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Cerebral Palsy Joe Conte and Sarah Lupo. Video ebral-palsy-wwwbrainpalsycom_shortfilms

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Presentation on theme: "Cerebral Palsy Joe Conte and Sarah Lupo. Video ebral-palsy-wwwbrainpalsycom_shortfilms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cerebral Palsy Joe Conte and Sarah Lupo

2 Video ebral-palsy-wwwbrainpalsycom_shortfilms ebral-palsy-wwwbrainpalsycom_shortfilms

3 What is Cerebral Palsy? A group of permanent disabling symptoms resulting from damage to the motor control areas of the brainA group of permanent disabling symptoms resulting from damage to the motor control areas of the brain A non-progressive condition that might originate before, during, or shortly after birthA non-progressive condition that might originate before, during, or shortly after birth Cerebral = brainCerebral = brain Palsy = disordered movement or posturePalsy = disordered movement or posture

4 Statistics According to the United Cerebral Palsy Association an estimated 500,000 have cerebral palsy.According to the United Cerebral Palsy Association an estimated 500,000 have cerebral palsy % of children with cerebral palsy acquire the disorder after birth.10-20% of children with cerebral palsy acquire the disorder after birth. The average lifetime cost for a person with cerebral palsy totals nearly $1 millionThe average lifetime cost for a person with cerebral palsy totals nearly $1 million Cerebral palsy is diagnosed in approx. 8,000 children each yearCerebral palsy is diagnosed in approx. 8,000 children each year Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood physical disability, occurring in 2-3 out of 1000 childrenCerebral palsy is the most common cause of childhood physical disability, occurring in 2-3 out of 1000 children

5 Causes of Cerebral Palsy Illness during pregnancyIllness during pregnancy Premature deliveryPremature delivery Insufficient amount/Lack of oxygen supply to the fetus/newborn infants brainInsufficient amount/Lack of oxygen supply to the fetus/newborn infants brain Lead poisoningLead poisoning Illness early in the infants lifeIllness early in the infants life Child abuseChild abuse Medical negligenceMedical negligence Many times it is unknownMany times it is unknown

6 Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy Developmental delayDevelopmental delay Abnormal muscle toneAbnormal muscle tone Unusual postureUnusual posture Early development of hand preferenceEarly development of hand preference

7 Classifications of Cerebral Palsy TopographicalTopographical NeuromotorNeuromotor FunctionalFunctional

8 Topographical Based on the body segments afflictedBased on the body segments afflicted Typically used by medical professionalsTypically used by medical professionals Classes include:Classes include: –Monoplegia –Diplegia –Hemiplegia –Paraplegia –Triplegia –Quadriplegia

9 Neuromotor SpasticitySpasticity AthetosisAthetosis AtaxiaAtaxia

10 Spasticity Result from damage to motor areas of the cerebrum; characterized by increased muscle tone, primarily of flexors and internal rotators, which might lead to permanent contractures and bone deformitiesResult from damage to motor areas of the cerebrum; characterized by increased muscle tone, primarily of flexors and internal rotators, which might lead to permanent contractures and bone deformities

11 Athetosis A condition that occurs when there is damage to the basal ganglia (masses of gray matter composed of neurons located deep within the cerebral hemispheres of the brain) results in an overflow of motor impulses to the muscles.A condition that occurs when there is damage to the basal ganglia (masses of gray matter composed of neurons located deep within the cerebral hemispheres of the brain) results in an overflow of motor impulses to the muscles. Some characteristics of this type of CP include slow, writhing movements that are uncoordinated and involuntarily.Some characteristics of this type of CP include slow, writhing movements that are uncoordinated and involuntarily.

12 Ataxia Condition that occurs when there is damage to the cerebellum (which normally regulates balance and muscle coordination).Condition that occurs when there is damage to the cerebellum (which normally regulates balance and muscle coordination). Diagnosed when the child attempts to walk.Diagnosed when the child attempts to walk. Muscles show abnormal degrees of hypotonicity.Muscles show abnormal degrees of hypotonicity. ConditionsConditions –Individual shows lack of balance and coordination necessary for proper arm and leg movement causing a wide-based gait to be exhibited. –Individuals show difficulty with performing basic motor skills and pattern that include locomotor movements such as running, jumping, and skipping.

13 Functional Individuals are placed into one of eight ability classes according to the severity of the disability.Individuals are placed into one of eight ability classes according to the severity of the disability. Important system for physical education teachers because it categorizes the individuals according to their disability levels.Important system for physical education teachers because it categorizes the individuals according to their disability levels. Teachers and coaches can use this classification system to help make the competition among the individuals equal (in competitive activities individuals who have the same classification can compete against each other.Teachers and coaches can use this classification system to help make the competition among the individuals equal (in competitive activities individuals who have the same classification can compete against each other.

14 Functional

15 Common Characteristics in the Psychomotor Domain SeizuresSeizures Spastic or rigid musclesSpastic or rigid muscles Contractures may develop when restricted range of motion is severeContractures may develop when restricted range of motion is severe Hyperactive Stretch ReflexHyperactive Stretch Reflex Scissoring gate or hemiplegic gateScissoring gate or hemiplegic gate Persistence of unwanted primitive reflexes and tremorsPersistence of unwanted primitive reflexes and tremors Involuntary movement (e.g., constant, unpredictable, purposeless movement)Involuntary movement (e.g., constant, unpredictable, purposeless movement) May exhibit both hypertonic and hypotonic muscle toneMay exhibit both hypertonic and hypotonic muscle tone Low postural tone; may be able to walk unaided, usually with arms held out to the sidesLow postural tone; may be able to walk unaided, usually with arms held out to the sides Often under or over reachesOften under or over reaches Falls and stumbles easilyFalls and stumbles easily

16 Common Characteristics in the Cognitive Domain Loss of perceptual abilityLoss of perceptual ability Difficulty with speechDifficulty with speech Learning disability or mental retardationLearning disability or mental retardation

17 Common Characteristics in the Affective Domain Difficulty socializing with their peersDifficulty socializing with their peers May be withdrawnMay be withdrawn ADHDADHD

18 Teaching Styles Be very patient and use wait timeBe very patient and use wait time Reinforce language and speechReinforce language and speech Add weights to implements, such as bats and racquets, to help with tremors or unwanted movementsAdd weights to implements, such as bats and racquets, to help with tremors or unwanted movements Be careful with how you have them moveBe careful with how you have them move

19 Exercising with Cerebral Palsy Know the characteristics of each individual and their capabilitiesKnow the characteristics of each individual and their capabilities Resistance training helps improve overall motor function and even flexibilityResistance training helps improve overall motor function and even flexibility –Isokinetic training Cycle ergometers help with cardiorespiratory enduranceCycle ergometers help with cardiorespiratory endurance

20 Diagnosis Test reflexesTest reflexes Check for hand preferenceCheck for hand preference Rule out other disorders that can cause movement problemsRule out other disorders that can cause movement problems Perform CT scan, MRI, and/or ultrasonographyPerform CT scan, MRI, and/or ultrasonography Look for other conditions linked to cerebral palsyLook for other conditions linked to cerebral palsy

21 How to Manage Cerebral Palsy Management is directed at alleviating symptoms that are caused by damage to the brain and helping the child achieve maximum potential in growth and development.Management is directed at alleviating symptoms that are caused by damage to the brain and helping the child achieve maximum potential in growth and development.

22 Technology and Cerebral Palsy Assistive technologyAssistive technology –Computers –Communication boards with words or symbol systems –Bikes or scooters –Motorized wheelchairs

23 Treatment Team People involved in the planning, treatment, and decision-making of an individual with cerebral palsyPeople involved in the planning, treatment, and decision-making of an individual with cerebral palsy –Healthcare professionals who are involved with the individual –Family and other caregivers –Teachers who know the individual

24 Treatment and Therapy Since cerebral palsy is so diverse the treatment of it can vary greatly from one individual to another.Since cerebral palsy is so diverse the treatment of it can vary greatly from one individual to another. There is no cure, but there are many therapies to help people better handle their conditionThere is no cure, but there are many therapies to help people better handle their condition –Physical therapy –Occupational therapy –Botox –Stem cells The focus of treatment is on helping the individual reach his/her highest level of independence.The focus of treatment is on helping the individual reach his/her highest level of independence. Individualized plans for treating C.P. should be centered around the needs of the individual.Individualized plans for treating C.P. should be centered around the needs of the individual.

25 Other interesting ways to treat cerebral palsy Dolphin therapy:Dolphin therapy: –Developed by American psychologist David E. Nathanson around 1978 –Allows children with cerebral palsy to step into a different environment and interact with the dolphin in a way that is both playful as well as constructive for that child.

26 Dolphin Therapy (Continued) –Research has shown that dolphins who are one of the most intelligent animals are actually able to recognize the childs deficiency which helps the child create a connection with the dolphin. –The connection has been known to help the child relax as well as an openness to learn and heal that can help lead to developmental progress. –http://www.metacafe.com/watch/714493/dolphin_ therapy_in_kemer_antalya_turkey/ therapy_in_kemer_antalya_turkey/http://www.metacafe.com/watch/714493/dolphin_ therapy_in_kemer_antalya_turkey/

27 Space Suit Therapy Becoming increasingly popular for individuals with cerebral palsy.Becoming increasingly popular for individuals with cerebral palsy. The suit is also known as Therasuits or Therapy suits and it resembles an outfit that was originally developed by the Russians that helped their astronauts maintain their muscle tone while they were in space.The suit is also known as Therasuits or Therapy suits and it resembles an outfit that was originally developed by the Russians that helped their astronauts maintain their muscle tone while they were in space.

28 Space Suit Therapy (Continued) The suit has elastic cords that attach to different areas of the body and they are positioned to keep the body properly aligned to forcibly encourage movement within a normal range of motion.The suit has elastic cords that attach to different areas of the body and they are positioned to keep the body properly aligned to forcibly encourage movement within a normal range of motion. The design of the suit causes an individual with cerebral palsy to limit body movement in particular ways in order to force the body into proper physical alignments and help to replace awkward movements with more proper movements.The design of the suit causes an individual with cerebral palsy to limit body movement in particular ways in order to force the body into proper physical alignments and help to replace awkward movements with more proper movements.

29 Benefits of Space Suit Therapy Provides proper body alignment which helps improves muscle tone as well as body awareness, gross motor skills and balance.Provides proper body alignment which helps improves muscle tone as well as body awareness, gross motor skills and balance. Because the suit helps align and balance the body it also strengthens the body as well.Because the suit helps align and balance the body it also strengthens the body as well.

30 Incorporating Video Games Though more research and studies need to be done, a recent study showed that using a Nintendo Wii for children with cerebral palsy help them improve in different areas including their visual perception, bodily control as well as their functional mobility.Though more research and studies need to be done, a recent study showed that using a Nintendo Wii for children with cerebral palsy help them improve in different areas including their visual perception, bodily control as well as their functional mobility. If more research shows the same types of consistency, this could be a huge step for helping individuals with cerebral palsy because compared to other types of rehabilitation techniques the Wii is only a fraction of the cost and is commercially produced, which means the individuals could have it in their house and use it on a daily basis.If more research shows the same types of consistency, this could be a huge step for helping individuals with cerebral palsy because compared to other types of rehabilitation techniques the Wii is only a fraction of the cost and is commercially produced, which means the individuals could have it in their house and use it on a daily basis.

31 Could malpractice cause cerebral palsy? If a mistake is made during the birth of an infant that was the cause of cerebral palsy doctors as well as nurses can be held accountable.If a mistake is made during the birth of an infant that was the cause of cerebral palsy doctors as well as nurses can be held accountable. Many doctors and nurses do not know enough about cerebral palsy and this can result in devastating mistakes and lawsuits if a mistake is made.Many doctors and nurses do not know enough about cerebral palsy and this can result in devastating mistakes and lawsuits if a mistake is made. While caring for the expectant mother and fetus, medical providers are responsible for assuring adequate care during the pregnancy, during labor and delivery, and immediately after the delivery of the infant. When injury does occur during the birthing process, the results can be devastating.While caring for the expectant mother and fetus, medical providers are responsible for assuring adequate care during the pregnancy, during labor and delivery, and immediately after the delivery of the infant. When injury does occur during the birthing process, the results can be devastating. A cerebral palsy lawyer can help you determine if medical malpractice caused your child's cerebral palsy.A cerebral palsy lawyer can help you determine if medical malpractice caused your child's cerebral palsy.

32 Malpractice That Can Result in Cerebral Palsy Leaving the child in the birth canal too longLeaving the child in the birth canal too long Failure to detect a prolapsed umbilical cordFailure to detect a prolapsed umbilical cord Failure for the doctor to perform a cesarean section (c-section)Failure for the doctor to perform a cesarean section (c-section) Failure to respond to the mothers changing conditionsFailure to respond to the mothers changing conditions Failure to recognize and treat seizuresFailure to recognize and treat seizures

33 Something to Keep in Mind In an Australian study, most medical students have a very limited knowledge of cerebral palsyIn an Australian study, most medical students have a very limited knowledge of cerebral palsy They also have negative attitudes toward individuals with cerebral palsy as a resultThey also have negative attitudes toward individuals with cerebral palsy as a result

34 Legal Information and CT Laws Cerebral Palsy LawyersCerebral Palsy Lawyers –Haymond Law –http://www.haymondlaw.com/cerebral_palsy/index.asp A lawsuit may be filed within 2 years from the date of the injuryA lawsuit may be filed within 2 years from the date of the injury An expert witness must be presentAn expert witness must be present –Must be a doctor who has been licensed and practicing for 5 years CompensationCompensation –There is no limit on the amount of damage award Limit for Attorney FeesLimit for Attorney Fees –No more than 1/3 of the first $300,000 –25% of the next $300,000 –20% of the next $300,000 –15% of the next $300,000 –10% of an award greater than $1.2 million

35 Examples of Lawsuits Cody - Aurora, Illinois – Cody - Aurora, Illinois – –Mother filed suit against the doctors and hospital because her son was born with brain damage and cerebral palsy –The doctor failed to successfully use the vacuum extractor device, which was needed to prevent brain injuries during the delivery –The doctors performed an emergency C-section when they realized that the babys heart rate was in distress –She received $15.35 million for her sons past and future medical expenses

36 Examples of Lawsuits Hannah - TennesseeHannah - Tennessee –The doctors used the wrong instruments when delivering Hannah –The nurse and surgical technician failed to follow instructions of the doctor –Two doctors at the hospital were in a relationship, which affected morale –As a result, Hannah has cerebral palsy Severe brain damage, seizures, developmental delaysSevere brain damage, seizures, developmental delays –At age 8, Hannah cannot speak and feels pain when people walk past her

37 Devastating Costs of Cerebral Palsy According to an …estimated lifetime expense of living with cerebral palsy is approximately $921,000 a person.According to an …estimated lifetime expense of living with cerebral palsy is approximately $921,000 a person.

38 Common Medical Expenses Doctor visitsDoctor visits HospitalsHospitals Visits to the E.R.Visits to the E.R. Various types of medicationsVarious types of medications SurgeriesSurgeries RehabilitationRehabilitation Psychological counselingPsychological counseling Assistive devicesAssistive devices

39 Common Non-Medical Expenses In order for individuals with cerebral palsy to live their lives they need special arrangements that include:In order for individuals with cerebral palsy to live their lives they need special arrangements that include: –Home modifications –Vehicle modifications –Special education programs –Other modified living arrangements to allow mobility

40 Indirect Costs According to …indirect costs are considered the limitations a person suffering from cerebral palsy has and the effect on their overall life.According to …indirect costs are considered the limitations a person suffering from cerebral palsy has and the effect on their overall life.http://www.cerebralpalsysource.com Some of these costs include:Some of these costs include: –Loss of wage –The loss of earning potential –The inability to provide for or contribute to their life financially, due to severely debilitating conditions –Pain and suffering

41 References Cerebral Palsy & Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2009, from cerebralpalsy.comCerebral Palsy & Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2009, from cerebralpalsy.comhttp://computers-technology- cerebralpalsy.comhttp://computers-technology- cerebralpalsy.com Cerebral Brainpalsy.com. (n.d.). Retrieved March 14, 2009, from Brainpalsy.com. (n.d.). Retrieved March 14, 2009, from Dolphin Therapy In Kemer Antalya - Turkey - Video. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2009, from Therapy In Kemer Antalya - Turkey - Video. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2009, from ExpertHub Inc.. (n.d.). Medical Malpractice Law in Connecticut. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from connecticut.htmExpertHub Inc.. (n.d.). Medical Malpractice Law in Connecticut. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from connecticut.htm connecticut.htm connecticut.htm French, R. (n.d.). Cerebral Palsy: APE Fact Sheet. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from R. (n.d.). Cerebral Palsy: APE Fact Sheet. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from MacLennan, A., Nelson, K., Hankins, G., & Speer, M. (2005). Who Will Deliver Our Grandchildren?: Implications of Cerebral Palsy Litigation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(13), Retrieved March 30, 2009, from the Academic Search Premier database.MacLennan, A., Nelson, K., Hankins, G., & Speer, M. (2005). Who Will Deliver Our Grandchildren?: Implications of Cerebral Palsy Litigation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(13), Retrieved March 30, 2009, from the Academic Search Premier database. Martin, H., Rowell, M., Reid, S., Marks, M., & Reddihough, D. (2005). Cerebral Palsy: What Do Medical Students Know and Believe?. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health, 41(1/2), Retrieved March 17, 2009, from the Academic Search Premier database.Martin, H., Rowell, M., Reid, S., Marks, M., & Reddihough, D. (2005). Cerebral Palsy: What Do Medical Students Know and Believe?. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health, 41(1/2), Retrieved March 17, 2009, from the Academic Search Premier database. Infocus Studios, LLC.. (n.d.). Cerebral Palsy & Medical Malpractice Claims. Retrieved March 17, 2009, from Studios, LLC.. (n.d.). Cerebral Palsy & Medical Malpractice Claims. Retrieved March 17, 2009, from Rimmer, Ph.D., J. H. (n.d.). Introduction to Cerebral Palsy and Exercise. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from Ph.D., J. H. (n.d.). Introduction to Cerebral Palsy and Exercise. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from Winnick, J. P. (2005). Adapted Physical Education and Sport 4th ed.. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Winnick, J. P. (2005). Adapted Physical Education and Sport 4th ed.. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. eJustice.com. (n.d.). Cerebral Palsy Source. Retrieved March 8, 2009, from (n.d.). Cerebral Palsy Source. Retrieved March 8, 2009, from


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