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S - 1 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Designed For Integrity ? Robert G Parker The Need For Robotic Assurance
S - 2 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics When Considering Robotics, What Do You Think Of ? Science Fiction to Automobile Manufacturing Robots are a Way of Life
S - 3 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics When Considering Robotics, What Do You Think Of ? The University of Michigan's biped robot MABEL, for example, can run 6.8 mph and keep its balance while reacting to its environment. Min. Order: 80 Pieces FOB Price: US $31.96- 48.58 / Piece CH Radio RC Helicopter with Camera
S - 4 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Amplifying Human Productivity Simple Tools Leveraged Tools Power Transfer Automated Tasks
S - 5 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Amplifying Human Productivity Automated Processes Computer Controlled Processes Robotic Controlled Processes Robotic Assisted Processes
S - 6 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Human Augmentation: Ekso Skeleton Ekso Bionics, a spin-off from Berkeley's robotics lab, has received research grants from the DOD and licensed technology to Lockheed Martin, in connection with its body-enhancing robot, Ekso Skeleton. Originally intended to help soldiers in the field in terms of strength, endurance, and surviving catastrophic wounds, Ekso Bionics markets its technology commercially as an aid to paraplegics. Assists Human Movement Provides Added Strength Suitable for Paraplegics Robotics Originally From DARPA – Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency
S - 7 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics You think running a marathon is tough? Try running a marathon wearing a 40-lb exoskeleton strapped to your lower body. And try doing it without the use of your legs. It took her 16 days, but 32-year-old Claire Lomas has done it. On May 8, she crossed the finish line of a race that began on April 22, greeted by crowds of supporters as she emerged from under an arch of red balloons at the marathons end. Lomas, who is paralyzed from the chest down, wore a bionic suit designed to allow people with lower-limb paralysis to walk and stand, which helped her cover about two miles a day. The ReWalk suit, designed by Israeli firm Argo Medical Technologies, was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (and, TV watchers will note, featured on an episode of Glee). It costs about $70,000
S - 8 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Source: L A Times 2013-05-06
S - 9 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Drones Source: LA Times May 13, 2013Source: USA Today April 1, 2013 Source: TC April 2013
S - 10 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Drones Source USA Today September 7, 2012 Police Use Source: TC January 28, 2013
S - 11 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Activities Create Documents Check Documents Documents Acted Upon Results Reviewed Create Input Computer Checks Input Computer Processes Input Results (Sometimes ) Checked Create Robot Instructions Robot Interprets Instructions Robot Executes Instructions ? The Computers Check Us
S - 12 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Create Robot Instructions Robot Interprets Instructions Robot Executes Instructions ? We lack standards and requirements for assurance that the robotic devices will perform as intended Perhaps Humans Have to Check the Robots Perhaps We Require Some Form of Assurance
S - 13 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics In 2013, the 2014 Mercedes S-Class will have the option of autonomous steering, lane guidance, acceleration/braking, parking, accident avoidance, and driver fatigue detection, in both city traffic and highway speeds of up to 124 miles (200 km) per hour.2014 Mercedes S-Classlane guidanceacceleration/brakingparkingaccident avoidancedriver fatigue detection In 2013, the 2014 BMW i3 will autonomously steer, accelerate and brake in traffic jams at up to 25 miles (40 km) per hour.2014 BMW i3 By 2014, Volvo expects vehicles that can be autonomous at up to 31 miles (50 km) per hour, with expected use in heavy traffic. By 2014, Israeli company Mobileye expects to release semi-autonomous car technology.IsraeliMobileye By 2015, Audi plans to market vehicles that can autonomously steer, accelerate and brake at lower speeds, such as in traffic jams. By 2015, Cadillac plans vehicles with "super cruise": autonomous steering, braking and lane guidance By 2015, Nissan expects to sell vehicles with autonomous steering, braking, lane guidance, throttle, gear shifting, and, as permitted by law, unoccupied self-parking after passengers exit. By 2016, Tesla expects to develop technology that behaves autonomously for 90 percent of distance driven.Tesla
S - 14 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Google can't be hoping to have its software legally blamed for a slice of the traffic crashes that cost more than $160 billion a year in this country. Yet if the operators of Google's self- driving cars retain all legal responsibility, simply turning the system on would be seen in court as a sign they weren't paying attention. Google Cars This photo of what looks like a minor case of Prius-on-Prius vehicular violence may actually be a piece of automotive history: the first accident caused by Google's self-driving car. Whose name should the cop write down on the ticket?Google's self-driving car
S - 15 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Rio Tinto – The Future is Already Here The autonomous trucks navigate in the complex mining environment and can haul a 320-U.S.-ton payload of overburden and ore without a driver. At the West Angelas Mine, the trucks are operated and controlled entirely using a supervisory computer at an operations center. In the future, the trucks will be controlled 24 hours a day from a remote operations center located more than 1,000 km (621 mi) away in Perth Key to the trucks' success is their ability to operate 24 hours a day. (Turns out humans, who need to sleep and use the bathroom and stuff, are really inefficient.) The dump trucks, which communicate wirelessly, navigate using a very precise GPS and can autonomously detect obstacles. They can avoid other vehicles or follow behind them, and are linked to a computer in charge of supervising their actions. Robots overseeing robots! This is the type of job that is ideal for robots to take over from humans: the work is tedious, exhausting, and dangerous. The next step? Rio Tinto is currently testing autonomous drills.
S - 16 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Economic Impact Source: TC-2013-06-01
S - 17 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Turkish Airline – Flight 1951 Descending through 8,000 ft Barometric Altimeter providing Valid Data Radio Altimeter providing false data (-8 ft) Radio Altimeter on Pilot's side only Pilot over-rode false reading Co-pilot was performing the landing Intercepted the ILS at 1,000 feet – slightly high due to approach requirements ILS controlled the approach – retarded the throttles for rapid descent Unknown to the crew the ILS was reading the Pilots radio altimeter at -8 ft. ILS set the engines to full retard - idle (assuming they were on the ground) The results were February 2009
S - 18 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Who Was at Fault ? Pilot Computer In the report there is heavy criticism of aircraft manufacturer Boeing, which built the 737 and was aware of problems with the radio altimeters. (2,500 reports) Boeing in 2004 added a warning in the 737-800 dispatch deviation guide that an autopilot or auto-throttle must not be used during approach and landing if its associated radio altimeter is found to be inoperative before the flight begins. However, the report noted that the aircrafts quick reference handbook and flight crew operating manual do not contain similar guidance for a radio altimeter malfunction that occurs during flight.
S - 19 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Who Was at Fault ? The radio altimeter system did not operate correctly causing anomalous behaviour of the automatic flight system and other systems on the aircraft during flight TK1951. The approach of flight TK1951, where the auto-throttle functioned as though immediately before landing on the basis of incorrect radio altimeter system data, while the other part was still actively flying (the right autopilot was following the glide slope signal), presented the crew with an automation surprise that cannot be traced in the Boeing 737 books or training courses. The word RETARD appeared on the flight mode annunciation of both primary flight displays. The flight could have been continued safely in such a situation if the pilots had intervened on time by any of the following methods: Pressing the TO/GA button on the thrust levers to initiate a go-around. Advancing the throttles and keep them in position manually. Deactivating the auto-throttle (and possibly the right autopilot) and taking over control manually.
S - 20 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Japanese Nursing Assistant Robot Medical Robots will replace care givers in turning patients over, carrying them from their beds to chairs or gurneys and moving beds around the hospital Sterilization Robots will Clean and Disinfect Rooms
S - 21 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics The Need For Assurance On March 21, 1986, oilfield worker Ray Cox visited a clinic in Tyler, Texas, to receive his radiation treatment. Cox knew from his previous visits that the procedure should be painless--but that day, he felt a jolt of searing heat. Outside the shielded treatment room, the therapy technologist was puzzled. The computer terminal used to operate the radiation machine displayed the cryptic message, "Malfunction 54," indicating the incorrect dose had been delivered. Clinic staff were unable to find anything wrong with the machine, so they sent Cox home and continued treating other patients. Four days later, "Malfunction 54" flashed on the screen again during a treatment, this time while a sixty-six-year- old bus driver, Verdon Kidd, was receiving therapy at the Tyler cancer centre for skin cancer on his face. He became disoriented and then comatose, and died three weeks later. Kidd's death, which preceded Cox's by nearly four months, made medical history -- the first fatality caused, according to Jacky's research, by an overdose during radiation treatment. Therac-25 ?
S - 22 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics v We Need Robotic Assurance
S - 23 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards Asimov - 1950s Science Fiction ISO/IEC – Various Standards NIST - Some Standards Korea – Updated 2012 Manufacturing Robots Japan - Ten Principles of Robotic Law
S - 24 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. Asimovs Three Laws of Robotics Robotic Standards Asimov
S - 25 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards ISO/IEC
S - 26 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards ISO 10218:2011 standard for robot manufacturers and integrators.
S - 27 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards NIST - ANSI ISO 10218:2011 standard for robot manufacturers and integrators. Developed by Robotic Industries Association (RIA), the ANSI/RIA R15.06-2012 standard has been updated for the first time since 1999 and is now harmonized with the International ISO 10218:2011 standard for robot manufacturers and integrators. Standards on Calibration October 21-23 2013 Conference Towards Mobile Manipulator Safety Standards
S - 28 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics NIST - ANSI Robotic Standards Repetitive Tasks Customized Tooling Limited Human Access
S - 29 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards Korea – South Korean Robot Ethics Charter 2012 Part 1: Manufacturing Standards A-Limit autonomy of robots – Always possible for humans to assume control B -Manufacturing QA– Minimize injury or death – community safety guaranteed C –Manufacturers ensure risk of psychological harm to users is minimized D–Manufacturers ensure product is identified and identity not changed E–Robots designed to protect personal data – encryption, secure storage F–Robots designed so all their actions (on-line & real world) are traceable at all times G–Robots design must be ecologically sensitive and sustainable
S - 30 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards Korea – South Korean Robot Ethics Charter 2012 Part 2: Rights & Responsibilities of Users/Owners Section1: Rights and Expectations of Owners and Users 1-Owners have the right to be able to take control of the robot 2-Owners & users have right to use robot without fear of physical/psychological harm 3-Users have right to security of their personal details and sensitive information 4-Owners & users have right to expect robot will perform any task for which it has been explicitly designed (Subject to Section 2)
S - 31 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards Korea – South Korean Robot Ethics Charter 2012 Part 2: Rights & Responsibilities of Users/Owners Section2: Responsibilities of Owners and Users 1-A user must not use a robot to commit an illegal act 2-A user must not use a robot such that it may cause physical or psychological harm 3-An owner must take reasonable precautions to ensure the robot does not pose a threat to safety and well being of individual or their property
S - 32 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards Korea – South Korean Robot Ethics Charter 2012 Part 2: Rights & Responsibilities of Users/Owners Section3: Offences Under Korean Law 1-To deliberately damage or destroy a robot 2-Through gross negligence, to allow a robot to come to harm 3-It is a lesser but nonetheless serious offence to treat a robot in a way which may be construed as deliberately and inordinately abusive
S - 33 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards Korea – South Korean Robot Ethics Charter 2012 Part 3: Rights & Responsibilities For Robots Section1: Responsibilities of Robots 1-A robot may not injure a human or, through inaction, allow a human to come to harm 2-A robot must obey any orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with Part 3, section 1, subsection 1 of this Charter 3-A robot must not deceive a human being
S - 34 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards Korea – South Korean Robot Ethics Charter 2012 Part 3: Rights & Responsibilities For Robots Section2: Rights of Robots Under Korean Law, Robots are afforded the following fundamental rights: 1- The right to exist without fear of injury or death 2-The right to live an existence free from systematic abuse The document above is a mock-up of what the South Korean Robot Ethics Charter (currently being drafted) may look like in the future, based on the limited information about the charter available from media reports
S - 35 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Standards Japan – Ten Principles of Robot Law - circa 2010 These principles are adapted from the original Ten Principles of Robot Law formulated by Osamu Tezuka for his Astro Boy series.Osamu TezukaAstro Boy 1. Robots must serve mankind 2. Robots must never kill or injure humans 3. Robot manufacturers' shall be responsible for their creations 4. Robots involved in the production of currency, contraband or dangerous goods, must hold a current permit. 5. Robots shall not leave the country without a permit. 6. A robots identity must not be altered, concealed or allowed to be misconstrued. 7. Robots shall remain identifiable at all times. 8. Robots created for adult purposes shall not be permitted to work with children. 9. Robots must not assist in criminal activities, nor aid or abet criminals to escape justice. 10. Robots must refrain from damaging human homes or tools, including other robots.
S - 36 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics v We Need Robotic Assurance v We Need Robotic Standards Against which to Assess Compliance and Obtain Assurance Management Standards Policies Procedures Processes Monitoring Technical Standards Device/Class Specific Process Specific Results Specific – Must Do Something Time Specific Standards Objective - Unbiased Measureable Complete Relevant ?
S - 37 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics ISO 13482 – Robots and robotic devices - Safety requirements for service robots - Personal care robot An Annex now provides exemplar risk assessment for different robot types. In addition, minimal required performance levels according to ISO 13849-1 are specified in the main text. Management Umbrella Tech-1Tech-2Tech-3Tech-4
S - 38 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics v We Need Robotic Assurance v We Need Robotic Standards Against which to Assess Compliance and Obtain Assurance v We Need A Taxonomy Under Which Robotic Standards Can Be Developed v We Need Metrics for Each Standard Against Which Compliance Can be Measured ?
S - 39 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Sample Robotic Classification
S - 40 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Where do we go from here? Develop a Conceptual Structure v Map to Available Guidance v Perform Gap Analysis v Establish an Approach for Development v Establish Draft Development Terms & Taxonomy v Consider and Determine Alliances ISO/IEC Accounting Engineers IT Audit v Conduct a Pilot Project Proof of Concept v Assess Results Consider Next Steps Project Management Develop a Robotic Assurance Integrity Model
S - 41 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Assurance Integrity Model Integrity Component Objectives Integrity Component Techniques
S - 42 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Integrity Component Objectives Accuracy Completeness Relevance Authorized Timeliness Security Integrity Ensure the robotic instructions are executed in accordance with the approved detailed design Ensure the robotic instructions are complete with respect to the specific task required Ensure the robotic instructions incorporate relevant task, situational or other environmental considerations or references Ensure the robotic instructions are approved prior to their use within robotic devices Ensure the robotic instructions are executed in a timely manner, in the correct sequence with consideration of related activities Ensure the robotic instructions may not and have not been compromised or otherwise modified Ensure the robotic instructions require acknowledgement and approval of each individual task as completed
S - 43 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Accuracy Completeness Relevance Authorized Timeliness Security Integrity Integrity Component Techniques Multiple processes, multiple processing paths, results compared and agreed prior to processes continuing Predefined common tasks, industry standards, common scripting and common links (Perhaps dealing with movement, etc.) Adoption of information lifecycle techniques, relate actions to tasks, situations, environment. Combine information from multiple sensors Initial handshake, confirming channels, referencing instructions, encryption Delayed message timeout; resend required, positive message sequencing (tested not assumed) Message authentication, encryption, etc. Acknowledgement and approval of task completion
S - 44 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Assurance Are We Too Late?
S - 45 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics British scientist Kevin Warwick is determined to meld man and machine Twelve years ago, Warwick declared he was on a mission to become the worlds first man-turned-machine Surgeons inserted a glass capsule containing several micro- processors into Warwicks arm, and for the next nine days his presence was recorded by computers throughout the universitys cybernetics department. When Kevin was connected to the internet, if you had known the IP address of his nervous system… But what they did is not tell anybody what they were doing until they had done it. Careful not to get your nervous system spammed or hacked! Output from the sensors fed to his nervous system (fancy thing on his wrist) When an object came closer, his brain received an increased frequency of ultrasounds (?). So basically with a blindfold on, Kevin was able to move around and detect objects pretty accurately. Not what they were, but where they were. It felt like something was coming close to me. Extended the sensory range. Like what does it feel like to see something
S - 46 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Rat brain robot Prof Warwicks research created the rat brain robot with a biological brain. He cultured brain cells directly on to a recording surface and then re-embodied the brain within a robotic body. The robot made decisions based on information coming in. Two to three months on the robot had learned from its mistakes. Film of a two month-old robot showed that it had perfected the art of not bumping into the wall. Under the microscope scientists could see how the neural connections developed. The rat brain robot has a purely biological brain, with no computer involved. At the moment, says Prof Warwick, the best neuron-brain robots we can build have, with tens of thousands of brain cells, the intelligence of a bee or a wasp. This is still nowhere near the 100 billion neurons present in a human brain, although researchers are now using human neurons in robots. A baby robot at two hours old clearly hadnt yet learned what its function is. It was supposed to be able to detect a wall and change direction to avoid hitting it, but at such a young age it made lots of mistakes.
S - 47 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Prof Warwick is no stranger to using himself as a guinea pig for his research. One experiment, which previously had only been tested on chickens, involved him undergoing a two hour operation by a neurosurgeon to implant a brain gate system in him, linking his nervous system with a computer. His wife also had a connector implanted. Every time she moved Prof Warwicks brain received a signal. It was the first time people had electronically communicated by thought alone. The implant in his arm had wires running to a connector. A computer monitored the signals between his brain and arm. Prof Warwicks brain learned to recognise the system of pulses emitted during the three months of the experiment. He was able to turn on lights and control a wheelchair via the implant.
S - 48 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Technology There are Good News Stories Robotic Mind Control
S - 49 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics For example, concepts of ethical behaviour, different outcomes from performing the same task (depending on the mood, level of concentration, distractions, etc. and the robots environment), legally, is the robot now a person, and so forth If we consider that, how do we apply robotic laws, standards and best practices When one starts into some form of human-like robotics the dynamics are considerably changed
S - 50 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robotic Assurance Hopefully The Assurance Train Has Not Left The Station With Human Like Robots
S - 51 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Next Steps Develop a Robotics Integrity ModelThoughts Comments Input We would appreciate your: We have Data Thoughts Model Components
S - 52 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics Robert G Parker Thank You For Your Interest and Participation MBA, FCPA, CPACA, CISA, CRISC, CMC
S - 53 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics
S - 54 © 2013 Robert G Parker Robotics
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© 2013 Robert G Parker S-1 July 10, 2013 Pandemics have been discussed since 2003 and the SARS (South Asian Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak Since the 1919.
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