2Lesson Objectives To identify and explore different types of training. To relate these training methods to specific performersTo understand the pros, cons, how’s and why’s of certain training methods.
3Success CriteriaMUST – be able to tell me all of the methods of trainingSHOULD – be able to give me detail regarding what the methods of training involvesCOULD – relate which method of training suits certain performers, and link the principles of training to training methods
4Difference?? Training Exercise Exercise is physical activity with the aim of improving fitness and health.Training a planned programme of exercise designed to achieve targets related to fitness or skills.
7Types (from FITT) CIRCUIT (different exercises) WEIGHT (resistance for muscular strength)INTERVAL (rest periods)CONTINUOUS (no rest)FARTLEK (different speeds)CROSS7
8= Finding key information CIRCLEResearch= Finding key information
9TaskGet into a group of 5 and sit at 1 table. [1 min]As a group, summarise the information (using the table as guidance) so that each member of your group will be able to CONFIDENTLY share this information to others. [10 mins]For example;ContinuousDescription(3-5 points)Training exampleComponents of fitness it improvesBenefitsDisadvantagesExercise constantlyPower walking (1hr)Cardiovascular endLittle equipment neededCan be boring9
10Circuit TrainingCircuit training is a very good way of developing fitness, and can be organised as follows:Each circuit has between 8 and 15 stations.At each station a specific exercise is undertaken a number of times or for a period of time, usually up to 1 minute. These are called ‘reps’. Example:1) Sit-upsX 403) Shuttle RunsX 302) Step-upsX 604) Press-upsX 1010
11Circuit Training Circuit training Circuit training involves performing a series of exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each activity takes place at a 'station'. It can be designed to improve speed, agility, coordination, balance and muscular endurance.Circuit trainingCircuits can be used to increase either strength, aerobic fitness or both! There are usually between 8 and 15 stations and at each one you do a different exercise for 1 minute. At the end you then move on to the next station. Rest can be incorporated depending on the level of the participants.Advantages –Less boring because it changes all the timeCan be easily adapted for strength or endurance or different sports etcDisadvantages –Takes a while to set upTakes a lot of equipment11
12Circuit TrainingSeries of exercises completed for a certain amount of time after one another.Set to develop individual needs with its own targets.Activities can be simple and don’t require expensive equipment.
13When all the exercises in the circuit have been completed this is known as a set. 1) Sit-ups2) Squats3) Press-ups4) Step-ups8) Pull-ups7) Shuttle Runs6) Squat Thrusts5) Dolphins13
14Circuit TrainingThe exercises in the circuit need to be arranged so that the same muscle group is not worked twice in a row. Instead they are allowed to rest while a different muscle group is worked.1) Step-ups2) Stride Jumps1) Step-ups2) Press-upsThe leg muscles will not be rested and will get tired or even injured.The leg muscles will be rested and are less likely to get tired or injured.14
15Circuit Training – The Advantages It is a fun way to train because it contains a variety of exercises.It can be easily adapted to suit an individual, specific aspect of fitness or sport.It can also include weights, an exercise bike, treadmill or rowing machine.Skill work can also be introduced such as dribbling in basketball.Circuit Training – The DisadvantagesIt can take a lot of time to set up a circuit.It usually requires some equipment, which can be expensive.It can be dangerous if a lot of people are trying to train all at once.15
16CIRCUIT TRAINING KEY TERMS StationsMusclesCardiovascular systemWide range of activitiesTimeRepetitionsAdapted
17Advantages of Circuit Training? Can incorporate all health and skill related fitness factors in one session.Equipment does not have to be expensive.Tailor to suit individual needs.Includes aerobic and anaerobic.Wide range of exercises.Can motivate participants to work hard.
18Continuous TrainingContinuous training involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio-vascular fitness.Continuous trainingThis type of exercise is, as the name suggests, continuous! Rests are not allowed. To achieve this you must exercise at a constant rate which is within your aerobic training zone (60-80% max heart rate). Continuous training should last for bouts of at least 20 minutes (when starting) up to 2 hours or more! (think of a marathon!)Advantages –Needs only a small amount of easy to use, accessible equipment, if anyGood for aerobic fitnessGood for losing weightDisadvantages –Can be boringDoesn't improve anaerobic fitness so isn't as good for team games like football or hockey which involve short bursts of speed18
19Continuous TrainingContinuous training involves long, slow distance exercise also known as LSD, undertaken at a constant rate without a rest.You can jog, swim, cycle or row for at least 20 minutes.You work in your aerobic training zone starting at 60% of your maximum heart rate (220 – age), progressing to 85%.Overload is achieved by increasing the frequency, intensity or length of training.CyclingRowingJogging19
20Continuous Training Improves the aerobic system. Run, Swim, Cycle or WalkNeeds to last at least 30 minutes – no restOverload by increasing the time, distance, speed or all threeImproves mainly enduranceGood motivation required to keep going
21Fartlek TrainingFartlek training or 'speed play' training involves varying your speed and the type of terrain over which you run, walk, cycle or ski. It improves aerobic and anaerobic fitness.Fartlek trainingFartlek involves training at a continuous exercise, but varying the intensity and type of exercise.For example, a running session could include sprinting for 10 seconds, fast walking for 20 seconds, jogging for 1 minute and repeating this. You can also add in things like running uphill or on sand.Advantages –Good for sports which require changes in paceEasily adapted to suit the individuals level of fitness and sportThe changes in pace make each session more interestingDisadvantages –Too easy to skip the hard bits, therefore the athlete needs to be motivated.Can be difficult to see how hard someone is trying!21
22Fartlek Means ‘speed play’ and was developed in Sweden This method involves many changes of speedCan be used to improve both aerobic and anaerobic energy systemsCan be used for many different activitiesRunning at different paces over different terrains
23Fartlek Training Fartlek is a Swedish word meaning ‘speed play’. It involves changes in intensity without stopping or resting.This is usually achieved by varying the speed or terrain, e.g. uphill running.Example:1) Sprint2) Jog3) Sprint4) JogYou can run, row, swim or cycle.You can use it to improve either your aerobic fitness (stamina), anaerobic fitness (speed) or a mixture of the two.23
24A Fartlek Training Session to Improve Aerobic Fitness 1) Warm Up10 minutes2) Fast Jog10 minutes3) Uphill Work5 minutes4) Downhill Work15 minutes5) Fast Jog10 minutes6) Uphill Work5 minutes7) Cool Down10 minutes24
26Can mix aerobic and anaerobic exercise which replicates team games Interval TrainingInterval training involves alternating between periods of hardexercise and rest. It improves speed and muscular endurance.Interval trainingIntervals are periods of exercising hard, with rest or low intensity periods inbetween. For example you may run 100 meters at 85% and then 200 at 50% to recover. This is one rep. You may perform this 5-10 times, which would complete the set.Advantages –Can mix aerobic and anaerobic exercise which replicates team gamesIt makes it easier for a coach to see when the athlete isn't tryingDisadvantages –It can be hard to keep going when you start to fatigueCan become boring26
27Interval TrainingInterval training is similar to Fartlek Training but involves rest or recovery periods. It involves a fixed pattern of work followed by a rest.Example:3) Repeat 10 times1) Sprint (50 metres)2) Rest (30 seconds)4) Rest (5 minutes)You can row, run, swim or cycle.Each repetition of the pattern is called a ‘rep’ and you need to complete a set of ‘reps’ before a rest is taken.You can use it to improve aerobic fitness (stamina), anaerobic fitness (speed) or a mixture of the both.27
28An Interval Training Session to Improve Aerobic Fitness 1) Warm Up10 minutes3) Rest and then complete between 1 & 3 ‘sets’2) Fast Jog – 10 minutes, followed by a 2 minute rest: complete 6 ‘reps’4) Cool Down10 minutesOverload is achieved by increasing the ‘reps’ and ‘sets’, or by spending less time resting in between ‘sets’.Try to develop your own Interval training session to improve Aerobic Fitness.28
29An Interval Training Session to Improve Anaerobic Fitness 1) Warm Up1000 metres3) Rest & then complete between 1 and 3 ‘sets’2) Sprint – 100 metres, followed by a 1 minute rest: complete 12 ‘reps’4) Cool Down1000 metresTry to develop your own Interval training session to improve Anaerobic Fitness.29
31HOW CAN WEIGHT TRAINING BENEFIT A PERFORMER? Weight training uses weights to provide resistance to the muscles. It improves muscular strength (high weight, low reps), muscular endurance (low weight, high reps, many sets) and power (medium weight and reps performed quickly).WEIGHT TRAINING is a form of training that uses progressive resistance against a muscle group.HOW CAN WEIGHT TRAINING BENEFIT A PERFORMER?Increase muscular strengthIncrease muscular enduranceRecover after injury.31
32Involves shifting weight to increase the strength of muscles using a programme of repetitions and setsRepetitions is the number of lifts and sets is the number of times you will complete the repetitions.Less weight and more reps will help develop enduranceMore weight less reps will develop strength.
33Weight Training is used to: Increase MUSCULAR STRENGTHIncrease MUSCULAR ENDURANCEIncrease speedDevelop muscle sizeRehabilitate after injury
34Weight Training & Types of Strength There are 3 different types of strength. Most sports require a combination of them all, but usually need one slightly more than the other two.As a result, when weight training you need to decide exactly what sort of strength you want to develop and how.Static StrengthDynamic StrengthExplosive StrengthMaximum force applied to a stationary object.Repetitive application of force.Force applied in one movement at speed.34
35Cross-trainingCross-training uses a combination of activities to break up the potential boredom of using a single type of training.As cross-training is a mixture of various types of training, it can be adapted to suit an individual’s needs and preferences. For example, an individual could spend one day running, one day swimming and one day playing tennis.This type of training is a good way to maintain a high level of general fitness, while resting muscles used in a main activity.Elite athletes, however, may find that it is not specific enough to prepare them for their chosen activity.Elite cyclists do almost all their training on bikes.
36Cross TrainingCross training involves using another sport or activity to improve your fitness. It happens when an athlete trains in a different environment. For example a volleyball player uses the power training for that sport to help with fitness for long jump.Cross training combines different methods of training in the same session and is adaptable to a variety of situations.How the method works:The changing of activities enable the body to rest = prevents injury.Varied training = more enjoyable.Training can be tailored to contain individual or group work (or both).Adapted to individual needs and preferences.Develops mainly general and, specific fitness.36
37Task Perform 2 laps of square as shown on diagram in classroom Is this FARTLEK?What could we change?How could you relate to sport of your choice?StrideJogSkipWalk
38Activity – What methods of training could you use for each performer Activity – What methods of training could you use for each performer? What Would you Include? What fitness components would you train?
39Recap What are the 6 methods of training? What are the two energy pathways?What is used to create energy in each pathway? And what is created as a bye product?
40Exam-style questions1. In relation to weight training, what is meant by the following:repetitionssets2. Circuit training is a commonly used method of training.a) Give two advantages of using circuit training.b) Give one possible disadvantage of using circuit training.a) A repetition is a single movement or exercise. b) A set is a given number of repetitions that are performed consecutively.a) Skill-based activities can be included; circuits are good for avoiding tedium; easily adapted to train specific muscle groups; can include strength, anaerobic or aerobic training.b) Circuit training can take a lot of time to organize and often involves a lot of equipment.
41What have we learnt?We identified, explored and performed the 6 methods of trainingWe related these methods to specific performers.We should now understand the pros, cons, how’s and why’s of certain training methods.