Presentation on theme: "Methods of Training Year 9 GCSE 25/1/2011. To identify and explore different types of training. To relate these training methods to specific performers."— Presentation transcript:
Methods of Training Year 9 GCSE 25/1/2011
To identify and explore different types of training. To relate these training methods to specific performers To understand the pros, cons, hows and whys of certain training methods. Lesson Objectives
Success Criteria MUST – be able to tell me all of the methods of training SHOULD – be able to give me detail regarding what the methods of training involves COULD – relate which method of training suits certain performers, and link the principles of training to training methods
Exercise Training Difference?? Exercise is physical activity with the aim of improving fitness and health. Training a planned programme of exercise designed to achieve targets related to fitness or skills.
Training is either Continuous or Intermittent
TRAINING METHODS = How we train our bodies
CIRCUIT (different exercises) WEIGHT (resistance for muscular strength) INTERVAL (rest periods) CONTINUOUS (no rest) FARTLEK (different speeds) CROSS
1)Get into a group of 5 and sit at 1 table. [1 min] 2)As a group, summarise the information (using the table as guidance) so that each member of your group will be able to CONFIDENTLY share this information to others. [10 mins] Description (3-5 points) Training example Components of fitness it improves Benefits (3-5 points) Disadvantages Exercise constantly Power walking (1hr) Cardiovascular end Little equipment needed Can be boring For example; Continuous
Circuit training is a very good way of developing fitness, and can be organised as follows: Each circuit has between 8 and 15 stations. At each station a specific exercise is undertaken a number of times or for a period of time, usually up to 1 minute. These are called reps. Example: 1) Sit-ups X 40 3) Shuttle Runs X 30 2) Step-ups X 60 4) Press-ups X 10 Circuit Training
Circuit training involves performing a series of exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each activity takes place at a 'station'. It can be designed to improve speed, agility, coordination, balance and muscular endurance. Circuit Training Circuit training Circuits can be used to increase either strength, aerobic fitness or both! There are usually between 8 and 15 stations and at each one you do a different exercise for 1 minute. At the end you then move on to the next station. Rest can be incorporated depending on the level of the participants. Advantages – Less boring because it changes all the time Can be easily adapted for strength or endurance or different sports etc Disadvantages – Takes a while to set up Takes a lot of equipment
Circuit Training 1.Series of exercises completed for a certain amount of time after one another. 2.Set to develop individual needs with its own targets. 3.Activities can be simple and dont require expensive equipment.
2) Squats1) Sit-ups When all the exercises in the circuit have been completed this is known as a set. 3) Press-ups4) Step-ups 5) Dolphins6) Squat Thrusts8) Pull-ups7) Shuttle Runs
The exercises in the circuit need to be arranged so that the same muscle group is not worked twice in a row. Instead they are allowed to rest while a different muscle group is worked. 1) Step-ups2) Stride Jumps2) Press-ups1) Step-ups The leg muscles will not be rested and will get tired or even injured. The leg muscles will be rested and are less likely to get tired or injured. Circuit Training
It is a fun way to train because it contains a variety of exercises. It can be easily adapted to suit an individual, specific aspect of fitness or sport. It can also include weights, an exercise bike, treadmill or rowing machine. Skill work can also be introduced such as dribbling in basketball. Circuit Training – The Advantages Circuit Training – The Disadvantages It can take a lot of time to set up a circuit. It usually requires some equipment, which can be expensive. It can be dangerous if a lot of people are trying to train all at once.
CIRCUIT TRAINING KEY TERMS Stations Muscles Cardiovascular system Wide range of activities Time Repetitions Adapted
Advantages of Circuit Training? Can incorporate all health and skill related fitness factors in one session. Equipment does not have to be expensive. Tailor to suit individual needs. Includes aerobic and anaerobic. Wide range of exercises. Can motivate participants to work hard.
Continuous Training Continuous training involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio-vascular fitness. Continuous training This type of exercise is, as the name suggests, continuous! Rests are not allowed. To achieve this you must exercise at a constant rate which is within your aerobic training zone (60-80% max heart rate). Continuous training should last for bouts of at least 20 minutes (when starting) up to 2 hours or more! (think of a marathon!)aerobic training zone Advantages – Needs only a small amount of easy to use, accessible equipment, if any Good for aerobic fitness Good for losing weight Disadvantages – Can be boring Doesn't improve anaerobic fitness so isn't as good for team games like football or hockey which involve short bursts of speed
Continuous training involves long, slow distance exercise also known as LSD, undertaken at a constant rate without a rest. Continuous Training You can jog, swim, cycle or row for at least 20 minutes. You work in your aerobic training zone starting at 60% of your maximum heart rate (220 – age), progressing to 85%. CyclingRowingJogging Overload is achieved by increasing the frequency, intensity or length of training.
Continuous Training 1.Improves the aerobic system. 2.Run, Swim, Cycle or Walk 3.Needs to last at least 30 minutes – no rest 4.Overload by increasing the time, distance, speed or all three 5.Improves mainly endurance 6.Good motivation required to keep going
Fartlek Training Fartlek training or 'speed play' training involves varying your speed and the type of terrain over which you run, walk, cycle or ski. It improves aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Fartlek training Fartlek involves training at a continuous exercise, but varying the intensity and type of exercise. For example, a running session could include sprinting for 10 seconds, fast walking for 20 seconds, jogging for 1 minute and repeating this. You can also add in things like running uphill or on sand. Advantages – Good for sports which require changes in pace Easily adapted to suit the individuals level of fitness and sport The changes in pace make each session more interesting Disadvantages – Too easy to skip the hard bits, therefore the athlete needs to be motivated. Can be difficult to see how hard someone is trying!
Fartlek 1.Means speed play and was developed in Sweden 2.This method involves many changes of speed 3.Can be used to improve both aerobic and anaerobic energy systems 4.Can be used for many different activities 5.Running at different paces over different terrains
It involves changes in intensity without stopping or resting. Fartlek Training Example: This is usually achieved by varying the speed or terrain, e.g. uphill running. You can run, row, swim or cycle. Fartlek is a Swedish word meaning You can use it to improve either your aerobic fitness (stamina), anaerobic fitness (speed) or a mixture of the two. 1) Sprint3) Sprint2) Jog4) Jog speed play.
A Fartlek Training Session to Improve Aerobic Fitness 1) Warm Up 10 minutes 2) Fast Jog 10 minutes 7) Cool Down 10 minutes 3) Uphill Work 5 minutes 4) Downhill Work 15 minutes 5) Fast Jog 10 minutes 6) Uphill Work 5 minutes
A Fartlek Training Session to Improve Anaerobic Fitness 1) Warm Up 1000 metres 2) Sprint 400 metres 10) Cool Down 1000 metres 3) Jog 400 metres 4) Sprint 300 metres 5) Jog 300 metres 6) Sprint 200 metres 7) Jog 200 metres 8) Sprint 100 metres 9) Jog 100 metres
Interval Training Interval training involves alternating between periods of hard exercise and rest. It improves speed and muscular endurance. Interval training Intervals are periods of exercising hard, with rest or low intensity periods inbetween. For example you may run 100 meters at 85% and then 200 at 50% to recover. This is one rep. You may perform this 5-10 times, which would complete the set. Advantages – Can mix aerobic and anaerobic exercise which replicates team games It makes it easier for a coach to see when the athlete isn't trying Disadvantages – It can be hard to keep going when you start to fatigue Can become boring
Interval Training Example: You can row, run, swim or cycle. Interval training is similar to Fartlek Training but involves rest or recovery periods. It involves a fixed pattern of work followed by a rest. Each repetition of the pattern is called a rep and you need to complete a set of reps before a rest is taken. You can use it to improve aerobic fitness (stamina), anaerobic fitness (speed) or a mixture of the both. 1) Sprint (50 metres) 2) Rest (30 seconds) 3) Repeat 10 times 4) Rest (5 minutes)
An Interval Training Session to Improve Aerobic Fitness 2) Fast Jog – 10 minutes, followed by a 2 minute rest: complete 6 reps 4) Cool Down 10 minutes Try to develop your own Interval training session to improve Aerobic Fitness. 3) Rest and then complete between 1 & 3 sets 1) Warm Up 10 minutes Overload is achieved by increasing the reps and sets, or by spending less time resting in between sets.
An Interval Training Session to Improve Anaerobic Fitness 1) Warm Up 1000 metres 2) Sprint – 100 metres, followed by a 1 minute rest: complete 12 reps 4) Cool Down 1000 metres Try to develop your own Interval training session to improve Anaerobic Fitness. 3) Rest & then complete between 1 and 3 sets
Weight Training Weight training uses weights to provide resistance to the muscles. It improves muscular strength (high weight, low reps), muscular endurance (low weight, high reps, many sets) and power (medium weight and reps performed quickly). WEIGHT TRAINING is a form of training that uses progressive resistance against a muscle group. 1.Increase muscular strength 2.Increase muscular endurance 3.Recover after injury. HOW CAN WEIGHT TRAINING BENEFIT A PERFORMER?
1.Involves shifting weight to increase the strength of muscles using a programme of repetitions and sets 2.Repetitions is the number of lifts and sets is the number of times you will complete the repetitions. 3.Less weight and more reps will help develop endurance 4.More weight less reps will develop strength.
Weight Training is used to: Increase MUSCULAR STRENGTH Increase MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Increase speed Develop muscle size Rehabilitate after injury
Weight Training & Types of Strength There are 3 different types of strength. Most sports require a combination of them all, but usually need one slightly more than the other two. As a result, when weight training you need to decide exactly what sort of strength you want to develop and how. Static StrengthDynamic StrengthExplosive Strength Maximum force applied to a stationary object. Force applied in one movement at speed. Repetitive application of force.
Cross-training Cross-training uses a combination of activities to break up the potential boredom of using a single type of training. As cross-training is a mixture of various types of training, it can be adapted to suit an individuals needs and preferences. For example, an individual could spend one day running, one day swimming and one day playing tennis. This type of training is a good way to maintain a high level of general fitness, while resting muscles used in a main activity. Elite athletes, however, may find that it is not specific enough to prepare them for their chosen activity. Elite cyclists do almost all their training on bikes.
Cross Training Cross training involves using another sport or activity to improve your fitness. It happens when an athlete trains in a different environment. For example a volleyball player uses the power training for that sport to help with fitness for long jump. Cross training combines different methods of training in the same session and is adaptable to a variety of situations. How the method works: The changing of activities enable the body to rest = prevents injury. Varied training = more enjoyable. Training can be tailored to contain individual or group work (or both). Adapted to individual needs and preferences. Develops mainly general and, specific fitness.
Task Perform 2 laps of square as shown on diagram in classroom 1.Is this FARTLEK? 2.What could we change? 3.How could you relate to sport of your choice? Jog Walk Stride Skip
What Would you Include? Activity – What methods of training could you use for each performer? What Would you Include? What fitness components would you train?
Recap What are the 6 methods of training? What are the two energy pathways?What are the two energy pathways? What is used to create energy in each pathway? And what is created as a bye product?
Exam-style questions 1. In relation to weight training, what is meant by the following: a)repetitions b)sets 2. Circuit training is a commonly used method of training. a)Give two advantages of using circuit training. b)Give one possible disadvantage of using circuit training.
What have we learnt? We identified, explored and performed the 6 methods of training We related these methods to specific performers. We should now understand the pros, cons, hows and whys of certain training methods.