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The Kennedy & Johnson years

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Presentation on theme: "The Kennedy & Johnson years"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Kennedy & Johnson years
Chapter 18

2 Wealthy, Connected Family Handsome Catholic Republican VP Youngish: 47
John F. Kennedy Richard M. Nixon Democrat Junior Senator Young: 43 Wealthy, Connected Family Handsome Catholic Republican VP Youngish: 47 Humble Means “Tricky Dick” Quaker

3 Election 1960 Elections first to have televised debates
Kennedy & Nixon Debates Kennedy had Hollywood producers to coach Makeup, suit, speaking Nixon refused makeup, grey suit Kennedy played on Cold War Fears claiming the US had fallen behind in the Arms Race – said Eisenhower not doing enough Also championed the poor: 17 million hungry

4 Camelot Jack & Jackie Photographs showed JFK strong, athletic, handsome Young, beautiful wife Jackie (31) Two small children (first in White House since 1908)

5 John Glenn: First American to Orbit Earth
New Frontier ( ) John Glenn: First American to Orbit Earth JFK’s plan to change the nation Tried to reduce taxes – congress said no Federal aid to education – congress said no Cancelled government contracts with steel companies to lower prices Area Redevelopment Act of financial assistance to economically distressed regions Minimum wage raised from $1.00 $1.25 Space Program: we were losing in the Space Race Sets the goal of landing on the moon before the decade is up – it would be an accomplishment for the entire nation

6 Warren Court Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren
Made many reforms Brown v. Board of Education – desegregate schools Miranda v. Arizona – right to a lawyer Engel v. Vitale – banned prayer/Bible reading in schools

7 Foreign Affairs 1959 Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista
(US backed Cuban Dictator) Takes over Private Business Makes Anti-American Speeches Signed trade agreement with the USSR CIA believed an invasion of Cuba would inspire Cubans to rise up Eisenhower Okayed the operation (about to leave office)

8 Foreign Affairs 1960: Kennedy learns of a plan to train Cuban Exiles to invade Cuba Kennedy in tough spot: to invade, or not to invade? CIA assures Kennedy that the plan will succeed JFK gave the go-ahead

9 Bay of Pigs Invasion No secret “The Perfect Failure” April 15:
Cuban Exiles, fly bomber planes and attack Cuban airfields, Cuban Exiles also invade beaches No secret “The Perfect Failure” April 17: US Navy ships assist Cuban Brigade, but don’t fight Cuban Forces, led by Fidel Castro, sink 2 ships, and capture 1,200 men

10 Outcome JFK took the blame – got respect from the people
Collins Type II – Write an article! Describe the Bay of Pigs Invasion What was the lead up to the event? What happened? What was the outcome? What do YOU think??

11 Vienna Conference JFK invited Khrushchev to meet with him in Vienna, Austria in June 1961 to ease tensions Khrushchev demanded: US and allies recognize Communist East Germany as an independent nation Withdraw from West Berlin

12 Vienna Conference West Berlin was an “island of freedom” surrounded by East Germany 3.5 Million East Germans escaped through West Berlin JFK & advisors afraid East Germany would use force to regain West Berlin Called reserves into active duty, built nuclear shelters in US, troop buildup in West Germany

13 Berlin Wall August 13, 1961: Khrushchev closed crossing points between East and West Berlin Within hours 25,000 troops were in place to guard a barbed wire barrier around West Berlin A proper wall soon followed: 97 miles around the three Western Sectors, 27 miles between West & East Berlin No Mans Land in Between

14 Collins Type II – Write a letter
What was the Berlin Wall? What led up to its being built? What was its purpose? How will it affect East & West Germans?

15 Cuban Missile Crisis US actions at the Bay of Pigs and Berlin Crisis encouraged USSR to become more aggressive Khrushchev pledged to defend Cuba USSR concerned about nuclear missiles placed in Turkey Convinced Castro to allow Surface - to – air missiles (SAM) and nuclear missiles in Cuba JFK accused of being “soft on communism”

16 Cuban Missile Crisis JFK ordered U-2 spy planes to fly over Cuba
1962: photos showed the building of SAMs JFK’s advisors advised an airstrike Followed by an invasion Act of war Robert McNamara & Robert Kennedy wanted a naval blockade This would be an act of war too, less threatening JFK chose blockade For two days the US prepared for war as Soviet ships sailed for Cuba – Khrushchev said if we try to stop them, WAR!

17 Khrushchev wrote a letter…
Offering to remove the missiles if the US promised to never invade Cuba Then he wrote another letter demanding the US pull missiles out of Turkey JFK ignored the second letter Secretly, Robert Kennedy promised we would take missiles out This is the closest the world has ever come to nuclear war JFK & Khrushchev installed a hotline so they could communicate directly Limited Test Ban Treaty: end testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere & underwater

18 13 Days John F. Kennedy – President Robert Kennedy – Attorney General
Kenny O’Donnell - Advisor Robert McNamara – Secretary of Defense Dean Atcheson – Secretary of State under Truman Adlai Stevenson – Ambassador to the UN

19 November 22, 1963 JFK went to Dallas to campaign for the 1964 election
Rode in a convertible Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy from the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository Two days later Oswald was shot by Jack Ruby Lyndon Baines Johnson gave the oath of office on Air Force One Set up the WARREN COMMISSION TO INVESTIGATE JFK’S DEATH “The legacy of hope died with him. You never had that same sense again that we were moving forward.”

20 LBJ – Lyndon Baines Johnson
Powerful Senator from Texas Hated being VP “It was my duty to carry on” what JFK had planned Master Legislator – used the JOHNSON TREATMENT WAR ON POVERTY GREAT SOCIETY: DOMESTIC PROGRAMS , AIMS TO END POVERTY AND RACIAL INJUSTICE MEDICAID: healthcare for poor MEDICARE: healthcare for 65+ DAISY AD: election of 1964 Beat Barry Goldwater

21 Turn to Page 546 Look at the Major Great Society Programs Chart
Write a Collins Type II: What was the Great Society & its aims Use three examples from chart to describe its goals (underline examples!)


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