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Phil Mulder – Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University Phil Mulder – Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University Living with the Africanized.

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Presentation on theme: "Phil Mulder – Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University Phil Mulder – Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University Living with the Africanized."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phil Mulder – Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University Phil Mulder – Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University Living with the Africanized Honey Bee

2 Contributions from Honey Bees Produce about 250 million pounds of honey per year. – Value = $200 million. Produce about 4 million pounds of Beeswax. Produce bee pollen, bee venom, royal jelly, etc. Pollinate > 90 cultivated crops. –Estimated value = $20 billion. Contribution from pollination effects every third bite of food consumed. Produce about 250 million pounds of honey per year. – Value = $200 million. Produce about 4 million pounds of Beeswax. Produce bee pollen, bee venom, royal jelly, etc. Pollinate > 90 cultivated crops. –Estimated value = $20 billion. Contribution from pollination effects every third bite of food consumed.

3 History of the Africanized Honey Bee Started as an attempt to improve honey production in Brazil, Warwick Kerr (1956).Started as an attempt to improve honey production in Brazil, Warwick Kerr (1956). –European strains were not adapting to South American conditions. –Captured several colonies in Africa and selected out 27 highly productive queens. When shipping large colonies by rail (1957), queens were accidentally released from the excluders.When shipping large colonies by rail (1957), queens were accidentally released from the excluders.

4 African honey bees crossed with European stock = Hybrid strain known as the Africanized Honey Bee (AHB).African honey bees crossed with European stock = Hybrid strain known as the Africanized Honey Bee (AHB). –Moved slowly in all directions with gentler stock but retained African traits. October 15, 1990 – First natural swarm captured in the U.S. in Hidalgo, Texas.October 15, 1990 – First natural swarm captured in the U.S. in Hidalgo, Texas. – Swarm destroyed out of a baited trap. History of the Africanized Honey Bee

5 1993 First report of natural swarms in Arizona and New Mexico First report of natural swarms in Arizona and New Mexico First report in California.1994 First report in California. –Within 1 year, nearly 8,000 square miles colonized by AHB. Today over 100 counties in Texas, 10 in New Mexico, 14 in Arizona, 1 in Nevada and over 10 counties in California.Today over 100 counties in Texas, 10 in New Mexico, 14 in Arizona, 1 in Nevada and over 10 counties in California. 36 confirmed county captures in Oklahoma.36 confirmed county captures in Oklahoma. History of the Africanized Honey Bee

6 Living with the Africanized Honey Bee (Movement)

7 Africanized Honey Bee in the US

8 Africanized Honey Bee in Oklahoma Current Status as of 11/2008

9 The Problem in Perspective: Camazine (1988). The Problem in Perspective: Camazine (1988) deaths per year from honey bees in the U.S deaths per year per 1 million people deaths per year from lightning deaths per year per 1 million people. No consolation if you loose someone from such an attack. No consolation if you loose someone from such an attack. Living with the Africanized Honey Bee

10 The problem (continued) The problem (continued) - LD 50 equals stings per pound of body weight pound person = 1, ,000 stings. - Sounds ridiculous!! AHB 6-10X more defensive. - Approximately ½ - 4% of population is hypersensitive. Living with the Africanized Honey Bee

11 Personal protection ideally with a complete bee suit. Personal protection ideally with a complete bee suit. - Formulations of repellents containing Deet as the active ingredient can also provide protection. - Also wear gloves and boots with pants of suit taped inside of boots. Living with the Africanized Honey Bee

12 Africanized Honey Bee European Honey Bee Africanized Honey Bee European Honey Bee Tropically adapted, less winter hardy Adapted to temperate climates Tropically adapted, less winter hardy Adapted to temperate climates Very defensive (6-10 times) Gentle Very defensive (6-10 times) Gentle Forage in marginal areas Will not forage in marginal areas Forage in marginal areas Will not forage in marginal areas More likely to swarm when nectar and Not likely to swarm when conditions More likely to swarm when nectar and Not likely to swarm when conditions pollen flow are good (6-12 times/yr). are strong (1swarm/5colonies/yr). pollen flow are good (6-12 times/yr). are strong (1swarm/5colonies/yr). Devote ½ time to forage for pollen Store more honey. Rarely use > 25 - Devote ½ time to forage for pollen Store more honey. Rarely use > 25 - (protein source) store less honey. 30% of workers for pollen collection (protein source) store less honey. 30% of workers for pollen collection Absconding common when threatened Absconding rare. Absconding common when threatened Absconding rare. About 27% smaller than EHB. Slightly larger but cant tell. About 27% smaller than EHB. Slightly larger but cant tell. Living with the Africanized Honey Bee (Differences and Similarities)

13 Africanized Honey Bee European Honey Bee Africanized Honey Bee European Honey Bee Prefer large nest cavities, but less Prefer larger nest site (40 liters) Prefer large nest cavities, but less Prefer larger nest site (40 liters) discriminating (pots, tires, bird house). Above ground, clean and dry. discriminating (pots, tires, bird house). Above ground, clean and dry. Shorter development time (70-71 hrs.). Longer development time (72-76 hrs). Hatch 14.5 days (Queen) Hatch 15 days (Queen). Hatch 14.5 days (Queen) Hatch 15 days (Queen). Mating flights are slightly later in day. Mating flights earlier and longer. Mating flights are slightly later in day. Mating flights earlier and longer. Reaction time about 3 seconds. Reaction time about 19 seconds. Reaction time about 3 seconds. Reaction time about 19 seconds. Cool-off time about ½ hr. to 1 hr. Cool-off time 2-3 minutes. Cool-off time about ½ hr. to 1 hr. Cool-off time 2-3 minutes. Pursuit distance about 187 yards. Pursuit distance about 27.5 yards. Pursuit distance about 187 yards. Pursuit distance about 27.5 yards. Living with the Africanized Honey Bee (Differences)

14 Yellowjacket, European paper wasp, Honey bee, Bumble bee Dont confuse the issue!! Living with the Africanized Honey Bee

15 Sweat Bee Cuckoo Wasp Bald Faced Hornet & Nest Syrphid Fly

16 Ditch Culvert Cemetery Pillar - Hollow Junkyard Debris Trailer Houses Eliminate Colony Sites

17 Bird Houses Flower Pots and Barrels Tire piles House walls with holes

18 House eaves and gables Water meters Abandoned houses or outbuildings outbuildings Tree Holes or depressions

19 Bee Removal – NOT a One-Man Job!!

20 Preparation for removal Everyone involved should have a complete bee suit, including gloves, veil, and boots. Everyone involved should have a complete bee suit, including gloves, veil, and boots. Designate each person in the team a specific job (smoker, substrate, remover, etc.) Designate each person in the team a specific job (smoker, substrate, remover, etc.) Map out an attack plan before going into the area. Map out an attack plan before going into the area. Tape around gloves, pant legs and any openings. Tape around gloves, pant legs and any openings.

21 Bee suit Completely enclosed to prevent bees from getting in. Cost $115- $140 Bee Suits

22 You can do a Google search for bee suits. Bee Gloves $12-$16 Gloves

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24 Dadant & Sons, Inc Bonham Street P.O. Box 146 Paris, Tx Mann Lake Ltd. 501 S. 1st St. Hackensack, MN Omega Pest Control 8255 W. Jefferson St. Peoria, AZ (orders only please) ore.htm Bee Care Box 1070, Leander, TX (512) Fax (253) Betterbee 8 Meader Road Greenwich, New York Glorybee Foods Inc. 120 N.Seneca P. O. Box 2744 Eugene, Oregon

25 You need to look and play the part of a bee control professional. Rubber gloves to go over the bee gloves when handling the comb or pesticides. Any Pesticide label Personal Protective equipment. –Respirator –Dust mask –Protective glasses Duct Tape Anti-histamine such as benadryl* General construction tools, ladders, hammers,caulking gun, wrecking bar, saws etc. Africanized Honey Bee Control

26 Laying Out The land Approach every feral bee swarm or colony as if it is Africanized. Park vehicle away from property- 50 yards. Speak with home owner to find out about the colony. –Swarm or established colony –How long there. –Where located, wall, ground, tree, etc. –When approaching bees always wear your protective bee equipment.

27 Laying Out The land Notify neighbors. Determine if you are going to remove the colony or just kill it. Use buddy system, any time you use a ladder, work at night, or if the bees are very defensive. Better to live safely than die recklessly

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29 Tools Proper bee suit Duct Tape Saw Drill Flashlight Large heavy duty plastic bags Hammers Caulking gun Pry bar Stapler Stud finder Ladders Lt. Weight tool bag 1-2 gal sprayer Dust applicator.

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31 Insecticide Choices and Liability Odor of product –some pesticides will incite the bees to become aggressive. Use low odor pesticides if possible. Residual or Non-Residual – if you cannot kill the bees at one time use a residual pesticide Speed of Knockdown – If treating in the daytime use quick knockdown pesticides. Formulation – Liquids on swarms outside, dusts and aerosols in walls.

32 Avoiding Honey Bee Stinging Problems Stay away from honey bee colonies and hives. Stay away from honey bee colonies and hives. Remove any hives or swarms located in or near yards. Remove any hives or swarms located in or near yards. Check work area carefully before using any heavy or noisy equipment. Check work area carefully before using any heavy or noisy equipment. Do not tie or pen animals near honey bee colonies, no matter how tame the bees may appear. Do not tie or pen animals near honey bee colonies, no matter how tame the bees may appear.

33 Avoiding Honey bee stings Foraging honey bees are less defensive, especially when they are a great distance from any hive. Foraging honey bees are less defensive, especially when they are a great distance from any hive.

34 Bee Proof Your Property

35 Inspect the site for signs of honey bees Look for numerous bees passing into or out of openings. Look for numerous bees passing into or out of openings. Listen for the hum or buzz of active bees. Listen for the hum or buzz of active bees. Check for activity at all levels of any structure, particularly along eaves. Check for activity at all levels of any structure, particularly along eaves.

36 If you locate a bee swarm or colony Keep everyone away. Keep everyone away. Have it removed immediately – dont wait Have it removed immediately – dont wait Contact a licensed pest control operator that has experience in eliminating high-risk colonies or swarms. Contact a licensed pest control operator that has experience in eliminating high-risk colonies or swarms. Contact a beekeeper in low-risk situations (no AHB reported) so that they can remove the swarm. Contact a beekeeper in low-risk situations (no AHB reported) so that they can remove the swarm. If a colony has set up home in an area that puts the general public at risk eliminate the hive. If a colony has set up home in an area that puts the general public at risk eliminate the hive.

37 What to do if attacked by AHB Run quickly to the nearest shelter (house or car). Run quickly to the nearest shelter (house or car). Protect your head, neck and throat areas, with your shirt if necessary, but be careful running. Protect your head, neck and throat areas, with your shirt if necessary, but be careful running. Do not jump into water. Do not jump into water. Do not flail or swat at bees. Do not flail or swat at bees.

38 Once you have escaped Remove stinger carefully using a credit card or real dull knife (do not squeeze the stinger to remove it). Remove stinger carefully using a credit card or real dull knife (do not squeeze the stinger to remove it). Seek medical attention if stung more than 15 times, if stung repeatedly around face or neck or if you have a history of problems associated with bee stings. Seek medical attention if stung more than 15 times, if stung repeatedly around face or neck or if you have a history of problems associated with bee stings. Call 911 to report all serious stinging incidents. Call 911 to report all serious stinging incidents.

39 Bee Samples If you encounter a suspected AHB colony or swarm in counties other than the 29 listed on the map: –Call Garry Phillips to get a sample to send to OSU for DNA testing.

40 Bee Sampling If you want a DNA test of a swarm or colony it must be frozen and sent over night delivery Cost of DNA about $50 Call Dr. Grantham prior to sending any samples. Dr. Richard A. Grantham Plant Disease & Insect Diagnostic Lab Entomology and Plant Pathology Oklahoma State University 127 NRC Stillwater, OK TEL: FAX:

41 Living with Africanized Honey Bees Phil Mulder – Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University Living with Africanized Honey Bees Phil Mulder – Extension Entomologist Oklahoma State University


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