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OT3.1 08/02 BSAC Ocean Diver Training The Body and Effects of Diving.

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Presentation on theme: "OT3.1 08/02 BSAC Ocean Diver Training The Body and Effects of Diving."— Presentation transcript:

1 OT3.1 08/02 BSAC Ocean Diver Training The Body and Effects of Diving

2 OT3 2 08/02 The Body & Effects of Diving Aims The Body Mechanisms ! !Metabolism ! !Respiration ! !Circulation How diving affects them

3 The Body and Effects of Diving OT3 3 08/02 The Body Mechanisms Metabolism - The process of life Body cells ! !Food + Oxygen = Energy Two interconnected systems ! !Respiratory system ! !Circulatory system ! !Waste products removal BodyCells Energy Food + Oxygen == Water + Carbon Dioxide

4 The Body and Effects of Diving OT3 4 08/02 Respiration - The Lungs The Mechanics of Breathing Exhale 17% Oxygen 4% Carbon Dioxide 79% Nitrogen Inhale 21% Oxygen 79% Nitrogen Vital Capacity 4.5 litre Lung Capacity Tidal Volume 0.5 litre Residual Volume 1.5 litre

5 The Body and Effects of Diving OT3 5 08/02 The Lungs - Gas Exchange The Alveoli Air In/Out Blood To Body via Heart Blood From Body via Heart Oxygen =O 2 O2O2 Carbon Dioxide =CO 2 CO 2 The Gas Exchange

6 The Body and Effects of Diving OT3 6 08/02 Circulation - Heart and Blood Circulation - Heart & Blood Lungs OXYGEN ! !Collected in lungs ! !Travels to heart ! !Travels from heart ! !Delivered to body cells CARBON DIOXIDE ! !Collected from body cells ! !Travels to the heart ! !Travels to lungs Cells STIMULUS TO BREATHE ! !The need to expel carbon dioxide

7 The Body and Effects of Diving OT3 7 08/02 Breath Hold Diving and Hyperventilation Diver Unconscious End DiveDuring Dive O2O2 CO 2 Start Dive O 2 Level to support Consciousness CO 2 Level for Stimulus to breathe Normal Dive Dive with Hyperventilation O 2 Level to support Consciousness CO 2 Level for Stimulus to breathe O2O2 CO 2 Start Dive During Dive

8 The Body and Effects of Diving OT3 8 08/02 Air Spaces affected by Diving SINUSES Lungs AIRWAYS MIDDLE EAR GUT

9 The Body and Effects of Diving OT3 9 08/02 The Ear Effects of Diving !Sound travels faster underwater - direction difficult to identify !Air space - Ear Drum, Middle Ear, Eustachian Tube Middle Ear Eustachian Tube Outer Ear Inner Ear Ear Drum Middle Ear Eustachian Tube

10 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Effects of Diving on The Ear Reverse EarNormal on descent Increased pressure and blockage on descent Never force equalisation Ascend to shallow depth (pressure) DO NOT DIVE WITH A COLD

11 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 The Sinuses - Effects of Diving Not serious but results in !Blood in the mask !Sinus pain !Do not dive with a cold Teeth ! !Dental checkups Before Dive During Dive Bleeding into nasal passage Air Mucus membrane Air Block Membrane swelling Membrane rupture Air Blood

12 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Body Temperature Control Body heat generated by metabolism !Core body temperature maintained at 37 o C Cooler surroundings = heat loss ! !Most through head and face ! !Chest front and under armpits Peripheral blood supply restricted ! !Hands, feet, nose, ears ! !Less blood flow = less heat loss ! !Shivering ! !Hypothermia 37 o C

13 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Heat Loss and Diving Heat Loss In Water !25x faster than air 40 0 C 30 0 C 20 0 C 10 0 C 0 0 C Normal body temperature No suit required Wetsuit / Drysuit required Drysuit required 37 0 C ! !Cold water increases rate of heat loss ! !Insulation consideration for divers ! !End the dive if getting cold

14 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Insulation Wet & Semi Dry Suits !Comfortable close fit !One or two piece !Hood and gloves !Boots if strap fins Maintenance ! !Wash in fresh water Body Water Wet Suit

15 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Insulation - Dry Suits !Comfortable fit !Strap fins !Hood & gloves Maintenance - Wash in fresh water Membrane Dry Suit Body Water Under Suit Air Neoprene Dry Suit Body AirWater

16 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Buoyancy Density ! !Object sinks Weighs more than upthrust (Heavier than water displaced) Object submerged ! !Water displaced Archimedes principle When an object floats in water it displaces a weight of water equal to its own weight = = ! !Force (Upthrust) = water displaced ! !Object floats Weighs less than upthrust (Lighter than water displaced) + Air

17 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Buoyancy and Divers Positive Buoyancy ! !Too light ! !Physically tiring ! !Uncontrolled upward movement Neutral Buoyancy ! !Weightless state ! !Reduces physical effort Negative Buoyancy ! !Too heavy ! !Self or marine life damage ! !Risk of going too deep PositiveNeutral Negative

18 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Buoyancy & Diving During dive ! !Air will expand ! !Controlled dumping of air equalises divers buoyancy Descent Buoyancy check - correct weighting ! !Combined effect of divers body, suit and SCUBA - positive buoyancy ! !May need additional weight ! !Fine tuning with lungs Ascent

19 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Exhaustion & Diving An inability to meet physical demands !Buoyancy problems !Getting cold underwater !Working hard underwater !Mental tiredness or anxiety !Lack of general fitness !The night before! Always ask the question : Are you fit to go diving?

20 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02 Summary The Body Mechanisms ! !Metabolism ! !Respiration ! !Circulation How diving affects them Ensure fitness to dive

21 The Body and Effects of Diving OT /02


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