SCOTT PILGRIM vs. 7 EVIL EXES … EVIL EX: Hey, look birds, we have unfinished business, I and he. SCOTT: He and me. EVIL EX: Hey, dont you talk to me about grammar! SCOTT: I dislike you, capish? … WHO IS RIGHT? SCOTT OR ONE OF THE 7 EVIL EXES? ACTUALLY, ITS THE EVIL EX WHO IS RIGHT. THE THING THAT IS WRONG HERE IS SCOTTS DECISION TO USE THE DATIVE PRONOUN ME IN THE POSITION WHERE THE NOMINATIVE FORM I IS REQUIRED. I and John are leaving. OR Me and John are leaving. ???
WHAT IS CASE? Case is a nominal category. Intuitively, we could say that the term case applies in the first instance to a system of inflectional forms of a noun to mark the (syntactic?) function of a NP relative to the construction containing it. Alternatively, we could say that case is a grammatical category that can express a number of different relationships between nominal elements.
WHAT ARE THE RELATIONSHIPS EXPRESSED BY THE CATEGORY OF CASE? [ NP [Cthulhu]s destruction of [South Park]] = NP Katuluovo razaranje Saut Parka Cthulhu = the one who destroys (agent/doer) South Park = the thing being destroyed (theme/affected)
WHAT ARE THE RELATIONSHIPS EXPRESSED BY THE CATEGORY OF CASE? [The boy in the red sweater] gave [the boy wearing the orange suit] [a smack on the face] with a pan. The boy in the red sweater = the one who smacks (agent/doer) the boy wearing the orange suit = the person being smacked (theme/affected) a smack on the face = the effect of the activity (result/effected) He gave him a smack on the face with a pan.
SO, WHAT ARE THE RELATIONSHIPS EXPRESSED BY THE NOMINAL CATEGORY OF CASE? LETS TURN OUR GREY CELLS ON!
CASE: primary function The nominal category of case expresses the SEMANTIC ROLES of noun phrases. Noun phrases bear semantic roles both when they are INDEPENDENT (e.g. S, O, C) and when they are DEPENDENT (inside other phrases). DIGRESSION: The NP, unlike any other phrase, can express the meaning of a whole sentence: Cthulus destruction of South Park = Cthulu destroyed South Park.
English is said to have a TWO-CASE SYSTEM, but WITH THREE CASES: PARADOXICAL? 1. Plain/Common Case a) Nominative/Subjective Case b) Accusative/Objective Case 2. Genitive Case Example: I slept soundly. NP = Nom./Subj. Please help me. NP = Acc./Obj. Where is my bag? NP = Gen./inside a larger NP CASE FORMS IN ENGLISH
Common Case Nominative vs. Accusative In Present-day English the contrast between nominative and accusative case is found only with a handful of pronouns: NominativeAccusative Personal :IMe WeUs HeHim SheHer TheyThem Interrogative :WhoWhom
CASE FORMS OF NOUNS IN ENGLISH The actual number of nominal case forms in English depends largely on whether you WRITE the forms or you PRONOUNCE the forms. The genitive inflection is phonologically identical with the regular plural inflection, so the case distinction is neutralized in the plural of the vast majority of nouns in English.
CASE FORMS IN ENGLISH Orthographically, i.e. in writing, a FOURFOLD CASE DISTINCTION always obtains: One cows tail. All the cows tails. With irregular nouns, a FOURFOLD CASE DISTINCTION is also usually obtained in both WRITING and SPEECH.
GENITIVE INFLECTION However, the genitive inflection is unique in one particular aspect. – [Morten]s microphone – [the King]s microphone (King = Elvis) – [the late King of pop music]s microphone NOTE: * the late Kings of pop music microphone The genitive suffix is NOT ADDED TO NOUNS, it is ADDED TO NOUN PHRASES.
GENITIVE INFLECTION When the genitive inflection is added to a noun phrase with postmodification, it is called GROUP GENITIVE or PHRASAL GENITIVE. – [the chief of staff]s office – [the chiefs of staff]s debriefing – [the teacher of music]s room – [somebody else]s fault NOTE THAT THE GENITIVE SUFFIX IS ADDED TO THE LEFT EDGE OF THE PHRASE REGARDLESS WHETHER IT ENDS IN A NOUN OR SOME OTHER PART OF SPEECH. – [the man opposite me]s facial expression [PRON.] – [the man in black]s face [ADJ] – [a man I know]s coat [V] – [the man I talked about]s book [P] – [the man I saw yesterday]s hat [ADV]
GENITIVE INFLECTION However, the group genitive is avoided WHEN THE POSTMODIFICATION IS LESS INSTITUTIONALIZED, especially in FORMAL CONTEXTS. – ??? [the man in the dark suit]s name – OK: the name of [the man in the dark suit] – [the King of pop music]s microphone WHAT DOES THIS ACTUALLY MEAN? SOMETHING YOU ALREADY KNOW! The genitive case is NOT NECESSARILY REALIZED BY THE GENITIVE SUFFIX S /, it is SOMETIMES RELIZED BY THE PREPOSITIONAL OF-GENITIVE. S / GENITIVE IS CALLED THE SAXON GENITIVE. OF-GENITIVE IS CALLED THE NOMAN GENITIVE.
GENITIVE MARKERS: S vs. OF The Saxon genitive and the Norman genitive are USUALLY INTERCHANGEABLE, BUT THIS IS NOT A GENERAL RULE. – [the yacht]s name – the name of [the yacht] – [John]s house – * the house of [John] – the front of [the car] – * [the car]s front THE CHOICE OF USING EITHER OF-GENITIVE, S GENITIVE OR BOTH DEPENDS ON THE MEANING OF THE HEAD NOUN (I.E. SEMANTIC PROPERTIES/CLASS OF THE HEAD)
THE GENITIVE CASE - Syntactic Point of View A NOUN PHRASE IN THE GENITIVE CASE PRECEDES THE HEAD NOUN OF A NP AND IS THEREFORE PART OF THE PREMODIFICATION OF THE HEAD NOUN. THERE ARE TWO MAIN FUNCTIONS THAT THE PREMODIFYING GENITIVE CASE NOUN CAN PERFORM: DETERMINER FUNCTION: Toms car (compare: *the Toms car) In this function, the genitive functions just like POSSESIVE DETERMINERS (my, your, her, etc.) MODIFIER FUNCTION: a pink girls car (compare: * pink girls car) In this function, the genitive functions just like ADJECTIVAL MODIFIERS. GENITIVE FUNCTIONS IN NPs
THE DETERMINER GENITIVE CAN EXPRESS THE FOLLOWING MEANINGS: Possessive Genitive: Example:Mr Johnsons passport Mr Johnson has a passport the earths gravity the earth has a certain gravity Subjective Genitive: Example:the boys application the boy applied for (…) her parents consent the parents consented Objective Genitive: Example:the familys support (…) supports the family the boys release released the boy Genitive of Origin: Example:the girls story the girl told a story the generals letter the general wrote a letter Genitive of Attribute: Example:the victims courage the victim had courage/was courageous Partitive Genitive: Example:the babys eyes the baby has (blue) eyes the earths surface the earth has a (rough) surface GENITIVE MEANINGS: SEMANTICS
THE MODIFIER GENITIVE CAN EXPRESS THE FOLLOWING MEANINGS: Descriptive Genitive: Example:a womens college a college for women a summers day a summer day, a day in the summer Genitive of Measure: Example:ten days absence the absence lasted ten days GENITIVE MEANINGS: SEMANTICS
GENITIVE FUNCTIONS: THERES ANOTHER ONE EXCEPTIONS, EXCEPTIONS, EXCEPTIONS…
determiner gen. / possessive gen. determiner gen. / subjective or objective gen. determiner gen. / gen. of attribute modifier gen. / descriptive gen. determiner gen. / possessive gen. modifier gen. / descriptive gen. determiner gen. / possessive gen. modifier gen. / gen. of measure 1: determiner gen./gen. of origin 2: modifier gen./descriptive gen. 1: determiner gen. / possessive gen. 2: modifier gen. / descriptive gen. determiner gen. / objective gen. modifier gen. / gen. of measure 1: determiner gen. / partitive gen. 2: modifier gen. / descriptive gen. determiner gen. / objective gen. modifier gen. / descriptive gen. 1: determiner gen. / possessive gen. 2: modifier gen. / descriptive gen.
zavaravati se lavovski (najveći) deo i dobro i loše usta razdeljka centar mete / u sred srede
my sisters-in-laws house (possessive gen.) a womens club (descriptive gen.) a stewardesss job (descriptive gen.) a girls school (descriptive gen.) Doriss hat (possessive gen.) a three hours delay (gen. of measure) the trees shade (possessive gen.) / the shade of the tree the earths surface (partitive gen.) / the surface of the earth Keats (or Keatss) poetry (gen. of origin) the worlds problems (possessive gen.) / the problems of the world The name of the woman wearing the silly hat Europes art treasures (possessive gen.) / art treasures of Europe Socrates student (descriptive gen.) one of my aunts many paintings (possessive gen.)
the result of the baseball match Johns parents house the towns only cinema the wife of the man talking to Mary last weeks storm outside of the house todays newspapers the companys new manager the buildings first floor / the first floor of the building Britains specialists Tom and Janes children Toms child and Janes child
12. Transform the following sentences into Noun Phrases: a)The strike lasted four days. It was_________________ b)The book has 200 pages. It is _________________ c)Each of the tickets cost five pounds. They were _________________ d)His holiday lasted two weeks. It was _________________ a four-day strike a 200-page book five-pound tickets a two-week holiday NOTICE THAT SOMETIMES YOU CAN ALSO USE THE GENITIVE CASE TO EXPRESS THE SAME MEANING: A four days strike A two weeks holiday
ADJECTIVES AND THE AP PRACTICE CLASS #1 2012-02-21
FUNCTION (syntactic function – their function in the sentence) PARADIGM – adjectives can be compared ADJECTIVE PHRASES general characteristics syntactic functions of adjectives DEPENDENT INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT FUNCTION = ATTRIBUTIVE FUNCTION Adjective Phrase is a PART OF ANOTHER PHRASE, i.e. a part of the NP, its function is to modify the meaning of the HEAD NOUN. Typically, an attributive adjective follows the determiner and precedes the noun: NP[a AP[very beautiful] painting] or NP[an AP[expensive] gift] However, in some cases the adjective follows the HEAD NOUN: NP[somebody AP[important]] or NP[secretary AP[general]] DEPENDENT FUNCTION = ATTRIBUTIVE FUNCTION Adjective Phrase is a PART OF ANOTHER PHRASE, i.e. a part of the NP, its function is to modify the meaning of the HEAD NOUN. Typically, an attributive adjective follows the determiner and precedes the noun: NP[a AP[very beautiful] painting] or NP[an AP[expensive] gift] However, in some cases the adjective follows the HEAD NOUN: NP[somebody AP[important]] or NP[secretary AP[general]] INDEPENDENT FUNCTION = PREDICATIVE FUNCTION Adjective Phrase has an INDEPENDENT FUNCTION IN THE SENTENCE, i.e. it functions as s SENTENCE ELEMENT. Cs – subject complement: That painting is AP[very beautiful]. Co – object complement: He made his parents AP[proud]. The policeman kicked the door AP[open]. INDEPENDENT FUNCTION = PREDICATIVE FUNCTION Adjective Phrase has an INDEPENDENT FUNCTION IN THE SENTENCE, i.e. it functions as s SENTENCE ELEMENT. Cs – subject complement: That painting is AP[very beautiful]. Co – object complement: He made his parents AP[proud]. The policeman kicked the door AP[open]. An ADJECTIVE PHRASE is a phrase that has an ADJECTIVE as its HEAD.
ADJECTIVE PHRASE is a phrase which has an adjective as its head, but it need not only contain the head. TWO TYPES of complex adjective phrases: – APs with PREMODIFICATION: AP=Adj e.g. intelligent AP=Adv+Adje.g. very intelligent AP=Adj+Adve.g. intelligent enough, intelligent enough – APs with COMPLEMENTATION: AP=Adj+PPe.g. intelligent beyond your expectations AP=Adj+Cl non-fin e.g. intelligent enough to quit that job AP=Adj+Cl fin e.g. certain that he will succeed FORMS OF THE ADJECTIVE PHRASE
PAGE 103 – exercise 1 (a, b, c) ADV HEAD HEAD ADV Clause – non-finite HEAD + Clause – non-finite = discontinuous AP [ ][ ]
PAGE 103 – exercise 1 (d, e, f) NO APs IN d) !!! Yippee!!! HEAD NO APs IN e) either!!! Yippee-ki-yay!!!
PAGE 103 – exercise 1 (g, h, i) ADV HEAD PP HEAD PP
PAGE 103 – exercise 1 (j) HEAD ADV HEAD Clause-NF
PAGE 103 – exercise 1 (k,l,m) ADV HEAD PP PP HEAD Clause – non-finite [ ][ ] ADV HEAD Clause - finite
PAGE 103 – exercise 1 (n,o,q,r) HEAD ADV Clause – non-finite [ ][ ] ADV HEAD