Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Select Personal Protective Clothing And Equipment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8 Select Personal Protective Clothing And Equipment Textbook Page349
2 ObjectivesDefine The Following Terms And Their Impact And Significance On The Selection Of Chemical Protective Clothing: [NFPA (a)]DegradationPenetrationPermeationBreakthrough TimePermeation RateIdentify At Least Three Indications Of Material Degradation Of Chemical Protective Clothing. [NFPA (b)]
3 ObjectivesDescribe The Differences Between Limited-use And Multi-use Chemical Protective Clothing Materials.Identify The Factors To Be Considered In Selecting Chemical-protective Clothing For A Specified Action Option. [NFPA ]Identify The Four Levels Of Personal Protective Equipment As Specified By The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) And The National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health (NIOSH). [NFPA ]
4 ObjectivesDescribe The Advantages, Limitations, And Proper Use Of The Following Types Of Respiratory Protection At Hazmat Incidents: [NFPA (a)]Air Purifying Respirators (APR)Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPR)Positive Pressure Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)Positive Pressure Air-line Respirators With Required Escape Unit (SAR)
5 ObjectivesIdentify The Factors To Be Considered In Selecting Respiratory Protection At Hazardous Materials Incidents. [NFPA (b)]Identify The Operational Components Of Air- purifying Respirators And Airline Respirators By Name And Describe Their Functions. [NFPA (c)]
6 ObjectivesIdentify The Procedures For Donning, Working In, And Doffing The Following Types Of Respiratory Protection: [NFPA (3)]Air Purifying Respirators (APR)Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPR)Positive Pressure Air-line Respirators With Required Escape UnitDescribe The Advantages, Limitations, And Proper Use Of Structural Firefighting Clothing At A Hazmat Incident.
7 ObjectivesIdentify Three Types Of Vapor-protective And Splash-protective Clothing And Describe The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Each Type. [NFPA (c)]Identify Two Types Of High Temperature Protective Clothing And Describe The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Each Type.Identify The Process For Selecting Protective Clothing At Hazardous Materials Incidents. [NFPA (e)]
8 ObjectivesIdentify The Physical And Psychological Stresses That Can Affect Users Of Specialized Protective Clothing. [NFPA (g)]Describe Three Safety Procedures For Personnel Wearing Vapor-protective Clothing. [NFPA (1)]Describe Three Emergency Procedures For Personnel Wearing Vapor-protective Clothing. [NFPA (2)]
9 IntroductionThe Selection Of PPE Cannot Be Safely And Adequately Addressed Until Tactical Response Objectives Are Determined As Part Of The Hazard And Risk Evaluation Process.Protection Against Hazardous Materials Can Be Provided Through Engineering Controls, The Use Of Safe Work Practices And Administrative Controls, And Through The Use Of Personal Protective Clothing And Equipment (PPE)
10 Introduction Topics Will Include: Basic Principles Of Chemical Protective ClothingTypes And Levels Of Protective Clothing AvailableCriteria For PPESelection And UseOperational Issues And ConcernsPreventive Maintenance Considerations
11 Basic PrinciplesWhen Evaluating Protective Clothing For Use At A Hazmat Incident, Primary Concerns Should Focus Upon:Chemical Resistance Of The GarmentThe Integrity Of The Entire Protective Clothing Ensemble (Including The Garment, Visor, Zippers, Gloves, Boots. Etc.)The Tasks To Be Performed.353
12 Basic PrinciplesResponders Must Be Familiar With The Methods By Which Chemicals May Attach And Pass Through Chemical Clothing Materials. Key Terms And Their Significance In Evaluating Protective Clothing Chemical Compatibility Are:DegradationPenetrationPermeation
13 DegradationDegradation Is The Physical Destruction Or Decomposition Of A Clothing Material Due To Exposure To Chemicals, Use, Or Ambient Conditions (E.G., Storage In Sunlight).Degradation Is Noted By Visible Signs Such As Charring, Shrinking, Swelling, Color Change Or Dissolving
14 DegradationDegradation Can Occur When Chemical Compatibility Data Are Not Properly Interpreted Or Understood By Responders, The Wrong Protective Clothing Material Is Used, Or Exposure Recommendations Are Exceeded.Although Permeation Testing Is Most Common, Chemical Compatibility Charts May Be Found Which Are Based Upon Degradation.
15 PenetrationPenetration Is The Flow Or Movement Of A Hazardous Chemical Through Closures, Seams, Porous Materials, And Pinholes Or Other Imperfections In The Material.Causes Of Penetration Include:Clothing Material DegradationManufacturing DefectsPhysical Damage To The Suit (E.G., Punctures, Abrasions, Etc.)Normal Wear And Tear, And PPE Defects.
16 PermeationPermeation Is The Process By Which A Hazardous Chemical Moves Through A Given Material On The Molecular Level.Permeation Differs From Penetration In That Permeation Occurs Through The Clothing Material Itself Rather Than Through The Openings In The Clothing Material.
17 PermeationPermeation Can Lead To Protective Clothing Failures When Chemical Compatibility Data Are Not Properly Interpreted Or Understood By Responders, Or If Breakthrough Times Are Exceeded.Because Of Its Significance In Evaluating The Integrity Of PPE, Chemical Contamination, And Decontamination, Permeation Will Be Discussed More Completely.
18 Permeation TheoryThe Process Of Chemical Permeation Through An Impervious Barrier Is A Three-step Process Consisting Of:Absorption Of The Chemical Into The Outer SurfacesDiffusion Of The Chemical Through The Clothing Material.Desorption Of The Chemical From The Inner Surface Of The Clothing MaterialBreakthrough Time Is Defined As The Time From The Initial Chemical Attack On The Outside Of The Material Until Its Desorption And Detection Inside.
19 Permeation TheoryThe Units Of Time Are Usually Expressed In Minutes Or Hours, And A Typical Test Runs Up To A Maximum Of 8 Hours.Permeation Rate Is The Rate At Which The Chemical Passes Through The CPC Material And Is Generally Expressed As Micrograms Per Square Centimeter Per Minute (µg/Cm2/Min)Permeation Testing Is Conducted Using Pure, Undiluted Test Chemicals On Clean, Uncontaminated Swatches Over A Pre-established Period Of Time (Usually 2 To 8 Hours).
21 Permeation TheoryIn Evaluating Permeation Several Other Terms May Be Found In The CPC Manufacturer’s Compatibility Information:Actual Breakthrough Time — breakthrough Time As Previously Defined.Normalized Breakthrough Time — a Calculation, Using Actual Permeation Results To Determine The Time At Which The Permeation Rate Reaches 0.1 µg/Cm2/MinMinimum Detectable Permeation Rate (MDPR) — the Minimum Permeation Rate That Can Be Detected By The Laboratory Analytical System Being Used For The Permeation Test.
23 Permeation TheorySystem Detection Limit (SDL) — Minimum Amount Of Chemical Breakthrough That Can Be Detected By The Laboratory Analytical System Being Used For The Permeation Test.Chemical Permeation Rates Are A Function Of Many Factors, Including:Temperature.Thickness.Chemical Mixtures And Their Effects Upon Chemical Resistance Are Relatively Unknown.Previous Exposures.
24 Protective Clothing Materials When Evaluating And Choosing Chemical Protective Clothing Materials Include:Chemical ResistanceFlammabilityStrength And DurabilityOverall IntegrityFlexibilityTemperature CharacteristicsShelf LifeDecontamination And Disposal
25 Categories Of Chemical Protective Clothing Limited-use Garments And Materials Are Protective Clothing Materials That Are Used And Then Discarded.Most Limited-use Materials Are Usually Constructed Of A Nonwoven Fiber Or A Nonwoven Fabric With A Laminated Film (E.G., Tychem Fabrics).Limited-use Garments Are Generally Suitable For A Single Use And Should Be Disposed Of In Accordance With Local, State, And Federal Environmental Regulations.
26 Categories Of Chemical Protective Clothing Reusable Garments Are Designed And Fabricated To Allow For Decontamination And Re-use.Thicker And More Durable Than Limited-use Garments, They Are Used For Liquid Chemical Splash And Vapor Protective Suits, Gloves, Aprons, Boots, And Thermal Protective Clothing.Reusable Garment Materials Are Usually Made From:Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE)Vinyl (Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride – (PVC)Fluorinated Polymers (Teflon®)Rubber-like Fabrics (Butyl Rubber, Neoprene Rubber, And Viton.
27 Chemical Compatibility And Selection No Single Protective Clothing Material Offers Total Chemical Protection.The Initial Selection Of Protective Clothing And Equipment Should Be Based Upon A Hazard Assessment Of Those Chemicals Found In The Community Or The Facility.Unfortunately, There May Be Some Chemicals For Which There Is No Adequate Protection.Chemical Protective Clothing Will Often Be Constructed Of A Combination Of Several Materials Or Laminates.
28 Chemical Compatibility And Selection The Manufacturer Should Provide Technical Test Data That Reflects The Chemical Compatibility Of Both The Primary Suit Material And All Secondary Components (E.G., Gloves, Boots, Closure Assemblies, Visors, And Exhaust Valves).The Performance Of Chemical Protective Clothing Is Only As Strong As Its Weakest Material.Manufacturers Will Publish Quantitative Chemical Resistance Data For Particular Chemicals.
29 Chemical Compatibility And Selection Chemical Resistance Data Is Described In Terms Of Chemical Permeation / Breakthrough Times And Rates, Or As “Pass/Fail” Chemical Penetration Testing Results.Chemical Compatibility Recommendations For Boots, Gloves And Some Garments May Also Be Provided In The Form Of Qualitative Chemical Resistance Ratings Or Use Recommendations For A Specific Protective Clothing Material And Particular Chemicals.
30 Chemical Compatibility And Selection When Evaluating Chemical Compatibility Recommendations, Consider The Following Guidelines:The Primary Reference Source For Chemical Compatibility Recommendations Should Be The CPC Manufacturer’s Technical Documentation..Determine The Basis Of Chemical Compatibility Recommendations.Compatibility Recommendations Based Upon Immersion Testing Data May Be Quite Old And They May Also Be Based On The Subjective Evaluations Rather Than Quantitative Measurements For Swelling, Weight, Or Strength Changes.
31 Chemical Compatibility And Selection When Evaluating Chemical Compatibility Recommendations, Also Consider The Following Guidelines:Materials Constructed Of The Same Primary Fabric Or Material (E.G., Butyl Rubber, PVC) Are Not Necessarily Equal In Performance.There May Be A Conflict In Compatibility Recommendations Between Sources.
32 Respiratory Protection The Respiratory System Is The Most Direct And Critical Exposure Route. The Selection Of Respiratory Protection Should Be Based Upon A Number Of Factors:What Is The Physical Form Of The Contaminant (I.E., Solid, Liquid Or Gas).Has The Contaminant Been Identified?Are Concentrations Known Or Unknown?What Is The Purpose Of Response Operations?What Will Be The Duration Of Response Operations?What Is The Operating EnvironmentWhat Type And Level Of Skin Protection Will Be Required?364
33 Respiratory Protection Respiratory Protection Can Be Provided ByAir Purification DevicesAtmosphere Supplying Respiratory Equipment
34 Air Purification Devices Air Purification Devices Are Respirators That Remove Particulate Matter, Gases, Or Vapors From The Ambient Air Before Inhalation.The NIOSH Respirator Certification Requirements (42 CFR 84) Outline The Requirements For Particulate Respirators.Emergency Responders May Use Particulate Filters For White Powder Scenarios, And At Structural Collapse Incidents.
35 Air Purification Devices Two Basic Types Of Air Purification Devices May Be Used For Emergency Response Purposes:Air Purification Respirators (APR) Are Respirators With An Air-purifying Filter, Cartridge, Or Canister That Removes Specific Air Contaminants By Passing Ambient Air Through The Air-purifying Element.Powered-air Purification Respirators (PAPR) Are Air-purifying Respirators That Use A Blower To Force The Ambient Air Through Air- purifying Elements To A Full-face Mask.
36 Air Purification Devices Operational Considerations When Using APR's And PAPR's Include:Air Purification Devices Should Not Be Used At Hazmat Releases Unless Qualified Personnel Have First Monitored The Environment And Determined That Such Devices Can Be Safely Used (Per OSHA (q)(3)(iv)).As A General Rule, They Should Not Be Used For Initial Response Operations At Hazmat Incidents, And For Emergency Response Operations Involving Unknown Substances.APRs Cannot Be Used In IDLH Environments Or In Oxygen- deficient Atmospheres Containing Less Than 19.5% Oxygen.
37 Air Purification Devices They Should Not Be Used In The Presence Or Potential Presence Of Unidentified Contaminants. Not Recommended For Areas Where Contaminant Concentrations Are Unknown Or Exceed The Designated Use Concentrations.Respiratory Protection Can Be Downgraded From Air Supplied To Air Purifying Respirators If:The Contaminants Have Been IdentifiedThe Atmosphere Is Being Monitored And Contaminant Levels Are Within Acceptable LimitsThe IC Approves the Respiratory Protection
38 Air Purification Devices May Present Logistical Problems For Storage And Maintenance Because Of The Variety Of Filters And Cartridges Required.Have A Limited-protection Duration.APR's And PAPR's Only Protect Against Specific Chemicals And Only To Specific Concentrations.Individuals Must Meet The Fit Testing And Medical Requirements As Outlined By OSHA – Respiratory Protection.Advantages Of APR's And PAPR's Include:Light WeightLack Of Physical Stress Upon The User
39 Air Purification Devices Limitations Include Many Of The Operational Considerations Listed Above, Including:The Need For Air Monitoring To Ensure That IDLH Or Oxygen Deficient Conditions Are Not Present.Logistical RequirementsThey Only Offer Protection Against Specific Chemicals And In Specific Concentrations.Negative Pressure Respirators Also Carry A Greater Risk Of Leakage Than Positive Pressure Respirators.
40 Atmosphere Supplying Devices Respiratory Protection Devices With An Air Source Are Referred To As Atmosphere Supplying Devices.These Devices Provide The Highest Available Level Of Protection Against Airborne Contaminants And In Oxygen-deficient Atmospheres
41 Atmosphere Supplying Devices There Are Two Basic Types:Self-contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)Supplied Air Respirators (SAR)Which Supply Air From A Source Away From The Scene; Connected To The User By An Airline Hose.
42 Atmosphere Supplying Devices Only Positive-pressure Devices That Maintain Positive Pressure In The Face Piece Should Be Used For Emergency Response ApplicationsPositive-pressure Respirators Will Provide A Protection Factor Of 10,000:1.Self-Contained Breathing ApparatusThere Are Two Basic Types Of SCBA:Open-circuit SCBA Are Those Where Air Is Exhaled Directly Into The Ambient Atmosphere.Closed-circuit SCBA Are Used For Specialized Response Scenarios Where Long, Extended Operations
43 Atmosphere Supplying Devices Open-circuit SCBA Used For Firefighting Applications Should Meet The Requirements Of NFPA 1981 – Standard For Open-circuit SCBA For Fire Fighters.Advantages Of Using SCBA Include:They Are Readily Available In The Emergency Response CommunityMost Responders Are Proficient In Their UseThey Provide The Highest Level Of Respiratory Protection.
44 Atmosphere Supplying Devices Limitations Include:Their SizeWeight And BulkinessLimited Duration Of Air SupplyOverall Resistance Of The SCBA And Its Components To Chemical ExposuresSize Restrictions When Used In Confined Spaces
45 Operational Considerations - SCBA Atmosphere-supplying Units Are Required For Initial Response Operations Until The Hazards And Concentration Of Air Contaminants Can Be Fully Assessed.Duration Of The Operation.Depending Upon The Type Of Cylinder, Certain Chemicals May Attack The Outer Shell Of An Air Cylinder.
46 Supplied Air Respirators Although SCBA Are Most Common, SAR's May Be Used When Extended Working Times Are Required For Entry, DECON Or Remedial Clean-up Operations.Components Of A SAR Include:Source Of Breathing Air – Usually A Cylinder A Cylinder Cart Or A Cascade SystemAirline HosePositive-pressure RespiratorEmergency Air Supply, Such As A Small Escape Cylinder
47 Operational Considerations – SAR Atmosphere-supplying Units Are Required For Initial Response Operations Until The Hazards And Concentration Of Air Contaminants Can Be Fully Assessed.NIOSH Certification Limits The Maximum Hose Length From The Source To 300 Feet (91.4 Meters).Use Of Airlines In IDLH Or Oxygen-deficient Atmosphere Requires A Secondary Emergency Air Supply, Such As An Escape Pack For Immediate Back-up Protection In Case Of Airline Failure.
48 Operational Considerations – SAR Use Of A SAR Will Require Personnel To Monitor The Air Supply Source.Using Airline Hose Will Probably Impair User Mobility And Slow The Operation.Airline Sleeves Constructed Of Disposable Materials Can Provide Additional Protection.The Airline Hose Is Vulnerable To Physical Damage, Chemical Contamination, And Degradation.
49 Operational Considerations – SAR Decontamination May Be Difficult.Dual Flow SCBA's That Have The Capability Of Being Supplied By Either An SCBA Or An Airline May Provide Additional Flexibility For Both Entry And DECON Operations.The User Can Operate In Either The SCBA Or Airline Hose Modes By Operating A Manual Or Automatic Switch.
50 Operational Considerations - SAR Advantages Of Using SAR Units Include:Lower Profile And WeightIncreased Work DurationsTheir Ability To Provide The Highest Level Of Respiratory Protection
51 Levels Of ProtectionThere Is No One Type Of PPE That Satisfies Our Protection Needs Under All Conditions.The IC And The Hazmat Group Supervisor Must Be Familiar With The Various Types And Levels Of Protective Clothing Available370
52 Levels Of ProtectionThree Basic Types Of Protective Clothing May Be Used At Hazmat Incidents:Structural Firefighting ClothingChemical Protective ClothingChemical Splash Protective ClothingChemical Vapor Protective Clothing.High Temperature Protective ClothingProximity SuitsFire Entry Suits
54 Structural Firefighting Clothing Structural Firefighting Clothing (SFC) Is The Most Common Type Of PPE Used By Emergency RespondersIt Has A Number Of Vulnerabilities When Worn In Hazmat Environments.It Is Normally Not The First PPE Choice For Most Hazmat Response Scenarios.An Exception To This Statement Would Be Flammable Gas And Liquid Fire Incidents Where SFC And SCBA Will Provide Sufficient Protection For Most Response Scenarios.
55 Structural Firefighting Clothing For Our Purposes, SFC Includes A Helmet, Positive-pressure SCBA, PASS Device, Turnout Coat And Pants, Gloves And Boots, And A Hood Made Of A Fire-resistant Material. The Ensemble Should Meet NFPA – Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Firefighting
56 Structural Firefighting Clothing SFC May Be Used When The Following Conditions Are Met:Contact With Splashes Of Extremely Hazardous Materials Is Unlikely.Total Atmospheric Concentrations Do Not Contain High Levels Of Chemicals Toxic To The Skin.There Are No Adverse Effects From Chemical Exposure To Small Areas Of Unprotected Skin.Live Victims Who Are In Need Of Rescue, Such As Those Found In A Terrorist Attack.
57 Structural Firefighting Clothing Hazardous Chemicals Can Both Penetrate And Permeate Firefighting Protective FabricsCertain Areas Are More Likely To Absorb Materials Than Others.Consider The Following Points:Clothing And Equipment Materials Are Porous And Are Easily Contaminated By Chemical Penetration. Such as Station Uniforms, Gloves, Turnout Clothing, Hoods, Boot Linings and Straps.
58 Structural Firefighting Clothing Coated Or Rubber-like Materials Are More Likely To Be Affected By Chemical Permeation, Such As:Moisture BarriersReflective TrimBoot Outer LayersSSCBA MasksHard Plastics Used In The Helmet And SCBA ComponentsAsh, Resins, And Smoke Particles Can Easily Become Trapped Within The Protective Clothing Fibers
59 Structural Firefighting Clothing Infectious Blood borne Diseases Including:HIVHepatitis BHepatitis C VirusesThese Viruses Can Be Readily Absorbed Into The Protective Clothing Fibers.SFC Should Be Certified As Protective Against Blood borne Pathogens.
60 Structural Firefighting Clothing - Body Protection The Outer Shell That Provides Thermal Protection Is Constructed Of Materials Such As Kevlar, PBI, Or Nomex.The Most Serious Problem Faced When Using SFC For Hazmat Operations Is Ensuring That All Exposed Skin Surfaces Are Covered And Protected.Remember - Structural Firefighting Clothing Is Not Designed To Offer Chemical Protection!
61 Structural Firefighting Clothing - Gloves Because Of The Likelihood Of Physical Contact, Protective Gloves Should Be Considered As A Critical Element In The Protective Clothing Ensemble.Factors To Evaluate IncludeChemical ResistancePhysical ResistanceTemperature Resistance.Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Gloves Have Excellent Compatibility Against Certain Petroleum Solvents, But Break Down Upon Exposure To Water.
62 Structural Firefighting Clothing - Gloves Products That Penetrate Natural Rubber And Silicone May Also Create Serious Exposure Problems For Gloves, Boots, And SCBA Face pieces.Examples Include Methyl Bromide, Dichloropropene, And Some Chemical Agents.
63 Structural Firefighting Clothing - Respiratory Protection Since Toxic, Corrosive, And Flammable Vapors Along With The Products Of Combustion Are Present, Air Supplied Respiratory Protection Devices Are Required.Positive-pressure SCBA Is The Minimum Level Of Respiratory Protection.It Is Not Uncommon For Exposure To A Specific Chemical Or Hazmat Environment To Require The Complete Discarding Of All SFC.
64 Liquid Chemical Splash Protective Clothing Liquid Chemical Splash Protective Clothing Consists Of Several Pieces Of Clothing And Equipment Designed To Provide Skin And Eye Protection From Chemical Splashes.It Does Not Provide Total Body Protection From Gases Or VaporsIt Should Not Be Used For Protection Against Liquids That Give Off Vapors Known To Affect Or Be Absorbed Through The Skin.
65 Liquid Chemical Splash Protective Clothing Liquid Chemical Splash Protective Clothing May Be Used Under The Following Conditions:The Vapors Or Gases Present Are Not Suspected Of Containing High Concentrations Of Chemicals That Are Harmful To, Or Can Be Absorbed By, The Skin.It Is Highly Unlikely That The User Will Be Exposed To High Concentrations Of Vapors, Gases, Or Liquid Chemicals That Will Affect Any Exposed Skin Areas.Operations Will Not Be Conducted In A Flammable Atmosphere.Many Response Agencies Also Regularly Use Fire Retardant Coveralls Underneath The CPC.
66 Liquid Chemical Splash Protective Clothing Skin And Body ProtectionIn Emergency Response, Liquid Chemical Splash Protective Clothing Is Often Used For Initial Response Operations and To Protect DECON PersonnelDepending Upon The Application (Emergency Response Vs. Law Enforcement), CPC Fabrics May Be Available In Various Colors.Several Common Types Include:Single-piece Suits. Usually Coveralls, A Splash Suit, Or An Encapsulating Suit Which Is Not Vapor Tight.Two-piece Suits. Usually Consist Of Bib Overalls Or Pants Worn With A Jacket.
67 Skin And Body Protection Head ProtectionHard Hat, Helmet, Or Hood. Some Form Of Hard Hat Protection Is Recommended When Using A Hood Or Encapsulating Suit.GlovesSome Coveralls And Jackets Have A Sleeve Mounted Splash Guard Which Prevents Wrist Exposure.For Maximum Hand Protection, Over gloving And Double gloving Should Be Used. Double gloving Involves The Use Of Surgical Gloves Under A Work Glove.Footwear And Shoe CoversFoot Protection May Be Chemical Boots, Separate Shoe Covers, Or Booties Which Are Part Of The CPC Ensemble.
68 Skin And Body Protection Many Liquid Chemical Splash Suits Constructed From Limited-use Materials Have Integral Or Connected Sock Booties.Aprons And Body Coverings.Aprons, Lab Coats, Sleeve Guards, And Other Body Coverings Are Designed For Protection Against Spills And Splashes That Occur When Physically Handling Chemicals And Other Hazardous Materials.There Is A Commercially Available Chemical Tape (CHEM-tape 2) That Is Specifically Designed For Protective Clothing Applications
70 Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing (EPA Level A) Provides Full-body Protection With Vapor-tight Integrity.Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing Should Be Used When The Following Conditions Exist:Extremely Hazardous Substances Are Known Or Suspected To Be Present, And Skin Contact Is Possible (E.G., Cyanide Compounds, Toxic And Infectious Substances).There Is Potential Contact With Substances That Harm Or Destroy Skin (E.G., Corrosives)
71 Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing Should Be Used When The Following Conditions Also Exist:Anticipated Operations Involve A Potential For Splash Or Exposure To Vapors, Gases, Or Particulates Capable Of Being Absorbed Through The Skin.Anticipated Operations Involve Unknown Or Unidentified Substances And The Scenario Dictates That Vapor-tight Skin Protection Is Required.
72 Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing Skin And Body ProtectionChemical Vapor Protective Clothing Is Manufactured In Several Configurations.The Most Common Is Where The SCBA Is Worn Underneath The Ensemble, Thereby Providing Total Vapor Protection By Encapsulating The Wearer.CPC Manufacturers Will Also Incorporate An Airline Hose Bulkhead Connection Onto The Suit If A Supplied Air Respirator Will Be Used.In European Countries, It Is Very Common To Find Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing Where The SCBA Is Worn Outside Of The Suit.
73 Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing Skin And Body ProtectionThe Face piece Serves As The Primary Barrier For Respiratory Protection Against Chemical Permeation.A Chemical Vapor Suit Is Only As Strong As Its Weakest Link.Visibility Through The Face Shield, Including Peripheral Vision, Will Be Critical.If A Protective Over garment Will Be Used, Consideration Must Also Be Given To The Impact On Operational Performance In Viewing Through Multiple Face Shields.
74 Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing SCUBA (inside suit)Supplied air respirators
75 Vapor Suit Attachments And Accessories GlovesGloves Can Be Permanently Attached To A Chemical Vapor Suit Or Be Detachable.Most Manufacturers Allow The Interchange Of Gloves.Gloves Must Match The Chemical Resistance Of The Primary Suit Material, And Typically Consist Of Two Or More Layers Of Gloves.If Manual Labor Tasks Will Be Performed Where Gloves May Become Pinched Or Torn, Responders May Also Use An Outer Glove Constructed Of Kevlar, Leather Or A Similar Durable Materials.
76 Vapor Suit Attachments And Accessories BootsBoots Can Be Either An Integral Part Of The Suit, Or A Separate Item.The “Socks” Attached To Some Chemical Suits Should Be Worn Inside An Outer, Durable Boot, As They Do Not Have Sufficient Durability Or Slip Resistance To Be Worn As Outer Footwear.Most Chemical Vapor Suits Incorporate An Integral Sock Boot Or “Bootie” Design That Is Constructed Of The Same Material As The Suit.
77 Vapor Suit Attachments And Accessories Suit Fit And Closure AssembliesMobility Is Sacrificed Whenever A Chemical Vapor Suit Is Worn.All Chemical Vapor Suits Are Sealed By A Closure Assembly.The Pressure-sealing Zipper Is The Most Common. When Closed, The Zipper Forms A Gas-tight Seal, And An Outer Flap Then Protects The Closure From Direct Splashes.Emergencies May Arise When The Suit Integrity Is Compromised Or When The SCBA Malfunctions.Beware Of The Initial Impulse To Immediately Get Out Of The Suit, As This May Endanger The User.
78 Vapor Suit Attachments And Accessories Over GarmentsOver garments Are Available From Most Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing Manufacturers That Offer Flash Protection Or Protection Against The Cold Temperatures Associated With Liquefied Gas ExposuresFlash Over garments Are Not Entry Or Proximity ClothingEntry Operations Into Combined Chemical And Thermal Environments Are A High-risk Operation.Chemical Protective Clothing Is Not Designed For Thermal Protection Applications!!!CPC Exposures To Liquefied Gases Can Cause Cold Embrittlement And Failure Of The Suit Material.
79 Vapor Suit Attachments And Accessories UndergarmentsThe Type Of Personal Clothing Worn By Hazmat Responders Underneath CPC Can Influence Heat Stress Potential, As Well As The Ability Of The User To Effectively Operate Within A Hostile Environment.Head ProtectionAlthough Some Chemical Vapor Suits May Incorporate Head Protection - Most Do NotHead Protection Must Be Provided Through The Use Of A Separate Hard Hat, Bicycle Helmet, Or Comparable Protection.
80 Vapor Suit Attachments And Accessories Cooling And VentilationBoth Liquid Chemical Splash And Vapor Protective Clothing Seal The Body In A Manner That Retains Body Heat And Moisture.Heat Stress Becomes A Concern Even In Moderate Ambient Temperatures. Chemical Protective Clothing Should Only Be Worn By Individuals In Good Health And Physical Condition.Supported By A Comprehensive Medical Surveillance Program
81 Vapor Suit Attachments And Accessories CommunicationsVerbal, Person-to-person Communications While Wearing Chemical Vapor Clothing Are Virtually Impossible. Radio Communications Are A Necessity For Entry Operations.Communications Systems For Use Within Protective Clothing Ensembles Include Radio Headsets, Ear, Mouth, And Bone Microphones, And Voice Amplifiers.Visual Identification Of Personnel Can Be CriticalIdentification Methods Can Include The Use Of Different Colored Suits, Large Numbers Attached To The Suit, Or Color-coded (Or Numbered) Traffic Vests.
82 High Temperature Protective Clothing Hazmat Responders May Be Required To Operate In High Temperature EnvironmentsThermal Energy Can Be Encountered In The Three Forms.Ambient Heat Or The Temperature Of The Surrounding Atmosphere In A Given Scenario.Conductive Heat Is The Heat Generated By Direct Physical Contact With A Hot Surface.Radiant Heat Is The Heat Generated By A Heat Source Such As A Flammable Gas Or Liquid Fire, And Is Absorbed By Materials That Are Struck By The Radiant Heat Emitted By The Heat Source.
83 Types Of High Temperature Clothing Proximity SuitsThe Two Types Of High Temperature Protective Clothing May Be Used In The Hazmat Response Community:Proximity SuitsFire Entry SuitsFire Entry Suits
84 Types Of High Temperature Clothing Proximity SuitsDesigned For Exposures Of Short Duration And Close Proximity To Flame And Radiant Heat, Such As In ARFF Operations.The Outer Shell Is A Highly Reflective, Aluminized Fabric Over An Inner Shell Of A Flame- retardant Fabric Such As Kevlar™ Or Kevlar™/PHI™ Blends.
85 Types Of High Temperature Clothing Fire Entry SuitsThey Offer Complete, Effective Protection For Short- Duration Entry Into A Total Flame Environment.They Are Designed To Withstand Exposures To Radiant Heat Levels Up To 2,000°f (1,093 °C).
86 Tying The System Together Operational ConsiderationsThe Selection And Use Of Specialized Protective Clothing At A Hazmat Emergency Should Be Approached From A “Systems” Perspective.This System Begins With An Evaluation Of Four Key Factors:The Hostile EnvironmentThe Tasks To Be PerformedThe Type Of Protective Clothing RequiredThe Capabilities Of The User/Wearer381
87 Operational Considerations Hostile EnvironmentIn Simple Terms, What Is The Challenge?Among The Questions That Must Be Considered Are:What Material(s) Are Involved?What Is The Physical State Of The Substance (I.E., Solid, Liquid, Gas)?What Are The Hazards Of The Substance – Flammable, Toxic, Corrosive, Etc?What Is The Result Of Contact To The Skin?What Physical Hazards Are Present?What Are The Ambient Temperature And Weather Conditions?
88 Other Operational Considerations Tasks To Be PerformedWhat Are The Objectives Of Entry Operations?Given The Tactical Response Objectives That Are Being Implemented, What Is The Potential For Exposure To The Substances Involved, Including The Level And Duration Of Exposure?Type Of Protective Clothing Required.Strategic Goals And Tactical Response Objectives Will Determine The Level Of Protective Clothing Required To Bring About A More Favorable Outcome.Remember – This Decision Must Take Into Account The Level Of Risk Associated With The Overall Response.
89 Other Operational Considerations Capabilities Of The User / WearerAll Responders Have Personal Strengths And Weaknesses.There Are Both Physical And Psychological Stressors That Will Affect Responders.Examples Of Physical Stressors Include:Extreme Heat Or Cold Operating Conditions.Noise.Reduced Vision From The Fogging Of CPC Or SCBA Face pieces.Operations In Low-light Or Low-visibility Environments.
90 Other Operational Considerations Other Examples Of Physical Stressors Include:Reduced Handling And Dexterity Due To The Need To Wear Several Layers Of Gloves.Adverse Weather ConditionsPhysical Hazards And The Physical Operating Environment.Examples Of Psychological Stressors Include:Lack Of Physical Fitness And The Physical Ability To Perform The Required Tasks.Response Operations Involving Injuries, Fatalities, Or High-risk Operations.Operations Within Enclosed Or Confined Space Environments.Background And Experience Levels In Both Wearing CPC And Operating In Hostile Environments.Fear Of Either Suit Or Respiratory Protection Failure.
91 Operational and Safety Considerations When Using Protective Clothing At Hazmat Incidents Includes:The Selection, Maintenance, And Use Of Protective Clothing Must Be Integral Part Of An Overall PPE And Safety Program.Chemical Protection And Thermal Protection Are, For All Practical Purposes, Mutually Exclusive.In Some Situations, Structural Firefighting Clothing May Be Worn In Combination With Liquid Chemical Splash Protective Clothing, Such As Coveralls Or A Non-vapor- tight Encapsulating Suit.Always Minimize Direct Contact With Any Chemicals, Regardless Of Your Level Of Protection.
92 Operational and Safety Considerations You Are More Likely To Hurt Your Responders As A Result Of Heat Stress Than A Chemical Exposure.Depending Upon The Ambient Temperature And Humidity, Fogging May Occur Inside The Face Piece Of A Chemical Vapor Suit.Ensure That Entry And Back-up Crews Have Equivalent Levels Of Protection.“Two In And Two Out” May Be Great If You Are Doing An Entry In An Open-air Environment, But It Won’t Cut It If Your Entry Team Is Operating Inside A Structure And Goes Down.Communications Is A Critical Element In Entry Operations, Especially When Using Chemical Vapor Suits.
93 Operational and Safety Considerations Air Supply Will Often Be The Most Critical Element Of Entry Operations.A Pre-entry Safety Briefing Should Be Conducted Prior To Recon Or Entry Operations.Any Plan To Allow The Same Entry Personnel To Re-enter The Hot Zone Should Be Approved By The Hazmat Group Supervisor, Hazmat Group Safety Officer, Medical Officer, And, Most Importantly, The Individual Involved.Support Personnel Are Always Needed To Assist Entry And Back-up Crews In Donning And Doffing Protective Clothing.
94 Emergency ProceduresHazmat Response Organizations Should Develop Procedures To Address The Following Scenarios Involving Chemical Vapor Suits:Loss Of Air Supply.This Constitutes A Major, Life-threatening Emergency.Key Elements Of Any Procedure Should Be:The Affected Responder And Their Partner Should Immediately Start To Exit The Hazard Area And Move Towards DECON Or A Less-contaminated Environment.Immediately Communicate The Situation To The Hazmat Group Safety Officer Or Entry Leader.
95 Emergency ProceduresResist Any Urge To Immediately Cut Open Or Get Out Of The Suit, Particularly If Still Operating Within A Contaminated Environment.If Possible, Remove The Regulator Or Face piece And Use The Air Within The Chemical Vapor Suit.Chemical Vapor Suits With The SCBA Inside Of The Ensemble (I.E., Humpback Design) Typically Have A Sufficient Supply Breathing Air Inside Of The Suit That Will Permit The User To At Least Exit The Hazardous Environment.
96 Emergency ProceduresRemember – This Emergency Procedure Is Designed To Get The User Out Of The Hostile Environment And Out Of The Suit As Quickly As PossibleContinued Use Of Breathing Air From Inside Of A Vapor-tight Suit Will Quickly Lead To Decreased Oxygen Levels.
97 Emergency Procedures Loss Of Suit Integrity Causes May Include Physical Damage As A Result Of A Puncture Or Tear, Or Having A Limited-use Garment “Blow Out” As A Result Of Improper Sizing.Key Elements Of Any Procedure Should Be:Stay Calm!!!The Affected Responder And Their Partner Should Immediately Start To Exit The Hazard Area And Move Towards DECON Or A Less-contaminated Environment.Immediately Communicate The Situation To The Hazmat Group Safety Officer Or Entry Leader.
98 Emergency Procedures Other Key Elements Of Any Procedure Should Be: Try To Determine The Size And Location Of The Breach, And If The User Has Been Contaminated.If Possible, Try To Cover The Breach With A Glove Or Sleeve, If Possible.Do Not Remove Your Face piece Or Respiratory Protection!!!Decontaminate The Wearer And Remove Them From The Suit As Soon As Possible.Follow-up With Appropriate Personal DECON And Medical Procedures, As Appropriate.
99 Emergency Procedures Loss Of Communications Verbal Communications Are Impossible When Wearing Vapor Chemical Protective ClothingResponders Should Have An Overlapping Communication System That Incorporates Both Electronic Communications And Hand SignalsMost HMRT's Use A Hand Signal SystemAre You Okay?Out Of Air.In-suit Emergency.
100 Emergency Procedures Buddy Down In The Hot Zone The Ability To Remove Entry Personnel Who Are Down In The Hot Zone Will Be Both A Labor-intensive And Time-intensive Operation. A Back-up Team Of Only Two Responders Will Be Inadequate For Most Scenarios, And The OSHA “Two In / Two Out” Rule Should Be Viewed As A Minimum Requirement..Operational Considerations For Conducting Rescue Operations Of Downed Entry Personnel Will Include:What Is The Cause Of The Entry Member Going Down?If The Responder Has Gone Down As A Result Of A Cardio-vascular Problem, RIT Personnel Should Initiate Life Support Operations As Soon As Possible.
101 Emergency ProceduresOperational Considerations For Conducting Rescue Operations Of Downed Entry Personnel Will Also Include:For Incidents In An Open-air Environment With No Obstructions, The Two-in/Two-out Back-up Procedure May Be Effective.Any Scenario Which Involves A Downed Responder Inside A Structure Or Which Will Require Egress Via A Stairwell Will Probably Require A Minimum Of Four Or More Back-up Personnel To Conduct A Timely Extrication And Removal.Rescue Operations Where Entry Personnel Are Wearing Level A Or Chemical Vapor Clothing Are Generally More Difficult Than Those Where Non-encapsulating Chemical Splash Clothing Is Worn.
102 Donning And DoffingThe Donning And Doffing Of CPC Can Be A Time- consuming Process.More Than One IC Has Asked The Question, “Why Is It Taking So Long?” Procedures For The Donning And Doffing Of Specific CPC Ensembles Should Be Based Upon The Manufacturer’s Instructions.The Following General Procedures Are Presented As A Basic Guideline.
103 Donning ProceduresCoordinate With Medical To Begin Monitoring Of Entry And Back-up Personnel, As Well As Pre- hydration.Ensure That The Medical Evaluation Is Maintained And Coordinated With The Hazmat Group Safety Officer.Determine The Appropriate CPC And Respiratory Protection Information And Recommendations.Remove, Tag And Secure All Personal Items, Including Wallets, Rings, Watches, Etc.
104 Donning ProceduresDon Any Required Undergarments That May Be Worn Under The CPC Ensemble, Such As Fire Retardant Coveralls.Responders Who Wear Glasses Should Ensure That Their Corrected Lenses Are Properly Installed Within Their Face piece.A Donning And Doffing Area Should Be Selected; These Two Locations Should Be Adjacent To Each Other.
105 Donning Procedures Criteria For Area Selection Should Include: Located As Close As Possible To The Entry PointProtected From The Weather And ElementsSufficiently Large Enough To Accommodate All Donning And Support Operations.Clearly Defined And Delineated Location, Such As Through The Use Of Banner Tape, Cones, Color-coded And Pre-marked Tarps, Etc.Responders Who Will Don PPE Should Be Provided Suitable Seating.Some HMRT's Use Modified Chairs Or Benches With The Back Removed.
106 Donning ProceduresA Pre-entry Safety Briefing Should Be Conducted Prior To Donning Operations.Entry And Back-up Personnel Should Dress At Approximately The Same Rate To Ensure That Entry Personnel Are Not “Standing Around And Waiting.”Once The Incident Commander Approves The Entry Operation, Entry Personnel Should Be Placed On Air, Complete The Donning Process, And Then Led To The Access Control Point.
107 Doffing ProceduresIn Most Response Scenarios, Back-up Personnel Will Remain In A Stand-by Mode And Be “Off-air” Until Needed.Ensure That Support Personnel Use The Appropriate Level Of PPE To Assist With The Doffing Process.Entry Personnel May Be Tired, Extremely Hot And Sweaty, And Anxious To Remove Their PPE.PPE Should Be Doffed Based Upon The Manufacturer’s Instructions. General Guidelines Include The Following:
108 Doffing ProceduresAt Least One And Preferably Two Support Personnel Should Be Assigned To Assist Each Responder Who Will Don CPC.Support Personnel Should Only Touch The Outside Of The CPC Ensembles.Entry Personnel Should Only Touch The Inside Of The CPC Ensembles.Minimize Cross-contamination From Outside To Inside Of The CPC Ensembles.When Dealing With Chemical Vapor Clothing, The Top Portion Of The Garment Should First Be Unzipped And Removed
109 Doffing ProceduresOnce Sitting, Support Personnel Can Then Remove The Arms, Legs And SCBA Harness.Entry Personnel Should Be Permitted To Remove Their Own Inner Gloves And Face piece.Once Removed, CPC Should Be Placed In A Bag Or Container For Further DECON Or Disposal.Entry Personnel Should Then Be Hydrated, Medically Evaluated, And Debriefed, As Appropriate.
110 Training Considerations The Use Of Protective Clothing At A Hazmat Incident Should Be The Final Step Of A Comprehensive System Which Begins With An Analysis Community’s Hazards.There Should Be A Regular, Effective Preventive Maintenance And Testing Program.Both Classroom And Hands-on Training Is Essential. Protective Clothing Training Evolutions Are Most Effective When Conducted On A “Building Block” Or Modular Basis, And Combined With Other Manipulative Skills.
111 Training Considerations Training With Protective Clothing Is Essential For The Development Of Effective Skills And Competencies.To Minimize Damage Response Organizations Normally Purchase Training Suits, Use Limited-use Garments Specifically For Training PurposesYou May Use Level A Suits That Have Exceeded Their Shelf Life.“Front-line” Chemical Vapor Suits Should Only Be Used During Actual Emergencies
112 Inspection And Maintenance Procedures Preventive Maintenance And Documentation Are Integral Elements Of A Comprehensive PPE Program.A Records File Should Be Maintained For All Chemical Vapor Clothing And Respiratory Protection Units That Document Their Respective History.For Chemical Vapor Protective Clothing, A Logbook Should Be Established For Each Suit That Records Each Time The Clothing Is Worn, Inspection And Maintenance.
113 Inspection And Maintenance Procedures Periodic Records Review May Pinpoint An Item With Excessive Maintenance Costs Or Out-of- service Times.Manufacturer Maintenance And Testing Recommendations Should Be Consulted For Maintenance Intervals And Procedures.
114 Inspection And Maintenance Procedures At A Minimum, Protective Clothing Should Be Inspected At The Following Benchmarks:Upon Receipt From The Manufacturer Or VendorAfter Each UsePeriodic Inspections (I.E., Monthly Or Quarterly)Whenever Questions Arise Regarding Selected Protective Equipment Or When Problems With Similar Equipment Arise.
115 Inspection And Maintenance Procedures Each Inspection Will Cover Different Areas In Varying Levels Of Thoroughness Depending On The Type Of Protective ClothingChemical Vapor Clothing Should Undergo A Tightness Test At Intervals As Established By The Suit Manufacturer And NFPA Vapor Protective Ensembles For Hazardous Materials EmergenciesAll Protective Clothing Must Be Stored Properly To Prevent Damage
116 SummaryPersonal Protective Clothing And Equipment Are Critical To The Success Of An Organization’s Hazardous Materials Response ProgramThey Are An Integral Element Of The Health And Safety ProgramThey Facilitate The Ability Of Emergency Responders To Respond And Control Hazmat Releases In A Safe, Efficient And Effective Manner
117 SummaryAn Effective And Comprehensive Personal Protective Clothing Program Should Address Six Fundamental Elements:Hazard IdentificationPPE Selection And UseMedical MonitoringTrainingInspectionMaintenance