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History of Diving www.denkorea.co.kr. Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "History of Diving www.denkorea.co.kr. Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Diving

2 Introduction

3 Purpose Purpose - general history of the development - general history of the development of military diving operations of military diving operations Scope Scope - outlines the hard work and dedication - outlines the hard work and dedication of a number of individuals who were of a number of individuals who were pioneers in the development of diving pioneers in the development of diving technology technology

4 Role of the ROKN Role of the ROKN - UDT / Seal - UDT / Seal - Ship maintenance, search, - Ship maintenance, search, - Rescue & salvage operation - Rescue & salvage operation - Inspection & reparing naval vessels - Inspection & reparing naval vessels - Underwater construction - Underwater construction - Location & recovering downed aircraft - Location & recovering downed aircraft

5 Surface-Supplied Air Diving

6 - Scyllis - Scyllis · Perscian King, Xerxes · Perscian King, Xerxes · B.C. 15C · B.C. 15C · recover sunken treasure · recover sunken treasure - Alexander the Great - Alexander the Great · B.C. 332 · B.C. 332 · remove obstacles in the Lebanon harbor · remove obstacles in the Lebanon harbor Introduction

7 Breathing Tubes

8 Breathing Bag

9 Diving Bells ( ) 15c ~18c 15c ~18c For hours rather than minutes For hours rather than minutes Bell-shaped apparatus with the bottom Bell-shaped apparatus with the bottom open to the sea open to the sea

10 1690, Edmund Halley 1690, Edmund Halley - 60 ft, 4 divers, 1.5 hours - 60 ft, 4 divers, 1.5 hours 4 hours, 66ft 4 hours, 66ft

11 Diving Dress Design 1. Lethbridges Diving Dress

12 2. Deanes Patented Diving Dress - protection from the cold - protection from the cold - helmet with view port - helmet with view port - hose connections for surface supplied air - hose connections for surface supplied air 3. Siebes Improved Diving Dress - sealed the helmet to the dress at the collar - sealed the helmet to the dress at the collar - water proof suit - water proof suit - exhaust valve - exhaust valve · MK V standard deep-sea diving dress · MK V standard deep-sea diving dress

13

14

15 Caissons - Engineering technology

16 Physiological Discoveries Physiological Discoveries 1. Caisson Disease (Decompression sickness) - dizzy spell ( ) - dizzy spell ( ) - Breathing difficulties ( ) - Breathing difficulties ( ) - Sharp pain in the joint or abdomen - Sharp pain in the joint or abdomen ( ) ( ) - bends - bends

17 1-1. Causes of DCS Paul Bert (French physiologist) - Paul Bert (French physiologist) - nitrogen into solution in the blood & tissues of - nitrogen into solution in the blood & tissues of the body (under pressure) the body (under pressure) - gas bubbles throughout the body (pressure released) - gas bubbles throughout the body (pressure released) - symptom - symptom 1-2. Prevention & Treatment of DCS - slowly return - slowly return - recompression chamber (1879) - recompression chamber (1879)

18 2. Inadequate Ventilation - J. S Haldene (English physiologist) - J. S Haldene (English physiologist) - CO2 accumulation inadequate ventilation - CO2 accumulation inadequate ventilation - standard supply rate of flow 1.5 fpm - standard supply rate of flow 1.5 fpm - pumps - pumps 3. Nitrogen Narcosis ( ) ft ft - euphoric & losing judgment - euphoric & losing judgment - anesthetic properties - anesthetic properties - Heliox - Heliox

19 Armored Diving Suits Atmospheric Diving Suit Atmospheric Diving Suit (ADS) = (ADS) = 2000 ft 2000 ft

20 MK V Deep-sea Diving Dress

21 1905, MK V Diving Helmet 1905, MK V Diving Helmet 1916, Communication system 1916, Communication system Regulating valve Regulating valve Relief valve Relief valve Exhaust valve (1927) Exhaust valve (1927) 1927, Deep sea dress & umbilical 1927, Deep sea dress & umbilical MK 12 MK 12 MK 21 MK 21

22 Scuba Diving

23 S C U B A SCUBA : Self – Contained Underwater SCUBA : Self – Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus Breathing Apparatus Open – Circuit Scuba Open – Circuit Scuba Closed – Circuit Scuba Closed – Circuit Scuba Semiclosed – Circuit Scuba Semiclosed – Circuit Scuba

24 Open-circuit Scuba Rouquayrols Demand Regulator Rouquayrols Demand Regulator LePrieurs Open-Circuit Scuba Design LePrieurs Open-Circuit Scuba Design Cousteau ND Gagnans Aqua-Lung Cousteau ND Gagnans Aqua-Lung Impact of Scuba on Diving Impact of Scuba on Diving

25 Fleuss Closed-Circuit Scuba Fleuss Closed-Circuit Scuba Modern Closed-Circuit System Modern Closed-Circuit System Closed-Circuit Scuba

26 Hazards of Using Oxygen in Scuba Hazards of Using Oxygen in Scuba 1878, Paul Bert 1878, Paul Bert VENTIDC (CNS toxicity) VENTIDC (CNS toxicity) Pulmonary toxicity Pulmonary toxicity

27 Mixed – Gas Diving

28 Introduction Breathing medium, consist of - Breathing medium, consist of - - N2 & O2 proportions - N2 & O2 proportions - mixture of other inert gas (helium) with oxygen - mixture of other inert gas (helium) with oxygen Special training, detailed planning, specialized & advanced equipment, extensive surface support personnel & facilities Special training, detailed planning, specialized & advanced equipment, extensive surface support personnel & facilities Qualified diver Qualified diver Two Categories Two Categories - Nonsaturation diving without pressurized bell - Nonsaturation diving without pressurized bell (max. 300ft) (max. 300ft) - saturation diving (150 fsw, extended bottom time) - saturation diving (150 fsw, extended bottom time)

29 Non-saturation Diving 1. Helium-Oxygen (Heliox) Diving - Physiological effects - Physiological effects · high thermal conductivity of helium · high thermal conductivity of helium · high – pitched distortion or Donald Duck effect · high – pitched distortion or Donald Duck effect - MK V MOD 1 helmet - MK V MOD 1 helmet 2. Hydrogen – Oxygen Diving - explosive character - explosive character - 4% - 4% 3. Modern surface – supplied Mixed – gas diving

30 Diving Bells 1. SDC(submersible decompression chamber) - 2 men, steel, 2 opening hatches, - 2 men, steel, 2 opening hatches, - ventilate, gas & communication supply - ventilate, gas & communication supply DDC(deck decompression chamber) - mate DDC-SDC - mate DDC-SDC - additional space, bunk, food & clothing - additional space, bunk, food & clothing 3. Saturation Diving - DDS(deep diving system) - DDS(deep diving system)

31 Saturation Diving Extend actual working time at depth Submarine rescue & salvage, sea bed implantments, construction scientific testing & observation Extensive bottom time

32 Saturation Diving-1 1. Advantage - decompression is the most time consuming factor - decompression is the most time consuming factor - ( ) - ( ) ( ). ( ) fsw, 40 hrs fsw, 40 hrs 5 days at bottom pressure 5 days at bottom pressure 2 days in decompression 2 days in decompression

33 2. Bonds Saturation Theory , NS Navy Diving Medical Officer , NS Navy Diving Medical Officer Captain George F. Bond Captain George F. Bond - The tissues of the body would eventually become - The tissues of the body would eventually become saturated with inert gas if exposure time was long saturated with inert gas if exposure time was long enough enough 3. Genesis Project - theory of saturation diving - theory of saturation diving - animal & human experiments - animal & human experiments Saturation Diving-2

34 4. Developmental Testing - 1st practical open-sea demonstration Sep st practical open-sea demonstration Sep by Edward A. Link & Capt. Jacques-Yves Cousteau by Edward A. Link & Capt. Jacques-Yves Cousteau - one man, He-O 2 at 200fsw for 24hrs (Link) - one man, He-O 2 at 200fsw for 24hrs (Link) - two men, habitat, 33fsw for 169hrs (Cousteau) - two men, habitat, 33fsw for 169hrs (Cousteau) - Six men, N 2 -O 2, 35fsw for 7 days (Cousteau) - Six men, N 2 -O 2, 35fsw for 7 days (Cousteau) , Link & Lambertsen, 2-days, 2 men at 430fsw , Link & Lambertsen, 2-days, 2 men at 430fsw - seven men, 30 days at 36fsw & 90fsw with - seven men, 30 days at 36fsw & 90fsw with excursion dives to 330fsw excursion dives to 330fsw Saturation Diving-3

35 5. Sealab Program 1) Sealabs I and II 1) Sealabs I and II DEC. habitat DEC. habitat 2) Sealab III 2) Sealab III - 600fsw, habitat, NEDU, - 600fsw, habitat, NEDU, 28 He-Ox, 825fsw( ) 28 He-Ox, 825fsw( ) fsw, Sat depth fsw, Sat depth 1,025fsw excursion diving(NEDU) 1,025fsw excursion diving(NEDU) - 31 ATA - 31 ATA Saturation Diving-4

36 Deep Diving Systems(DDS) Consist of - DDC(Deck decompression chamber) - DDC(Deck decompression chamber) - PTC(Personal Transfer Capsule) - PTC(Personal Transfer Capsule)

37

38 Submarine Salvage & Rescue

39 USS F , Honolulu, 21 crews died 1915, Honolulu, 21 crews died Lifting pontoons Lifting pontoons 304 fsw, air as breathing mixture 304 fsw, air as breathing mixture Bottom time-10minutes Bottom time-10minutes Nitrogen narcosis Nitrogen narcosis Physiological problems Physiological problems – new breathing medium – new breathing medium US diving manual US diving manual

40 USS S fsw, Block Island, Rhode Island fsw, Block Island, Rhode Island Diving & Salvage School Diving & Salvage School Experimental Diving Unit(NEDU) Experimental Diving Unit(NEDU) US Navy Air Decompression Tables US Navy Air Decompression Tables Diving ability Diving ability

41 USS S Coast guard Coast guard 102fsw, fsw, 22 (, ) (, ) LT C.B. Momsen escape lung LT C.B. Momsen escape lung : :

42 USS Squalus Mc Cann-Erickson Rescue chamber Mc Cann-Erickson Rescue chamber fsw fsw 1st salvage operation with He-Ox 1st salvage operation with He-Ox

43 USS Thresher 8,400fsw, 8,400fsw, - Deep Submergence Rewiew Group (DSRG) - Deep Submergence Rewiew Group (DSRG) Deep Submergence Systems Project Deep Submergence Systems Project DSRV (Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle) DSRV (Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle) fsw diving fsw diving fsw rescue fsw rescue

44 Salvage Diving (Salvage Operation)

45 Salvage operation 3. Salvage operation msw, saturation (He – O2) Diving - 150msw, saturation (He – O2) Diving History

46 Open Sea Diving Records

47 History of Open Sea Diving Records 1915, USN 304fsw MK V dress 1915, USN 304fsw MK V dress 1972, MK2 MOD O DDS, 1,010fsw 1972, MK2 MOD O DDS, 1,010fsw 1975, MK1 DDS, 1,148fsw 1975, MK1 DDS, 1,148fsw 1977, French Dive Team, 1,643fsw 1977, French Dive Team, 1,643fsw 1981, British divers, The deepest salvage operation 803fsw, 1981, British divers, The deepest salvage operation 803fsw, 1999, 2~3. ROKN, The 1 st Salvage operation with 1999, 2~3. ROKN, The 1 st Salvage operation with Saturation Diving, 150msw(500fsw) Saturation Diving, 150msw(500fsw), 300fsw (1000fsw), 300fsw (1000fsw)

48 Summary


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