Chemical Weapons in the no fire zone. May 3, 2009. http://www.sangam.org/2009/05/Gas_Attacks.php?uid=3480. Nov 14, 2012. http://www.sangam.org/2009/05/Gas_Attacks.php?uid=3480
Royality Free Images. Sulfer Mustard Gas Molecule Image. 2012. http://www.inmagine.com/spl018/spl018511-photo. Nov 14, 2012. http://www.inmagine.com/spl018/spl018511-photo Norton, Amy. Sulfer Mustard is one of the oldest chemical weapons. Mar 27, 2011. http://www.onislam.net/english/health-and- science/news/451565-working-with-mustard-gas-linked-to-lung- cancer.html. Nov 14, 2012.http://www.onislam.net/english/health-and- science/news/451565-working-with-mustard-gas-linked-to-lung- cancer.html