2Wealthy, Connected Family Handsome Catholic Republican VP Youngish: 47 John F. KennedyRichard M. NixonDemocratJunior SenatorYoung: 43Wealthy, Connected FamilyHandsomeCatholicRepublicanVPYoungish: 47Humble Means“Tricky Dick”Quaker
3Election 1960 Elections first to have televised debates Kennedy & Nixon DebatesKennedy had Hollywood producers to coachMakeup, suit, speakingNixon refused makeup, grey suitKennedy played on Cold War Fears claiming the US had fallen behind in the Arms Race – said Eisenhower not doing enoughAlso championed the poor: 17 million hungry
4CamelotJack & JackiePhotographs showed JFK strong, athletic, handsomeYoung, beautiful wife Jackie (31)Two small children (first in White House since 1908)
5John Glenn: First American to Orbit Earth New Frontier ( )John Glenn: First American to Orbit EarthJFK’s plan to change the nationTried to reduce taxes – congress said noFederal aid to education – congress said noCancelled government contracts with steel companies to lower pricesArea Redevelopment Act of financial assistance to economically distressed regionsMinimum wage raised from $1.00 $1.25Space Program: we were losing in the Space RaceSets the goal of landing on the moon before the decade is up – it would be an accomplishment for the entire nation
6Warren Court Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren Made many reformsBrown v. Board of Education – desegregate schoolsMiranda v. Arizona – right to a lawyerEngel v. Vitale – banned prayer/Bible reading in schools
7Foreign Affairs 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista (US backed Cuban Dictator)Takes over Private BusinessMakes Anti-American SpeechesSigned trade agreement with the USSRCIA believed an invasion of Cuba would inspire Cubans to rise upEisenhower Okayed the operation (about to leave office)
8Foreign Affairs1960: Kennedy learns of a plan to train Cuban Exiles to invade CubaKennedy in tough spot: to invade, or not to invade?CIA assures Kennedy that the plan will succeedJFK gave the go-ahead
9Bay of Pigs Invasion No secret “The Perfect Failure” April 15: Cuban Exiles, fly bomber planes and attack Cuban airfields,Cuban Exiles also invade beachesNo secret“The Perfect Failure”April 17:US Navy ships assist Cuban Brigade, but don’t fightCuban Forces, led by Fidel Castro, sink 2 ships, and capture 1,200 men
10Outcome JFK took the blame – got respect from the people Collins Type II – Write an article!Describe the Bay of Pigs InvasionWhat was the lead up to the event?What happened?What was the outcome?What do YOU think??
11Vienna ConferenceJFK invited Khrushchev to meet with him in Vienna, Austria in June 1961 to ease tensionsKhrushchev demanded:US and allies recognize Communist East Germany as an independent nationWithdraw from West Berlin
12Vienna ConferenceWest Berlin was an “island of freedom” surrounded by East Germany3.5 Million East Germans escaped through West BerlinJFK & advisors afraid East Germany would use force to regain West BerlinCalled reserves into active duty, built nuclear shelters in US, troop buildup in West Germany
13Berlin WallAugust 13, 1961: Khrushchev closed crossing points between East and West BerlinWithin hours 25,000 troops were in place to guard a barbed wire barrier around West BerlinA proper wall soon followed: 97 miles around the three Western Sectors, 27 miles between West & East BerlinNo Mans Land in Between
14Collins Type II – Write a letter What was the Berlin Wall?What led up to its being built?What was its purpose?How will it affect East & West Germans?
15Cuban Missile CrisisUS actions at the Bay of Pigs and Berlin Crisis encouraged USSR to become more aggressiveKhrushchev pledged to defend CubaUSSR concerned about nuclear missiles placed in TurkeyConvinced Castro to allow Surface - to – air missiles (SAM) and nuclear missiles in CubaJFK accused of being “soft on communism”
16Cuban Missile Crisis JFK ordered U-2 spy planes to fly over Cuba 1962: photos showed the building of SAMsJFK’s advisors advised an airstrikeFollowed by an invasionAct of warRobert McNamara & Robert Kennedy wanted a naval blockadeThis would be an act of war too, less threateningJFK chose blockadeFor two days the US prepared for war as Soviet ships sailed for Cuba – Khrushchev said if we try to stop them, WAR!
17Khrushchev wrote a letter… Offering to remove the missiles if the US promised to never invade CubaThen he wrote another letter demanding the US pull missiles out of TurkeyJFK ignored the second letterSecretly, Robert Kennedy promised we would take missiles outThis is the closest the world has ever come to nuclear warJFK & Khrushchev installed a hotline so they could communicate directlyLimited Test Ban Treaty: end testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere & underwater
1813 Days John F. Kennedy – President Robert Kennedy – Attorney General Kenny O’Donnell - AdvisorRobert McNamara – Secretary of DefenseDean Atcheson – Secretary of State under TrumanAdlai Stevenson – Ambassador to the UN
19November 22, 1963 JFK went to Dallas to campaign for the 1964 election Rode in a convertibleLee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy from the 6th floor of the Texas School Book DepositoryTwo days later Oswald was shot by Jack RubyLyndon Baines Johnson gave the oath of office on Air Force OneSet up the WARREN COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE JFK’S DEATH“The legacy of hope died with him. You never had that same sense again that we were moving forward.”
20LBJ – Lyndon Baines Johnson Powerful Senator from TexasHated being VP“It was my duty to carry on” what JFK had plannedMaster Legislator – used the JOHNSON TREATMENTWAR ON POVERTYGREAT SOCIETY: DOMESTIC PROGRAMS , AIMS TO END POVERTY AND RACIAL INJUSTICEMEDICAID: healthcare for poorMEDICARE: healthcare for 65+DAISY AD: election of 1964Beat Barry Goldwater
21Turn to Page 546 Look at the Major Great Society Programs Chart Write a Collins Type II:What was the Great Society & its aimsUse three examples from chart to describe its goals (underline examples!)