Presentation on theme: "Peter Gibbs President of Survival Systems Training Limited, Dartmouth, NS. Designed course curriculum for Emergency Breathing Systems for both military."— Presentation transcript:
1 Peter GibbsPresident of Survival Systems Training Limited, Dartmouth, NS.Designed course curriculum for Emergency Breathing Systems for both military and civilian helicopter operations.Provided train-the-trainer programs in Aircraft Ditching and Emergency Breathing Systems world-wide for both military and commercial operations.22 years service in the Royal Navy as a helicopter search and rescue diver and commando helicopter crewman.Commercial divers certificate HSE Part IV (UK), Master Sports Diver ACUC.31 years in the survival business.me atENSURE THAT THE TRAINEES UNDERSTAND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALL THREE COMPONENTS.
2 The Principles of Emergency Breathing Systems for Helicopter Underwater Escape Foster broader knowledge and understanding of the differences between a compressed air breathing system and a rebreathing systems used for helicopter underwater escape.
3 Helicopter Statistics* In 24 accidents where the cause of death was known162 fatalities92 drowned56.7% of fatalities were the result of drowning (where the cause of death was known).*World Civil Helicopter Water Impacts: Summary of Occupant Injuries. Courtesy Clifford (1996).
4 Why People PerishSurvival will be determined by an individuals’ breath-hold time.Cold shock (Essentials of Sea Survival, Golden and Tipton).Gasp reflex and inability to breath hold.
5 A Histogram of BHT Under Water in 228 Subjects (Cheung et al, 2001)
6 The StudyScientific Study. An Investigation of Passenger Evacuation from the Super Puma Helicopter. Brooks, Muir, Gibbs. (March 1999).All participants were underwater escape trainers or divers and each person carried an emergency breathing system for added safety.Study showed under controlled conditions there was a breath-hold requirement of between seconds for all subjects to escape.This study proved that there was a need for passengers to carry some form of supplementary air. (Published June 2001, Aerospace Medical Journal)
8 The Solution Provide some form of air system (3 systems) RebreatherHybrid RebreatherCompressed AirBased on Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA)Based on breathing air at atmospheric pressureBased on breathing air at atmospheric pressure plus 3.5 litres of compressed air
9 Types of Systems Compressed Air Demand Valve 1st Stage Regulator Mouth PieceAluminum Cylinder 3000 psiLow Pressure Hose
10 Types of Systems Rebreather Securing Strap Mouth Piece and Nose Clip Flexible HoseRed Activating KnobCounter Lung
11 Types of Systems Hybrid Rebreather Emergency Manual Inflator 3.5 Litres Compressed AirSalt Water Activated Automatic InflatorSecuring Strap
12 Systems Specifications COMPRESSED AIRWorking pressure 1800 lbs psi lbsVolume 42 litres - 80 litresSystem weight - approximately 3 lbs.Regulator - first stageDemand valve - second stageDuration of air supply approximately 21 breaths at 21 feet**based on an average breath volume of 1.5 litres at a breath rate 10.5 bmp with a starting pressure of 3000 psi.REBREATHER/HYBRIDAtmospheric pressureVolume = Lung volume litresSystem weight lbs.Regulator - not requiredDemand valve - not requiredDuration - ?
13 Compressed Air POSITIVE Instant supply of air underwater. Requires no prior activationDuration minutesSeveral types availablePurge capabilityProven in real accidentsNEGATIVEPulmonary over inflation injuryIntegration difficulties with survival equipmentRuns out without warning
14 Rebreather (Hybrid) POSITIVE Simple design NEGATIVE Complex procedures to follow to make operational during critical part of flight (I.e. ditching)Must activate the system before immersion.No purge capability (cannot be operated under water)Breathing resistance changes with orientation and depth. May be difficult or impossible to breathe at depth.Requires a full breath of air prior to going underwater (rebreather only)Danger of HypoxiaHybrid Pulmonary Over inflation injuryIntegration difficulties with survival equipmentPOSITIVESimple design
15 Many Different Systems IntegrationMany Different SystemsLifejacketSuitMounted in AircraftRequires skillful human engineering to match air system to equipment and aviation environment
16 Flight Commander Leg Mounted Compressed Air System
17 Brace Position Leg Mounted Compressed Air System (2 point harness)
18 Compressed Air System Lifejacket/Chest Mounted Using a 4-Point Harness
19 Leg Mounted Compressed Air System Using a Helly Hansen Immersion Suit
20 Lifejacket/Chest Mounted Compressed Air System Using a 4-Point Harness
24 Training Requirements All Systems Require:Theory TrainingPractical Wet TrainingPractical Underwater Egress TrainingApproximately four (4) hours
25 Maintenance Compressed Air System User visual check Recharge 2 year check cylinder and replace O-rings5 year hydrostatic test if cylinder is greater than 2” in diameter.Hygiene easyRebreatherUser visual checkRe-pack5 year replace gas cylinder, operating mechanism, O-rings and swivel elbowHygiene difficult and time consuming (training only)
26 ConclusionIt is vital to have some form of air system for helicopter underwater escape, especially flying over water below 150CI have discussed the advantages and disadvantages of three systems - compressed air, a rebreather (with no compressed air) and a hybrid rebreather (with compressed air).It is important that the correct system is implemented and that thorough human engineering has been used to integrate the system so it works as advertised.Questions